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Publication . Article . 2021

REFRESH: A new approach to modeling dimensional biases in perceptual similarity and categorization.

Adam N. Sanborn; Katherine Heller; Joseph L. Austerweil; Nick Chater;
Open Access
Published: 01 Nov 2021 Journal: Psychological Review, volume 128, pages 1,145-1,186 (issn: 0033-295X, eissn: 1939-1471, Copyright policy )
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Country: United Kingdom
Abstract

Much categorization behavior can be explained by family resemblance: New items are classified by comparison with previously learned exemplars. However, categorization behavior also shows a variety of dimensional biases, where the underlying space has so-called "separable" dimensions: Ease of learning categories depends on how the stimuli align with the separable dimensions of the space. For example, if a set of objects of various sizes and colors can be accurately categorized using a single separable dimension (e.g., size), then category learning will be fast, while if the category is determined by both dimensions, learning will be slow. To capture these dimensional biases, almost all models of categorization supplement family resemblance with either rule-based systems or selective attention to separable dimensions. But these models do not explain how separable dimensions initially arise; they are presumed to be unexplained psychological primitives. We develop, instead, a pure family resemblance version of the Rational Model of Categorization (RMC), which we term the Rational Exclusively Family RESemblance Hierarchy (REFRESH), which does not presuppose any separable dimensions in the space of stimuli. REFRESH infers how the stimuli are clustered and uses a hierarchical prior to learn expectations about the variability of clusters across categories. We first demonstrate the dimensional alignment of natural-category features and then show how through a lifetime of categorization experience REFRESH will learn prior expectations that clusters of stimuli will align with separable dimensions. REFRESH captures the key dimensional biases and also explains their stimulus-dependence and how they are learned and develop. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Space (commercial competition) Dimension (data warehouse) Hierarchy (mathematics) Categorization Set (psychology) Family resemblance Artificial intelligence business.industry business Computer science Concept learning Natural language processing computer.software_genre computer Separable space

arXiv: Mathematics::Category Theory

Subjects

General Psychology, Articles, categorization, separable dimensions, family resemblance, Bayesian models, BF

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EC| RATIONALITY
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  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
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  • Funding stream: FP7 | SP2 | ERC
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