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Commémorer les épidémies dans un monde changeant : mémorialisation de la peste et autres fléaux infectieux du Moyen Âge à nos jours

Authors: Castex, Dominique; Kacki, Sacha;

Commémorer les épidémies dans un monde changeant : mémorialisation de la peste et autres fléaux infectieux du Moyen Âge à nos jours

Abstract

International audience; Epidemics that have marked the history of human societies have been the subject of active research for decades in fields as diverse as history, sociology, historical demography and archaeo-anthropology. However, the question of how these deadly events are remembered and the forms through which memory and commemoration materialised remains largely unexplored. This exploratory article contributes to filling this gap by providing an overview of the commemorative attitudes deployed by different societies, both past and present, towards these events and their victims. Based on the cross-examination of textual, iconographic and archaeological sources, the aim is to focus initially on the commemoration of the great plague epidemics that struck Europe during the Middle Ages and Early modern period. Secondly, we will look at the forms of commemoration linked to various epidemics of the Late modern period, particularly the most deadly (smallpox, cholera, typhus, Ebola, AIDS). The corpus studied highlights the diversity of the media mobilised in the construction of remembrance surrounding these events (emblematic places as material heritage, creation of memorials, celebrations and ceremonies, artistic representations). Giving a diachronic perspective, the data reported provide a converging set of evidence to the gradual changes that began in the second half of the 17th century, and even more so in the 18th century, as the ideological and political constructions of remembrance gradually took precedence over religious discourse.; Les épidémies qui ont marqué l’histoire des sociétés humaines font l’objet, depuis des décennies, de recherches actives dans des domaines aussi divers que l’histoire, la sociologie, la démographie historique ou l’archéo-anthropologie. Cependant, la question de l’ancrage mémoriel de ces évènements meurtriers et des formes au travers desquelles il s’est matérialisé demeure encore largement inexplorée. Le présent article, à visée exploratoire, contribue à combler cette lacune en livrant un aperçu des attitudes commémoratives déployées par différentes sociétés, tant par le passé que de nos jours, à l’endroit de ces évènements et de leurs victimes. Fondé sur l’exploitation croisée de sources textuelles, iconographiques et archéologiques, notre propos se focalise dans un premier temps sur la mise en mémoire des grandes épidémies de peste qui ont frappé l’Europe durant le Moyen Âge et l’Époque moderne. Il aborde, dans un second temps, les formes de commémorations liées à diverses épidémies d’Époque contemporaine, notamment aux plus meurtrières (variole, choléra, typhus, Ébola, sida). Le corpus étudié met en lumière la diversité des médias mobilisés dans la construction mémorielle entourant ces évènements (patrimonialisation de lieux emblématiques, création d’objets et de monuments commémoratifs, fêtes et cérémonies, représentations artistiques). Abordé sous un angle diachronique, les données rapportées livrent un faisceau d’indices convergents des changements progressifs qui s’amorcèrent dès la deuxième moitié du XVIIe siècle, et plus encore au XVIIIe siècle, les constructions idéologiques et politiques du souvenir prenant peu à peu le pas sur le discours religieux.

Country
France
Related Organizations
Subjects by Vocabulary

Library of Congress Subject Headings: lcsh:Political science lcsh:Political science (General) lcsh:JA1-92 lcsh:J

Keywords

[SHS.ARCHEO]Humanities and Social Sciences/Archaeology and Prehistory, archéologie, mémorial, archaeology, artistic representations, peste, epidemics, plague, remembrance, épidémies, représentations artistiques, souvenir, memorial

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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