Partners: Keio University, City, University of London
Japan has undertaken a unique approach in its international economic agreements with other countries, concentrating on concluding treaties, which cover a wide range of matters (trade, services investment and competition) rather than simply trade in goods, as many other countries have done. Following its departure from the EU, the UK will need to develop its own approach to international economic treaties to fit its economic needs. Similarities in the size and makeup of the UK and Japanese economies suggests that the two countries could learn from each other in terms of their international economic relations with other countries, and with each other. The UK may wish to adopt the Japanese style of comprehensive economic treaties or to pursue economic treaties with more than one country at once. Additionally, both the UK and Japan are members of the World Trade Organization, a global body that oversees barriers to trade in goods and services among almost every country in the world. Since this organization has been struggling recently because of disagreements on several spheres of economic activity, the UK and Japan are well placed to instigate reforms to the organization to help it fulfil its mandate for improving the global economy. Convergence of standards in regulatory cooperation is at the heart of contemporary global governance. Researchers, from early to mid to late career, explore the legal significance of EU-Japan Economic partnership Agreement as the largest trading area in the world and the future of its integration with the UK in the post-Brexit area. The research involves UK and Japanese trade, IP and data experts in political science, politics and international relations analysing the rules and standards governing over half a billion citizens and the consequences of trilateral arrangements on the agreement of standards on data in the post-Brexit era. The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights underpins many aspects of trade between the EU, UK and Japan. With respect to the protection of copyrights, trade marks, patents and trade secrets, companies based in the EU, UK and Japan are world leaders, selling their goods and services in many key areas of global industry, including film and music, robotics, digital electronics and information technology, engineering, and fashion. Intellectual property strategies are key to these businesses and reliance on these forms of IP provides revenue for investment in new technologies. With Brexit on the horizon it is necessary to evaluate whether the enforcement systems for protection patents and trade secrets in the EU, UK and Japan are set at an optimal level. With a 3-hour round table discussion at Keio and a follow up 2-hour presentation and discussion at City we aim to consider from a comparative perspective the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights in the EU, UK and Japan, and analyse the impact of variances of protection may have on overall trade. A particular focus will be on the impact of Brexit, including its bilateral and trilateral trade impact on e.g. EU-UK, EU-Japan, UK-Japan and EU-UK-Japan trade.
Partners: University of Edinburgh, Keio University, Hokkeido University
Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.
Partners: University of Edinburgh, Kyoto University, Keio University, UT
Japan and the UK are at the leading edge of therapeutic research in biomedicine, in terms of both basic science and innovation. From genome editing to antimicrobial resistance, therapeutic research and implementation is ever-more diverse in both countries, impacting public and personal life - with therapeutic innovation itself affected as a consequence. Japan and the UK are also both facing the challenge of increased healthcare costs, not least of which relate to ageing populations, and therapeutic innovation is expected to somehow reduce these costs. More generally, both countries regard biomedical innovation as an important driver of national economies, and 'pro-innovation' regulatory frameworks are increasingly demanded. Regulations impact how therapeutics are developed and which are ultimately available for patients to access. Despite these various similarities, Japan and the UK are differently positioned with respect to local social contexts and norms, histories of medicine, national and supranational regulatory environments, and the global dynamics of biomedicine. Our proposed research will extend the interdisciplinary approach we have developed through earlier scholarship, in order to examine the intersection of therapeutics, regulation, and society. Through comparative research, we will explore how different social and regulatory contexts interact in the shaping of biomedicine and health. We will develop new insights into how both international law and transnational movements of scientists, clinicians, and ideas inform national-level therapeutic innovation. The project will also address conceptual questions relating to the nature of law and regulation, and of biomedicine. Our work will focus on drawing out both how the social and regulatory dimensions of therapeutics jointly shape development and implementation, and how the growing importance of therapeutics to public life are reworking the nature of social and regulatory processes themselves. We will explore these issues from different social science and humanities disciplinary perspectives, while emphasising science and technology studies (STS), socio-legal studies, and bioethics. Our workplan has been designed to develop new relationships between: (i) the investigators, (ii) individual investigators and the wider networks of the collective of investigators, and (iii) early-career researchers, the investigators, and their networks. These relationships will be scaffolded by and enhanced through the core activities of the project, which are: (a) three workshops and (b) an early-career researcher mobility bursary scheme. It is envisioned that there will be 7 'ESRC-AHRC Therapeutics, Regulation, and Society Mobility Bursaries' of up to £3, 000 each, for four UK and three Japan-based ECRs to travel to the other nation for training and network building around the project theme for approximately two weeks. Each ECR will be mentored by one or more of the investigators. We will produce a range of outputs from our research, including a journal special issue, and peer-reviewed papers aimed at different humanities and social sciences audiences. We will also seek to engage policymakers and regulatory organisations with our work, as well as biomedical scientists and healthcare professionals (e.g. through invitations to our workshops, commentaries for biomedical journals, and one-to-one meetings), as wider publics. All the investigators are committed to engagement with wider publics, and we will achieve this through, for instance, articles in popular media in Japan and the UK, and public panel discussions and similar events associated with our workshops. Our project comes with considerable in-kind and direct support from the Japan-based co-investigators, evidencing their strong commitment to developing this work. Indeed, their support is over twice as much as the sums requested from the ESRC and AHRC, and hence more than triples the over-all value of the award.