Sight is arguably one of humankind's most important senses. The eye is an incredible organ with excellent performance in good lighting conditions but it is a delicate structure. Providing protection for the eye is very important in many workplaces. In some environments this includes protection from projectile particles or other sources of damage such as laser irradiation. Of great additional benefit would be technologies to boost the eye's performance in low-lighting conditions. This inter-disciplinary project seeks to develop contact-lens based technologies for eye protection and increased low-light vision. A lens structure that will effectively manage IR radiation will be developed. The material has to be transparent at optical wavelengths, i.e. minimal dispersion, then show strong dispersion over IR wavelengths (over their broad band width; 700nm to 1 mm). Work will use computational modelling to identify key wavelengths, and define metamaterial structures to give the required response. Programmed self-assembly using biomolecules (DNA & polypeptides) is proposed to deliver high quality structures over the large scales needed. -- The production of a material with the properties mentioned above poses the greatest challenge. An artificial optical media displaying properties similarly to negative-index metamaterials such as a split-ring resonators (SRRs) poses the immediate problem of the metamaterial requiring to be constructed on a scale smaller than that of the subject wavelength. Typical current SRRs capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves with typical wavelengths from 300 MHz - 300 GHz can be manufactured using standard industrial techniques with relative ease. However, an optical metamaterial active in the infrared spectrum with a typical wavelength orders of magnitude smaller than typical SRRs is confined by its method of manufacture. Typical SRRs constructed from copper split ring formations on glass fibre circuit board are unreceptive to terahertz frequencies due to the scale of the SRR matrices. This project aims to achieve a method of manufacturing optical negative index metamaterial nanostructures using self-assembling biomolecules (DNA & polypeptides). DNA origami is a term coined by Dr. Nadrian Seeman and refers to a process of repurposing DNA as a nanoscale building material in a more literal sense than genetic instructions translating to biological macromolecules. Using DNA's natural strict base pairing rules, synthetic segments of DNA can be folded into desired shapes or scaffolds allowing attachment of functional cargo elements at precise locations. The potential for DNA origami to bind specific elements at predefined locations make it a suitable potential metamaterial at a scale suitable for activity in the terahertz range. Additionally, DNA origami's ability to self-organise into preprogramed shapes and patterns could allow manufacture of an optical metamaterial on a scale sufficient to be used as an optical device for imaging or contact-lens based applications.
Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE) are of universal applicability in the modelling of real-life situations from the flow of air around a wing to the behaviour of financial markets. They are also a natural language for describing the laws of mathematical physics and differential geometry. Their study poses profound intellectual challenges to pure mathematicians as well as important computational problems where accurate numerical data is required in specific applications. Despite its international importance and intense research activity on several fronts, including important breakthroughs in recent years, the UK appears to lag behind its competitors in this area.The present proposal is to establish the Centre for Analysis and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations, run jointly by the University of Edinburgh and Heriot--Watt University at Edinburgh. This centre will improve the UK's current position through a number of specific actions:--- appointment of outstanding researchers in areas under-represented in the UK--- a programme of instructional workshops open to researchers in the UK and beyond--- two major research workshops on current trends and developments in nonlinear PDE--- a substantial visitor programme to bring the world's best researchers to the UK to give high-profile lectures and establish new research contacts--- development of new research links with industry and other interested parties--- development of new undergraduate and graduate courses in analysis aimed at meeting the needs of the next generation of researchersThe proposal comes from the Maxwell Institute of Mathematics, which is a new joint venture combining the strength of mathematical sciences at the University of Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt University. Funded by the Scottish Funding Council and the Office of Science and Technology, the Maxwell Institute aims to be a pre-eminent centre for research and post-graduate training in the mathematical sciences, offering an environment able to attract and foster the very best mathematical talent from around the world. The Maxwell Institute is one of five joint research initiatives, the others covering a wide range of topics in engineering and geoscience. The present bid will take advantage of the Maxwell Institute's position alongside the other joint research initiatives to develop new collaborations and applications of nonlinear PDE in these areas.The other distinctive feature of this proposal is the presence of the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS) which is a joint initiative of the mathematicians at Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt which was set up in 1990. Since then ICMS has developed a reputation for the running of high-level international instructional and research workshops, and the infrastructure it provides will be crucial in organizing the proposed workshops. At the same time, these workshops provide a broadening of ICMS's current activities and will add to its international reputation.The new research grouping will be managed by a Scientific Steering Committee composed of two mathematicians from each of University of Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt University, and also including at least one representative from industry and at least one person from overseas. The committee will be regularly consulted, especially on the workshop and visitor programmes.
This project is concerned with establishing procedures to isolated and characterise macrophages from bone marrow and blood of the pig, test responses of these cells to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and microbial stimuli, and establishing ways of manipulating their gene expression using lentiviruses.
Doctoral Training Partnerships: a range of postgraduate training is funded by the Research Councils. For information on current funding routes, see the common terminology at https://www.ukri.org/apply-for-funding/how-we-fund-studentships/. Training grants may be to one organisation or to a consortia of research organisations. This portal will show the lead organisation only.