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Sanatta postfeminist yaklaşımlarla akıl, duygu ve beden bütünlüğü

Authors: Çöklü, Hatice;

Sanatta postfeminist yaklaşımlarla akıl, duygu ve beden bütünlüğü

Abstract

Toplumsal hareketler ve sanat akımları, ortak bir akıl ya da fikir tabanında oluşmuş insan topluluklarının ortaklaşa hareketleri olarak ifade edilebilir. Birbirinden ayrı hareket eden ortak akıl grupları ve sanat akımları da toplumsal hareketler içerisinde varlığını gösterir. 1789 Fransız Devriminin ardından Oluympede Gouges tarafından 1791 yılında `Les Droits La Femme` (Kadın ve Kadın Yurttaşların Hakları Bildirgesi) ile başlayan, 1960'larda Avrupa ve ABD'de, 1980'lerde ülkemizde, etkilerini gösteren ve hız kazanan feminist toplumsal hareketler sosyolojik, kültürel ve sanatsal boyutta cinsiyetçi bakış açısının tartışılıp yaygınlaşmasında yeni mücadele alanları geliştirmiştir. Postmodern sanat, popülist kültürün sunduğu tüketici anlayışla, alternatif teknik ve malzemelerin kullanılması sonucunda modern dönem sanat disiplinlerine; Kavramsal Sanat (Conceptual Art), Yoksul Sanat (Art Povera), Süreç Sanatı (Process Art), Beden Sanatı (Body Art), Gösteri Sanatı (Performans Art), Happinings, Eylemler (Actions), Fluxus, Yeryüzü Sanatı (Eart Art), Queer Art gibi yeni sanat disiplinlerinin tanımlanmasına neden olmuştur. Bunun sonucunda sanat nesnesinin statüsünü, izleyicinin rolünü yeniden biçimlendirmiştir.Türkiye feminist sanatçılarını incelediğimizde uzun yıllar yurt dışında yaşamış ya da yaşayan, doğuya batının alışık olduğu perspektiften; oryantalist bakış açısıyla bakan ve kadın konusunu yapıtlarında cesurca dile getiren: Nil Yalter (1938), Füsun Onur (d.1938), İpek Düben (d.1941), Gülsün Karamustafa (d.1946), Hale Tenger (d.1960), Şükran Moral (d.1963), Canan Şenol (d.1970) ve Nezahat Ekici (d.1970) yi görürüz.1980'li yıllarda oluşan `kimlik` ve `farklılık` politikası, `postmodern politika` çatısı altında birleştirilmiş kültür, mekân ve zaman parçalanmalarına, öznelliğe ve yeni sanat biçimlerine sebebiyet vererek, feminist sanat algısını değiştirmiş, postfeminist sanat algısını oluşturmuştur.Feminist sanatçıların (Nancy Spero, May Stevens, Judy Chicago, Martha Roslar vb.) `başkaları için varlık` ya da `kendi başına varlık` olan kadına yönelik eleştirel yapıtları, postfeminist sanatçıların (Sarah Lucas, Cindy Sherman, Canan Şenol, Tracey Emin) `kendi için varlık` olduklarını yansıtan yapıtlara evrilmiştir.Hayata bakış ve kavrayışımı, postfeminist bir yaklaşımla ele aldığım bu tez çalışmasında, iktidar ve toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri üzerine göndermeler bulunmaktadır. Eril ve iktidar nitelikleri görünür kılan, toplum içinde yerleşmiş cinsiyet ve kültür kodlarına, eleştirel bir bakış açısıyla gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarımda, özgün bir plastik dilin oluşturulması amaçlanmıştır.Anahtar Sözcükler:Postmodernizm, feminizm, postfeminizm, sanat, kadın.

Social activities and art movements may be stated as collective activities of human groups which formed on the ground of a common mind or idea. Collective opinion groups and art movements which move separately are also existed in social movements. Feminist social movements which started with `Les Droits La Femme` (Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen) by Oluympe de Gouges in 1791 after 1789 French Revolution, effected Europe and the USA in 1960's and Turkey in 1980's, opened new grounds on which sexist viewpoint in culture and art is discussed.Postmodern art, with the consumer mentality offered by populist culture, as a result of using alternative techniques and materials, caused defining new art disciplines like Conceptual Art, Art Povera, Process Art, Body Art, Performance Art, Happening, Actions, Fluxus, Earth Art, Queer Art in modern art. As a result, it reshaped the status of the art object and the role of the viewer.When we study Turkish feminist artist we see Nil Yalter (b. 1938), Füsun Onur (b. 1938), İpek Düben (b. 1941), Gülsün Karamustafa (b. 1946), Hale Tenger (b. 1960), Şükran Moral (b. 1963), Canan Şenol (b. 1970) and Nezahat Ekici (b. 1970) who lived or has been living abroad for many years, can look at the east through a perspective which the west is used to: the orientalist view; and express the subject of woman in their works bravely. `Identity` and `difference` policy, emerged in 1980's, causing subjectivity, new forms of art and fragmentations in culture, place and time, which unified in `postmodern policy`, has changed the feminist art perception and formed the post feminist art perception.Critical works of feminist artists (Nancy Spero, May Stevens, Judy Chicago, Martha Roslar etc.) against woman `being for others` or `being in itself` have evolved to post feminist artists' (Sarah Lucas, CindySherman, Canan Şenol, Tracey Emin) works which reflect woman `being for itself`In this thesis study, in which I discuss how I view and comprehend life with a post feminist approach, there are some references to power and social gender roles. With my works, which are formed with a critical approach to the common gender and culture codes of society that make masculine and power characters visible, it is intended to form an original plastic language.Key Words:Postmodernism, feminism, post feminism, art, woman

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Keywords

Emotion, Fine Arts, Pictures, Postmodernism, Postmodern, Women, Body, Güzel Sanatlar, Painting art, Reason, Feminism, Art

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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