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Publication . Book . 2020

中国所藏近代西藏和藏事档案

曹必宏, Cao Bihong;
Open Access
Chinese
Published: 28 Apr 2020
Publisher: Presses de l’Inalco
Abstract
西藏和其他藏族聚居地在长期历史发展过程中,形成了大量有关西藏和藏族各类事务的档案,其形成时间主要是清代和民国时期,尤以民国时期档案最多,并集中典藏在中国第一、第二历史档案馆,以及西藏和其他藏族集中聚居的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省各档案馆、图书馆中。中国第一历史档案馆所藏清代西藏及藏事档案有3万余件,主要是清朝中央政府对西藏及藏族聚居地区的施政文书,其中有皇帝册封达赖和班禅等人的诏书、敕谕,治理西藏各种谕令;历世达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼、章嘉呼图克图、哲布尊丹巴等大活佛等上呈皇帝的奏疏、表文;清驻藏办事大臣、西宁办事大臣、库伦办事大臣及各地督抚、将军等大员和军机处、内阁、理藩院等部院衙门,为处理西藏及藏事上呈皇帝的题奏本章;有关衙门记录西藏重大事务的档册,以及西藏及藏族聚居地区经济、社会、文化等方面的情况。这些档案主要用汉文和满文书写,也有少量是用藏文和蒙古文书写,档案形成时间起于天命七年(1622年),迄于宣统三年(1911年)。中国第二历史档案馆所藏西藏和藏事档案在3万件以上,档案形成时间为清光绪十四年(1888)十二月至1949年,主要为民国中央政府及所属部院等机关与西藏噶厦地方政府、达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼以及四川、西康、青海、甘肃等藏区省份来往文少书,记载和反映了晚清和民国时期中央政府治理西藏的方针政策和具体措施,以及中央政府关于西藏的重大事件、重要问题的处理情况。同时,也记载和反映了这一时期与西藏毗邻的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省藏区的政治、经济、宗教、文化、教育和社会发展历史。西藏地区所藏近代西藏和藏事档案,主要集中在西藏自治区档案馆及拉萨市、日喀则、林芝、山南、阿里、那曲、昌都地区和各县档案馆,各大寺庙也保存有不少近代历史档案,其中尤以西藏自治区档案馆所藏数量最多也最为重要。该馆所藏以藏文为主的西藏和平解放前的旧政权档案,共有300多万卷(册),以藏文为主,还有八思巴文、汉文、满文、蒙文、阿拉伯文、印地文、尼泊尔文、英文、俄文等10余种文字。其内容主要有:西藏行政区划,国民政府对西藏行使主权,宗教事务,西藏重大历史事件及抵抗侵略,西藏地区的农奴制度、司法制度、社会状况、农牧和手工业等经济状况、矿产资源,以及西藏与内地民族间往来等。四川藏区档案史料主要保存在四川省档案馆、甘孜藏族自治州档案馆、阿坝藏族羌族自治州档案馆以及康定、德格、巴塘、马尔康、木里、理塘、乡城、炉霍、稻城等县档案馆中,以民国时期档案为主。其中四川省档案馆所藏涉及藏事的西康档案有1万余卷,形成时间从明洪武二十一年(1388年)起,至民国三十八年(1949年)止。云南藏区近代档案主要保存在迪庆州各县档案馆、图书文化馆、公安局及州档案馆以及噶丹松赞林寺、东竹林寺等寺院中。该批档案涉及年代从清朝乾隆三年(1738年)十月起至1949年止,约11300余件,且绝大多数档案为民国时期,记录了清代和民国时期中央政府及云南地方政府对藏族的政策,从政治、军事、经济、文化等不同方面反映了中央政府对云南藏区的有效管理与统治,以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活情形及与各民族关系等方面的历史状况。甘肃省所藏近代藏事档案,甘肃省各地、市、县等各级档案馆、图书馆、文化馆及拉卜楞寺等众多藏传佛教寺院均有收藏,其中尤以甘肃省档案馆、图书馆,甘南藏族自治州档案馆、夏河县档案馆、天祝藏族自治县档案馆、临夏回族自治州档案馆所藏最多,总数在8000件左右,其主要内容包括清末和民国时期国家政务、国民党党务、民政、行政、户政、疆域、地政、礼俗、民族、部落、土司、宗教、寺院、警政、保安、禁烟、社会、建设、营建、人事、监察、司法、军事、外交、经济、文化、教育、卫生、体育及人物诸方面,反映和记载了甘肃藏族人民生活地区政治、军事、经济、司法治安、民政、宗教、文化教育卫生等各方面社会发展的历史概貌。青海省所存清代和民国时期西藏及藏事档案,主要保存在青海省档案馆,形成于雍正二年(1724年)至民国三十八年(1949年),以民国时期档案为主。这些档案史料,反映和记载了清代和民国时期青海省藏族地区政治、经济、军事、司法、文化、宗教、民族关系及青海与西藏关系、青海与四川阿坝地区关系、青海与甘肃拉卜楞地区关系等诸方面的基本情况;也记录了清代和民国时期青海地方政府对藏族的政策,从各个不同侧面反映了清朝政府和民国政府对青海藏区二百余年的统治以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活、生活、发展演变及民族关系各方面的历史状况。为更好的开发利用中国境内各保藏机构所存西藏和藏事档案资料,为学术研究服务,各档案馆在中国藏学研究中心的支持下,积极编纂出版馆藏相关档案文献目录和专题档案汇编,为研究西藏和藏区历史,提供了大量第一手重要史料。主要有《西藏和藏事档案史料目录丛书》(8册),收录档案条目95000余条,计约820万字;《元以来西藏地方与中央政府关系档案史料汇编》(7册)《清末十三世达赖喇嘛档案史料选编》《九世班禅圆寂致祭和十世班禅坐床档案选编》《十三世达赖圆寂致祭和十四世达赖转世坐床档案汇编》《九世班禅内地活动及返藏受阻档案选编》《西藏亚东关档案选编》《民国时期西藏及藏区经济开发建设档案选编》《中国第二历史档案馆所存西藏和藏事档案汇编》等专题档案汇编。这一系列档案史料的编辑出版,对推动国内外藏学研究工作向纵深发展发挥了重要作用。 During the long process of Tibet and other Tibetan settlements’ historical development, a large number of archives related to Tibet and Tibetan affairs have been built, mainly in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, but especially the latter. These files have been carefully preserved in several Chinese national historical archives, as well as in other provincial archives and libraries in Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan.The First Historical Archives of China houses more than 30,000 archives on Tibet and Tibetan affairs during the Qing Dynasty. Many of them are administrative documents issued by the central government to Tibet and the areas inhabited by Tibetans, including imperial edicts and other governing orders issued by the emperors to Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and senior officers. There are also many reports and memorials to the emperors on their dealings with Tibet and Tibetan affairs, which were submitted by all the previous Great Living Buddhas, Amban of Tibet, Xining, Kulun, as well as the Grand Council, Cabinet, Li Fan Yuan and governors from all over the country. Archives were formed by the relevant bureaus’ and provide records of major Tibetan affairs as well as the economic, social and cultural context in Tibet and areas inhabited by Tibetans. During 1622 to 1911, these archives were mainly written in Chinese and Manchu, while a few of them were written in Tibetan and Mongolian.In the Second Historical Archives of China, more than 30,000 Tibet and Tibetan affairs archives were created from 1888 (the 