Imagine you protest the slide of your country into an autocratic regime. The weather is freezing and you rally in these conditions for weeks. Not a pleasant idea, yet in 2004 thousands of Ukrainians demonstrated against electoral fraud and established a permanent protest camp in Kyiv. For two months, thousands of protesters were in this urban camp, requiring food, toilet facilities and accommodations to regain warmth. And not only in Ukraine, but all over the world, people protest under difficult conditions and have to overcome logistical and personal challenges to pursue their goals. While the literature on social movements and revolution has engaged extensively with popular uprisings and large-scale protests, the logistics that are required for these protests to succeed under autocracy are hardly ever addressed. Existing research has long neglected the fundamental questions that LOOPS engages with. Such as: what logistical activity can be observed during these protests, their quantity and professionalism? Who organizes the portable toilets, provides soup, and blankets? And what effect has the level of professionalism on the legitimacy of the protest and autocratic stability? We will first develop a concept of professionalism in backstage logistics and a theoretical argument about its effect on the legitimacy and course of protests. With this we will create a unique dataset of the logistics during uprisings based on the analysis of images, a new and exciting way to generate data. With a substantive human coding effort, LOOPS will identify the basic logistics, their type, quantity, and professionalism. In a second step, LOOPS will include case studies to gather more information about financial and organizational sources for protest logistics. Third, we will test the impact of these logistics on autocratic resilience. I propose an ambitious research agenda, address a salient research gap, offer an innovative approach to data collection and a multi-method design.
Rhythm perception is important for a wide range of higher cognitive abilities ranging from time perception to predicting the occurrence of future events, from perceiving language to dancing to the beat of the music. Despite considerable amount of research in rhythm in various scientific disciplines, the way the human mind perceives and produces rhythm is not fully understood. While many interdisciplinary studies look at how performance in one cognitive domain compares to performance in another, it has proven difficult to link the mechanisms for rhythm perception across perceptual and cognitive domains directly. This project therefore looks how rhythm in music and spoken language interact by relying on rhythm synchronization: i.e. the phenomenon that our mind tends to automatically synchronize our motor-activity to the rhythm we perceive auditory (e.g. tapping a finger to the beat of music, the gestures that accompany speech, and singing). Because rhythm in spoken language and music is shaped by experience with culture specific music and our native language, in addition to adults, this project also studies young infants from birth through the crucial early stages of vocal and motor development. The studies in this project rely on a combination of acoustic analyses and electrophysiological methods (sEGM) to determine how rhythm in language and music is synchronized, how synchronization unfolds in time and how differences in rhythm in the two domains affect rhythm synchronization. By looking at similarities and differences in the rhythm of spoken language and music, the project attempts to create a blue-print of the shared and domain-specific cognitive mechanisms necessary for rhythm processing. Because we are surrounded by rhythm in our everyday life, the study of rhythm synchronization can thus help us understand how different rhythms interact and how they influence our daily life and our behaviour.