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Tummali ajalugu. Mõningaid märkusi muistsete Sumeri kuningate ja nende kuningavõimu ideoloogia kohta

Authors: Vladimir Sazonov;

Tummali ajalugu. Mõningaid märkusi muistsete Sumeri kuningate ja nende kuningavõimu ideoloogia kohta

Abstract

The current short but very important Sumerian literary text, which was written in the Sumerian language at the end of the reign of Ur III (2112–2004 BCE) or at the beginning of the Isin-Larsa epoch (ca 21st or 20th century BCE), consists of only 33 lines.The temple of Tummal is dedicated to the goddess Ninlil, spouse of the god Enlil, who was the main god of Mesopotamia, the protector of kingship, and the king of all deities. Tummal was a very significant sanctuary for Sumerians and played an important role not only in religion, but also in royal ideology. The texts of Tummal Inscription known as “The History of Tummal” mention the rulers of Sumer, who had done building and renovating works in this temple complex.Yet, the kings-builders are not listed chronologically and these texts are quite tendentious and propagandistic, as some important kings are not even mentioned because of ideological reasons; for example, Akkadian kings (2334–2154 BCE) or rulers of Lagash.The reason why Akkadian kings were not mentioned as builders in Tummal, might probably be that some Akkadian kings like Naram-Su´en became prototypes of evil and cursed kings. They were believed to rebel against divine norms and rules and were later cursed and punished by all the great gods of Sumer and Akkad. The kings of Lagash were not mentioned for a different reason: Gudea, who belonged to the 2nd dynasty of Lagash, had probably very good relations with Gutian tribes, who destroyed the Akkadian Empire in ca 2200–2154 BCE, conquered Akkad and Sumer and controlled these territories for 60–70 years. Sumerians and Akkadians hated Gutians and after Sumer and Akkad became free from the Gutian invaders, kings of the 3rd dynasty of Ur decided that for political and ideological reasons the kings of Lagash would not be mentioned at all.

Subjects by Vocabulary

Library of Congress Subject Headings: lcsh:Ethnology. Social and cultural anthropology lcsh:GN301-674

Keywords

sanctuary, temple of Tummal, Ninlil, propaganda, Ethnology. Social and cultural anthropology, kings, GN301-674, Enlil, Sumerian religion, Sumer, history, royal ideology

42 references, page 1 of 5

2 Tummali ajaloo kohta vt põhjalikumalt Sazonov 2006: 93-95; Sazonov 2007: 2023- 2025; Sollberger 1962: 40-47; Chavalas 2006: 85-87; Oelsner 2003: 209-224; George 2003: 105; Glassner 2004: 156-159.

6 Black & Cunningham & Robson & Zólyomi 2006: 113-116; ETCSL translitereerimine: c.2.4.2.18 (http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=c.2.4.2.18&display=Crit& charenc=gcirc# - 29. juuli 2013); Šulgi ideoloogia kohta vt Sazonov 2008a: 84-107.

7 ETCSL transliteration: c.2.4.2.18 (http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=c .2.4.2.18&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc# - 29. juuli 2013).

8 Tummal oli jumalanna Ninlili tempel Nippuri linnas. Nippur oli Mesopotaamia üks tähtsamaid kultuslikke keskusi. Ninlil oli sumerlaste jumala Enlili abikaasa. Enlili ja teiste sumeri jumalate kohta vt lähemalt Leick 1998; OBO 160/3: 150.

9 Enmetena kohta vt Sazonov 2013b [ilmumas].

10 Vt Lagaši varadünastilisi tekste RIME 1, 77-291; vt Gudea raidkirju Edzard 1997.

13 Vt lähemalt Sazonov 2010: 112-126. Samas olid Akkadi kuningad arhetüübiks just riikliku ideoloogia ja kuningavõimu puhul (Sazonov 2008b: 195-214).

14 Agade või Akkade linn oli Akkadi impeeriumi pealinn. Sealt ongi tulnud nimetused akkadi keel, akkadlased, Akkadi kuningriik.

25 En-preester. En tähendas sumeri keeles isandat. En-preester oli üks tähtsamaid kõrgpreestri ameteid Mesopotaamias.

26 Samuel Noah Kramer jätab oma tõlkes sumerikeelse nimetuse ašgab-gal (Kramer 1973: 47).

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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