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2023
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Η Αθήνα στην Γερμανική κατοχή

Authors: Balala Konstadina;

Η Αθήνα στην Γερμανική κατοχή

Abstract

Η παρούσα μεταπτυχιακή εργασία εξετάζει την περίοδο της Γερμανικής κατοχής 1941 – 1944 στην Αθήνα. Αρχικά, τέθηκε το ιστορικό πλαίσιο αναφοράς και πώς η Ιταλία έφτασε να κηρύξει τον πόλεμο στην Ελλάδα. Μελετήθηκε η έκβαση του Ελληνοιταλικού πολέμου (28 Οκτωβρίου 1940 έως 5 Απριλίου 1941) στα ελληνοαλβανικά σύνορα και η πρώτη νίκη των συμμάχων κατά των δυνάμεων του Άξονα. Επίσης, αναλύεται το Γερμανικό σχέδιο επίθεσης στην Ελλάδα, καθώς και τα αίτια που οδήγησαν στην είσοδο των γερμανικών στρατευμάτων στην χώρα και στην κατοχή της Αθήνας στη διάρκεια του Β' Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου. Στην συνέχεια παρουσιάζονται οι αγριότητες των Γερμανών κατακτητών, η πείνα, οι χιλιάδες νεκροί στους δρόμους της πρωτεύουσας από τον τρομερό λιμό του χειμώνα 1941-42, ο πρωτοφανής πληθωρισμός, μέσω του υπαίθριου εμπορίου και της μαύρης αγοράς, τα συσσίτια, τα δελτία άρτων και τροφίμων αλλά και ο ρόλος του Διεθνούς Ερυθρού Σταυρού στην ανάπτυξη των προμηθευτικών συνεταιρισμών. Εκτός, από τον πρωταρχικό αγώνα για επιβίωση των πολιτών της Αθήνας τονίζονται και οι προσπάθειές τους για ένταξη στον κοινωνικό ιστό. Το ραδιόφωνο, το θέατρο, ο τύπος, η μουσική και τα τραγούδια αναπτέρωσαν το ηθικό των κατακτημένων Αθηναίων και λειτούργησαν ως μέσα αντίστασης. Ακόμη, αναδεικνύεται η δύναμη της Εθνικής Αντίστασης στο χώρο της πρωτεύουσας και παρουσιάζεται η δράση του Εαμικού αντιστασιακού κινήματος στην Αθήνα, της Π.Ε.Α.Ν. και οι πρακτικές και τα σχέδια της νεολαίας του Αντιστασιακού κινήματος ΕΠΟΝ. This master's thesis examines the period of the German occupation 1941 – 1944 in Athens. First, the historical context was set and how Italy came to declare war on Greece. The outcome of the Greco-Italian war (28 October 1940 to 5 April 1941) on the Greek-Albanian border and the first victory of the Allies against the Axis powers was studied. Also, the German plan to attack Greece is analyzed, as well as the reasons that led to the entry of German troops into the country and the occupation of Athens during the Second World War. Then the savagery of the conquerors, the hunger, the thousands of dead in the streets of the capital from the terrible famine of the winter of 1941-42, the unprecedented inflation, through open-air trade, the black market, rations, bread and food vouchers, but and the role of the International Red Cross in the development of supplier cooperatives. Apart from the primary struggle for survival of the citizens of Athens, their efforts to integrate into the social fabric are also emphasized. The radio, the theater, the press, music and songs revived the morale of the conquered Athenians and functioned as means of resistance. Furthermore, the power of the National Resistance in the area of the capital is highlighted and the action of the E.Α.Μ. resistance movement in Athens, of the P.E.A.N. and the practices and plans of the youth of the EPON Resistance movement.

Country
Greece
Keywords

History, Ιστορία

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citations
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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
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This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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