14th year of Qing Emperor Guangxu) to 1949. They mainly represent files exchanged between the central government (including its subordinate departments) and Kashag, Dalai Lama, Panchen Erdene, and other Tibetan settlements such as Sichuan, Xikang, Qinghai and Gansu provinces. They record and reflect the central government's policies and specific measures of governing Tibet during that period. Furthermore, they also document the political, economic, religious, cultural, educational and social development of Tibetan areas adjacent to Tibet in Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces.The archives of modern Tibet and Tibetan affairs collected in Tibet are mainly concentrated in the archives of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa, Xigaze, Linzhi, Shannan, Ali, Naqu, Changdu and other counties. Many are also kept in major temples. Among them, the Tibet Autonomous archives conserves the largest and most important archives. It contains more than 3 million volumes of documents that belonged to the old regime, and are mainly in Tibetan. They include: Tibet's administrative divisions, the exercise of sovereignty over Tibet by the National Government, religious affairs, major historic events in Tibet, and Tibetan feudal serfdom, the judicial system, social conditions, economic conditions related to agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts, mineral resources, as well as Tibet's exchanges with non-Tibetan Chinese regions.The historical documents in Sichuan Tibetan areas in the Republic of China are mainly kept in the provincial archives of Sichuan and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture’s archives, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Kangding, Dege, Batang, Marcand, Muli, Litang, Xiangcheng Luhuo, Daocheng, etc. Among them, are the Xikang Tibet archives. They are preserved in the Sichuan Provincial Archives and include more than 10,000 documents. They were created between 1388 (the 21st year of Ming Hongwu) and 1949. The historical archives in the Yunnan Tibetan areas are mainly kept in the county archives, libraries and cultural centres, public security bureaus and Diqing prefectural archives, as well as the temples of Gardan Songzanlin and East Chikurinji. About 11,300 files, mostly compiled in the Republic of China, record the policies of the central government and the Yunnan local government towards Tibetans and reflect their effective management and rule in Yunnan. They cover political, military, economic, cultural aspects, as well as the living conditions of Tibetan compatriots and their relationship to various ethnic groups during this historical period.The archives of modern Tibetan affairs in Gansu Province are collected in various archives, libraries, cultural centres and many Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in Gansu Province. Most of them are stored in Gansu Provincial Archives, Gansu Provincial Library, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Archives, Xiahe County Archives, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County Archives and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefectural Archives. Approximately 8,000 documents make up these archives. Their content primarily includes documents related to state administration, Kuomintang party affairs, civil affairs, administration, household administration, territory, land administration, customs, ethnic minorities, tribes, chieftains, religion, temples, police administration, security, opium banning, society, construction, personnel systems, supervision, the judiciary, military affairs, the economy, culture, education, sanitation, sports activities and famous people, outlining all the aspects of social development.The archives of Tibet and Tibetan affairs in Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in Qinghai Province are mainly kept in Qinghai Provincial Archives, which were built from 1724 (the 2nd year of Qing Yongzheng ) to 1949. These historical materials reflect and record the basic situation of Tibetan areas in Qinghai Province during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in terms of politics, economics, military affairs, the