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Pergamos
2023
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Αντισημιτικός τύπος και σκέψη στην Ελλάδα την περίοδο του μεσοπολέμου

Authors: Stinis Emmanouil;

Αντισημιτικός τύπος και σκέψη στην Ελλάδα την περίοδο του μεσοπολέμου

Abstract

Η παρούσα εργασία έχει ως στόχο να διερευνήσει τον αντισημιτισμό που εκδηλώθηκε στην Ελλάδα της μεσοπολεμικής περιόδου, μέσα από τα κείμενα μερικών αντισημιτών διανοουμένων και μέσα από τον Τύπο. Σε αντίθεση με τον παραδοσιακό αντιεβραϊσμό, ο σύγχρονος αντισημιτισμός, που αναπτύχθηκε στην Ευρώπη κατά το τελευταίο τέταρτο του δέκατου ένατου αιώνα αναζήτησε τη θεωρητική νομιμοποίησή του σε ψευδοεπιστημονικές βάσεις και κατόρθωσε να συσπειρώσει γύρω του έναν όχι αμελητέο αριθμό εθνικιστών διανοουμένων. Παρά την περιορισμένη κοινωνική απήχησή του, στην Ελλάδα ο αντισημιτισμός εκφράστηκε κατά κύριο λόγο στη μεσοπολεμική Θεσσαλονίκη, στο πλαίσιο του οικονομικού ανταγωνισμού ανάμεσα στους Εβραίους της πόλης και τους πρόσφυγες. Χαρακτηριστική περίπτωση αποτελεί η εφημερίδα Μακεδονία, που το 1931 πρωταγωνίστησε στα αντισημιτικά γεγονότα που οδήγησαν στον εμπρησμό του συνοικισμού Κάμπελ στη Θεσσαλονίκη. Επιπλέον, ο αντισημιτισμός «συναντήθηκε» με τον αντικομμουνισμό, που κατά την ίδια περίοδο έγινε επίσημη πολιτική του ελληνικού κράτους. Τα επιχειρήματα των αντισημιτών διανοουμένων και δημοσιογράφων στηρίχθηκαν σε μεγάλο βαθμό στους ήδη διαδεδομένους στην Ευρώπη αντισημιτικούς μύθους, όπως η ροπή των Εβραίων προς το έγκλημα, τη συνωμοσία κατά του έθνους, τον εύκολο πλουτισμό κ.λπ. Ωστόσο, οι Έλληνες αντισημίτες προσάρμοσαν τα επιχειρήματά τους στην ελληνική πραγματικότητα, παρουσιάζοντας τους Εβραίους ως πολιτισμικά ξένους προς τους Έλληνες, ως επικίνδυνους για το έθνος και ως ραδιουργούντες, συχνά σε συνεργασία με τους κομμουνιστές. This paper aims to investigate the anti-Semitism that manifested itself in interwar Greece, through the writings of some anti-Semitic intellectuals and through the press. Unliketraditional anti-Semitism, modern anti-Semitism, which developed in Europe during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, sought its theoretical legitimacy on pseudo-scientific grounds. It also managed to gather around it a non-negligeable number of nationalist intellectuals. Despite its limited social impact, in Greece anti-Semitism was primarily expressed in interwar Thessaloniki, in the context of the economic competition between the city’s Jews and the newly arrived refugees. A typical case is the newspaper Macedonia, which in 1931 played a leading role in the anti-Semitic events that led to the arson of the Campbell neighborhood in Thessaloniki. In addition, anti-Semitism met with anti-communism, which during the same period became official policy of the Greek state. The arguments of anti-Semitic intellectuals and journalists relied heavily on anti-Semitic myths already widespread in Europe, such as the inclination of Jews for crime, conspiracy against the nation, easy enrichment, etc. However, Greek anti-Semites adapted their arguments to Greek reality, presenting Jews as culturally alien to the Greeks, dangerous to the nation, and manipulating, often in collaboration with communists.

Country
Greece
Keywords

History, Ιστορία

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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