The main aim of this project is to compare the performance of various HVAC pipes and to develop guidance and digital tools for the design and installation of HVAC pipe network. The objectives are identifying the best practice and design of HVAC pipe network for low energy buildings. Also to investigate the in situ performance of various digital sensors (already developed through other Tata steel projects) and pipework linked to BIM and VR to improve the design and operation of HVAC pipes. This proposal will operate the BISPA training rigs and collect data for corrosions for different type and tube sizes. These data will then be linked to BIM. Different BIM models will be then visualised in Virtual Reality for better understanding of design, operation and maintenance of HVAC systems. The VR will show future corrosion of different pipes and the effect of installation and tube type on long term performance of the tubes. The research will be carried out through tests and measurements mainly in the Civil laboratory using the Tata steel rig as well as industrial partner's test facilities. Testing will involve circulating water at controlled temperatures and flow rates, through various pipes/joints with and without novel insulation and digital sensors. Measurement will allow for the calculation of heat and pressure losses; findings will be compared with empirical correlations and, if required, new correlations will be developed. The PhD student is expected to work with industrial partners in particular Tata steel and partly manage BISPA. Currently at LU a new Virtual reality Dome sponsored by several schools including CBE and computer Sciences are being set up for research and teaching. We have developed various pipe networks based on the BISPA experimental set up in Revit MEP and connected up to HTC Vive Virtual Reality system. This PhD project will develop toolkits to connect sensory data from the rigs to BIM and VR for integrated design purposes. This will help to visualise various design and help the building services to integrate with architectures at early stage. Different sensors for early detection and location of water leakage, corrosions and faults in the systems that can reduce maintenance will be identified by carrying out different tests using the BISPA rigs. The suitable software for linking smart pipes to BIM will be developed. The outcome of the research will be interactive and smart pipe systems that improve the design and operation of HVAC systems. This research will provide guidelines for the early design and sizing pipework to improve the HVAC performance and promote correct sizing of the HVAC tubing. This multidisciplinary project with computer science school and Tata steel will provide a good opportunity for impact case study for REF2020 . The activities also include a number of industrial partners located in both the UK and EU, and may require additional travel.
Women experience significant changes to their physiology and biomechanics as a result of pregnancy. This can include changes to foot structure (Segal et al. 2013), pelvic floor biomechanics (Easley et al. 2017), and joint laxity (Chu et al. 2019) which may hinder a return to exercise or sport for women. There is a growing trend for the development of female specific sports and exercise products, but it is unclear how suitable these are for women post pregnancy when exercising given the substantial changes they experience. The studentship will appeal to students interested in studying human-sport equipment interaction with a specific focus on females pre and post pregnancy. Initial studies will build on established research in the Sports Technology Institute with a focus on footwear design and gait analysis of pre to post pregnant females and sports bra design. The direction of the PhD is flexible and can be partially moulded to suit the strengths and interests of the successful candidate. It is intended that a variety of biomechanics data collection and analysis techniques will need to be used including motion analysis systems (Vicon/CODA), digital image correlation (GOM), force plates, electromyography, accelerometers and pressure analysis. There is also scope to use advanced analytic techniques to determine subject specific biomechanics requiring some existing experience of using software such as Matlab, R, Python or similar.
Renewable energy has recently received considerable media and public attention because of perceived benefits to the environment, including climate change, the potential to replace imported sources of energy, the possible impact on food production, and aesthetic issues related to the location of wind turbines. Potential sources of land-based renewable energy include bioenergy from forests, arable crops, energy crops and waste, solar heating and electricity, hydroelectricity, ground-source heat, and wind-energy. The spatial organisation of such energy sources, together with energy demand, energy infrastructure and other energy-sources within a particular landscape can be termed the 'EnergyScape'. 'Ecosystem Services' is a collective term to describe the various services we obtain from land and its associated ecosystems. They include the provision of food, fibre and fuel, the regulation of nutrients, water supply and water quality, the creation of opportunities for recreation and education, the maintenance of biodiversity, and the space to build and maintain our supporting infrastructure. The development and use of land-based renewable energy resources will have both negative and positive impacts on these services. Positive aspects may include increased biodiversity from biomass crops; negative aspects may include reduced river flows and increased road transport of biomass. This one-year research project aims to determine, through a pilot study, how a systematic understanding of the 'EnergyScape' and 'Ecosystem Services' could help guide the deployment of land-based renewables. For the pilot study we have selected Marston Vale in Bedfordshire which is a sub-catchment of the Great Ouse river, and contains a mix of agricultural, forestry and urban land. It is the site of a community forest and there is local interest in renewable energy. Working with national and local stakeholder groups, the project will identify the key sources of renewable energy within the study area and the key ecosystem services likely to be affected by the development of land-based renewables. Using spatial data, geographical information systems and existing models, the project will then develop a spatial description of the EnergyScape and the key ecosystem services for the study area. Because some models are weaker than others, we will use a 'Plug and Play' framework, as used in computing, so that new and improved models can be introduced as they become available. Similarly, the approach will allow new data sources to be included as they become available. Starting from the base-line description, we will then investigate the benefits and losses associated with the deployment of different combinations of land based renewables. Because renewable energy sources have different spatial and temporal characteristics relative to the demand for energy, the outputs will not be simply additive. Similarly, there will be complex interactions between energy generation and different ecosystem services, and amongst the ecosystem services. Some interactions will be antagonistic (e.g. solar power v demand for heating; food v biofuel) whereas others may be complementary (e.g. sharing of facilities; biofuel v biodiversity). By using appropriate visualisation tools, we hope that the key interactions can be explained to stakeholder groups, who can then use the information to inform future decisions. We intend that the approach developed in this research, which will be limited to the renewables and ecosystems of a specific area, can be applied to other regions and at a national spatial scale in future research projects. To validate the academic efficacy of our approach, we will submit papers for peer review, seeking to get them published in high-impact scientific journals.
Doctoral Training Partnerships: a range of postgraduate training is funded by the Research Councils. For information on current funding routes, see the common terminology at https://www.ukri.org/apply-for-funding/how-we-fund-studentships/. Training grants may be to one organisation or to a consortia of research organisations. This portal will show the lead organisation only.
Student projects will be decided by the start of the second year