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Country: Poland
267 Projects, page 1 of 54
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 239172
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101044421
    Overall Budget: 1,998,870 EURFunder Contribution: 1,998,870 EUR

    Abortion laws are the crux of human rights diversity today. Abortion laws evidence best how differently human rights meanings are construed in various local settings. However, we know very little about how this diversity is generated in practice. This project will scrutinize the communication processes that use human rights as arguments to change abortion laws. We will contrast abortion debates from the last ten years in pairs of countries that represent three regional human rights systems: Mozambique and Senegal (the African Union), Poland and Ireland (the Council of Europe), and Argentina and Honduras (the Organization of American States). These debates show the ambivalence of human rights: they were used successfully to argue both for more liberal and more restrictive abortion laws. To explain this ambivalence, we will apply concepts of argumentative architecture and involvement patterns, coined by the PI as part of her figurational sociology of law, based on Norbert Elias’s theory of the process of civilization. Using a mixed-methods approach that combines qualitative sociology, legal analysis, and corpus linguistics, we will offer a multi-dimensional model for a globally comparative, interdisciplinary socio-legal study of human rights. We will study the structure, composition, and embedding of arguments, along with group perspectives, emotions, and circles of identification of arguing actors so as to arrive at a heat map that will show the distribution of involvement in argumentative architectures. By constructing a global meta-typology of argumentative architectures and involvement patterns in abortion debates, we will explore the integrative, civilizing potential of human rights and identify the centrifugal forces in human rights figuration that comprise the local, regional, and global levels. Finally, we will revisit the role of human rights as a universal toolbox for ideologies in order to plead their conditional rehabilitation.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101076570
    Overall Budget: 1,479,940 EURFunder Contribution: 1,479,940 EUR

    The project is set in the field of computational social choice. We will focus on formal models describing scenarios, where a group of individuals, called voters, disagrees on certain matters, yet needs to make a collective decision. The decision must truly represents a compromise. We focus on group fairness understood as proportionality. There are numerous real-life scenarios that involve collective (public) decisions, and where our solutions could be applied. Examples include: elections of representative bodies (such as parliaments, faculty boards, etc.), participatory budgeting elections (where citizens decide how to allocate a part of a municipal budget), or scenarios where certain local communities (say, housing cooperatives) make series of decisions. In addition, proportional algorithms for making collective decisions can be used for selecting nominees for an award, for constructing rankings of movies or books, for selecting validators in consensus protocols, such as the blockchain, for constructing rankings of web-pages in response to user queries, for locating public facilities, or for improving genetic algorithms. The goal of this project is to develop generic methods of reasoning about equity of treatment of voters, and to design new algorithms that satisfy the most demanding criteria of proportionality. The new methods should be applicable to a number of specific models that concern public decisions. We will (1) prove theorems specifying whether and under which conditions our notions of proportionality are satisfiable, and (2) we will analyse various rules and algorithms with respect to our criteria of proportionality and other important desiderata that are commonly considered in social choice theory. We plan to (3) determine the computational complexity of the problem of finding proportional public decisions, and to (4) develop exact, approximation, fixed-parameter-tractable, and heuristic algorithms for this and related computational problems.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101040164
    Overall Budget: 1,500,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,500,000 EUR

    This project lifts the blindness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to molecular chirality. First, we will observe chirality-sensitive magnetoelectric effects. Based on these effects, a new branch of molecular spectroscopy (abbreviated as NMER) is proposed, which will enable us to identify enantiomers directly without requiring chemical shift reagents or chiral solvents. Direct chiral NMR effects are very small and have not been previously detected, but this proposal will utilize several unique new strategies, such as hyperpolarization techniques and novel instrumentation, to dramatically enhance the chirality-sensitive NMR signals. This new approach is necessary to observe chirality-sensitive effects in solution at frequencies lower than 10 GHz. It permits 1) the direct discrimination of chiral molecules, 2) selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of chiral molecules, and 3) determination of the absolute configuration of the molecule. In contrast to standard methods used in NMR, it does not require chemical modification of the sample. Consequently, it has many potential application fields ranging from analytical chemistry (determination of enantiopurity, resolution of complex mixtures of chiral substances), biochemistry (studies of interactions between chiral molecules), pharmaceutical science (diagnostic imaging, studies of the pharmaceutical mechanism of action). At the same time, the new methodology will dramatically increase the detection sensitivity, rendering it possible to 4) record NMR spectra from molecules in the gas phase under conditions of low partial pressure. This unique form of spectroscopy will be used as an analytical tool and will permit studies of chiral molecules interactions. In combination with state of the art quantum computations it will provide valuable data on NMR tensors and allow models of fundamental interactions involving chirality to be tested on the molecular scale.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 316244
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