Since antiquity, there has been a mystery about the cerebral circulation function. Scientific methods were introduced in research at the end of the nineteenth century. During the first half of the last century, the problem of occlusive carotid disease was defined and the basis for the surgical treatment of carotid disease was established. The first contemporary reconstructive surgical procedures were performed in the middle of the last century, the time when successful surgical treatment of carotid disease began. Today, carotid endarterectomy is one the most frequently performed vascular surgical procedures of all, followed by very low morbidity and mortality rates.