judiciary, culture, religion, ethnic, relations, Qinghai-Tibet relations, Qinghai-Aba area relations, Qinghai‑Labrang area relations, etc. They also record more than 200 years of policies in Qinghai Tibetan areas during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, as well as the history of economic life, development, evolution of Tibetan compatriots and various ethnic relations. In order to better the development and utilisation of Tibet and Tibetan affairs for the purpose of academic research, the archives are stored in various domestic preservation institutions. They have been actively compiled and catalogues of relevant archives as well as a compilation of special archives have been published with the coordination and support of the China Tibetology Research Center. The publications mainly include The Historical Materials Catalogue Series of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Archives (8 volumes); Compilation of Historical Records on the Relationship between Local and Central Tibetan Government since the Yuan Dynasty (7 volumes); Selected Records of the 13th Dalai Lama in the Late Qing Dynasty; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Parinirvana Rites and the 10th Panchen Lama's Enthronement; Compilation of the 13th Dalai Lama's Parinirvana Rites & the 14th Dalai Lama's Reincarnation and Enthronement; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Activities in Interior Areas and Blocked Return to Tibet; Selected Records of Yatung Customs in Tibet, Selected Records of Tibet and Tibetan Economic Development and Construction in the Period of the Republic of China and Compilation of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Preserved in the Second Historical Archives of China, etc. This series of archival compilations and publications has played an important role in promoting international Tibetology research. Au cours du long processus du développement historique du Tibet et d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains (c’est‑à‑dire, une partie des préfectures, villes et districts des provinces Sichuan, Qinghai et Gansu), un nombre considérable d’archives relatives au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines ont été constituées, principalement sous la dynastie des Qing et la République de Chine. Ces corpus sont conservés avec grand soin dans plusieurs dépôts d’archives historiques nationaux de Chine, des dépôts d’archives provinciaux et des bibliothèques de la Région autonome du Tibet, du Sichuan, du Qinghai, du Gansu et du Yunnan. Cette notice présente de manière systématique la quantité et le contenu principal des documents relatifs au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines de la période qui va de 1840 à 1949, en particulier la période de la République de Chine, et qui sont conservés dans le Premier dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, le Deuxième dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, les Archives de la Région autonome du Tibet, les dépôts d’archives de la province du Sichuan, d’une partie de ses préfectures, villes et districts ; les dépôts d’archives et les bibliothèques dépendants de la province du Gansu ; le dépôt d’archives provincial du Qinghai ; et les dépôts d’archives de la préfecture autonome des Tibétains Diqing du Yunnan, ainsi que de ses districts. En outre, la présente notice donne aussi des détails sur les catalogues archivistiques et les collections spéciales compilées et éditées par les dépôts et les bibliothèques ci-dessus nommés. J’espère que cette notice fournira des références servant à renforcer les études historiographiques sur le Tibet, ainsi que d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains, et sur les relations entre le gouvernement central et le gouvernement local tibétain dans la Chine moderne.
Subjects

East Asia, modern China, Tibet, Tibetan Affairs, edit and publish, history, historiography, Africa, encyclopaedia, America, Asia, 中国近代, 西藏, 藏事, 编辑出版, 东亚, affaires tibétaines, Asie orientale, Chine moderne, compilation et publication, encyclopédie, historiographie, histoire, source historique, récit historique, Afrique, Amérique, Asie, History, HIS016000, HBAH

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