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Les restes humains de la grotte ornée paléolithique des Deux-Ouvertures (Ardèche, France)

Authors: Silvana Condemi; Jean-Luc Voisin; Laurent Puymerail; Julien Monney; Michel Philippe;

Les restes humains de la grotte ornée paléolithique des Deux-Ouvertures (Ardèche, France)

Abstract

International audience; The opening of the Deux-Ouvertures cave is on the left bank of the Ardèche River, just before the canyon exit on the land of the village of Saint-Martin d’Ardèche in the Southwest of France. Although it has been known since 1896, the deep part of one of the galleries was not discovered until 1985. The surface of this gallery was covered by animal bones, 90% of which belonged to Ursus spelaeus. In 2007, two osseous human fragments were discovered: the distal part of an adult humerus and the diaphysis of a radius belonging to a young individual. These two specimens are the topic of the present paper. Although the date of the humerus (34,440–33,730 cal BP) corresponds to the period when bears frequented the caves, the dates of the diaphysis of the radius (4410–4570 cal BP), found at the heart of the “decorated Paleolithic sector”, lead us to assume that it was transported there, perhaps deliberately. The study of the two human bones originating in the Deux-Ouvertures cave illustrates that the diaphysis of the radius, belonging to a young individual of the Neolithic period, does not exhibit any differences in comparison to modern radii. By contrast, the distal part of the adult humerus, although it is incomplete and altered, is the first example that has been dated in the Ardèche of adult human remains associated with a decorated Paleolithic cave. This specimen, aside perhaps from the width of its median column, is rather slender and does not present any significant difference in relation to other upper Paleolithic humeri.; La grotte des Deux-Ouvertures s’ouvre en rive gauche peu avant la sortie des gorges de l’Ardèche, sur le territoire de la commune de Saint-Martin-d’Ardèche. Bien que connue depuis 1896, ce n’est qu’en 1985 qu’était découverte la partie profonde du réseau : une galerie qui présentait des ossements éparpillés sur le sol, dont plus de 90 % appartiennent à Ursus spelaeus. En 2007, deux fragments osseux humains – une partie distale d’un humérus adulte et une diaphyse de radius appartenant à un jeune sujet – ont été également mis au jour. Ils font l’objet de cet article. La datation de l’humérus (34 440–33 730 cal BP) s’inscrit au sein de la phase de fréquentation par les ours des cavernes, alors que la datation de la diaphyse du radius (4410–4570 cal BP) en plein cœur du « secteur orné paléolithique » laisse supposer qu’il a été déposé, peut-être, de façon délibérée. L’étude des deux os humains provenant de la grotte des Deux-Ouvertures montre que la diaphyse radiale, appartenant à un sujet jeune, d’âge Néolithique, ne présente pas de différence en regard de radius modernes. En revanche, la partie distale de l’humérus d’un sujet adulte, bien qu’incomplète et altérée, est le premier reste humain d’adulte, associé à une grotte ornée paléolithique en Ardèche, à avoir été daté. Ce dernier, exception faite peut-être pour la largeur du pilier médian, est plutôt gracile et ne présente pas de différence significative avec les autres restes du Paléolithique supérieur.

Country
France
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Cave Ursus spelaeus medicine Humerus Canyon geography.geographical_feature_category Significant difference Archaeology Diaphysis Geography medicine.anatomical_structure Upper Paleolithic Animal bone

Keywords

Restes humains dans les grottes ornées, Radius diaphysis, [SHS.ARCHEO]Humanities and Social Sciences/Archaeology and Prehistory, Ardèche canyon, Distal extremity of humerus, Distal extremity of humerus Radius diaphysis Gravettian human fossil Neolithic human fossil Decorated cave Ardèche canyon, [SHS]Humanities and Social Sciences, Gorges de l’Ardèche, Extrémité distale d’humérus, Neolithic human fossil, Gravettian human fossil, Fossile humain gravettien, Decorated cave, Diaphyse de radius, Palaeontology, Extrémité distale d’humérus Diaphyse de radius Fossile humain gravettien Fossile humain néolithique Restes humains dans les grottes ornées Gorges de l’Ardèche, Fossile humain néolithique, General Engineering, [SHS.GEO]Humanities and Social Sciences/Geography, [SDE]Environmental Sciences

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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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