publication . Article . Preprint . 2012

Inventors, Patents, and Inventive Activities in the English Brewing Industry, 1634–1850

Alessandro Nuvolari; James Sumner;
Open Access
  • Published: 23 Oct 2012 Journal: Business History Review, volume 87, pages 95-120 (issn: 0007-6805, eissn: 2044-768X, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
  • Country: Italy
<jats:p>This article examines the relationship between patents, appropriability strategies, and market for technology in the English brewing industry before 1850. Previous research has pointed to the apparent paradox that large-scale brewing in this period showed both a self-aware culture of rapid technological innovation and a remarkably low propensity to patent. Our study records how brewery innovators pursued a wide variety of highly distinct appropriability strategies, including secrecy, selective revealing, open innovation and knowledge-sharing for reputational reasons, and patenting. All these strategies could co-exist, although some brewery insiders maint...
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free text keywords: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Business and International Management, History, Business, Brewing, business.industry, Industrial organization, Open innovation, Marketing, Secrecy
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Table 1: Patents by type of invention in the lists constructed by Lack and Stopes (1634-1850) 1634- 1701-1750 1751- 1700 1800 3 15 1 6

0.7 2 9 3.1 1804 10972 1.2 26 1.4 62 0.6 82 0.7 0.7 128 1 Sources: H. Stopes, Malt and malting. An Historical and Scientific and Practical Treatise, showing as clearly as existing knowledge permits what malt is and how to make it, (London, 1885); Lack, R., Patents of Inventions. Abridgments of Specifications related to Brewing, Wine-making and Distilling Alcoholic Liquids, (London, 1881). Total patents from B. Woodcroft,. Titles of Patents of Invention Chronologically Arranged, 1617-1852, (London, 1854

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