publication . Article . 2016

Dirty Money: A Matter of Bacterial Survival, Adherence, and Toxicity

Frank Vriesekoop; Jing Chen; Jenna Oldaker; Flavien Besnard; Reece Smith; William Leversha; Cheralee Smith-Arnold; Julie Worrall; Emily Rufray; Qipeng Yuan; ...
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Nov 2016 Journal: Microorganisms; Volume 4; Issue 4; Pages: 42 (issn: 2076-2607, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Abstract
In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.
Fields of Science and Technology classification (FOS)
03 medical and health sciences, 0301 basic medicine, 030106 microbiology, 0302 clinical medicine, 030207 dermatology & venereal diseases
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: otorhinolaryngologic diseasesstomatognathic diseases
free text keywords: banknotes; bacteria; substrate; coins; microcosm; microbiome, Virology, Microbiology (medical), Microbiology, Article, banknotes, bacteria, substrate, coins, microcosm, microbiome, Ecology, Cryptocurrency, Biology, Circulation (currency), Commerce, Cash, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common
Communities
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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Open Access
Microorganisms
Article . 2016
Providers: PubMed Central
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