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The aim of this mixed-methods thesis is to explore the relationship between the experience of migration, national identity and economic outcomes. More specifically, it sets out to determine how migration experiences and attitudes to migration have shaped and changed the sense of belonging of ethnic minorities and sub-state national groups to multicultural Britain over the last two decades, and whether such identities are linked to differences in labour market outcomes. To achieve this, the thesis will comprise three key elements. The first substantive chapter, using a rich nationally representative longitudinal study, will present latent class analysis to characterise potential identity 'types' and their changes over time. The second chapter will present these identity 'types' as predictors of a range of labour market outcomes, to identify the relationship between labour market (change) and identity. The third chapter will employ narrative analysis of life course experiences of respondents sampled on the basis of their identity 'type' to understand the specific social processes behind the relationship between identity and economic outcomes.
This research project will focus on a borderland area stretching from Tecun Uman in the San Marcos department, Guatemala, a town which sits on Guatemala- Mexico border, to the larger town of Tapachula in Chiapas, Mexico. My proposal speaks to four main areas of anthropological debate: constructions of citizenship, the anthropology of Christianity, borders, and indigenous minorities. The border has long been recognised as part of a passage used by Central American migrants to move through to America (Green, 2009) and much movement of informal workers and trade takes place across it (Sectretaria de Gobernacion, 2005: 29). Other theorists have noted how it divides people with a shared 'indigenous Mayan heritage' (Kauffer, 1997:169). It has often been unproblematically linked with the processes of structural violence (Farmer, 2003) that 'dispossess migrants of family and community, of collective attachments to place and to kin and extended networks' on the Mexican-US border (Green, 2009: 334). However, other theorists have noted the border allows cyclical migration of workers into Chiapas from Guatemala, as an integral part of the life-world of many indigenous Mayans (Wesiner & Cruz, 2003; Ayala-Carillo, 2012; Durni, 2008). Current research reveals the Guatemalan-Mexican border is becoming politicized as the locus of a convergence of American and Mexican immigration policy that aims to establish 'complete control' (President Nieto, 2014) through an increasingly militarized border zone due to the changing nature of migration: Mexico as well as the US is a migrant destination (Stockton, 2014; Morrison, 2014; Durni, 2008). Both countries are proposing changes to border operations with technology and the possibility of the US National Guard (Jane, 2012; Stockton, 2014). I aim to challenge the work of (Green 2009) by viewing the border as part of a unique 'political construction' that is not simply used to facilitate 'neoliberal immigration policies' [state sponsored violence, endemic racism, segregation of migrant population] (Wallis, 2006). On the micro-level I believe it is central to explore the effects border changes are having on those living in Chiapas and San Marcos given the significance of the border in local memories of the Guatemalan civil war, fitting this into a wider research aim of examining the roles Christianity, shared Mayan indigenous identity and forms of citizenship have in both localities in navigating the increased militarization and neo-liberalization of the border and state practices upon it. In examining citizenship, I will look at how sovereignty projects are constructed on the periphery, exploring their graduated, nested and multiple characters (Humphrey, Ong , 2000; Tsing, 1993; Seider, 2011), especially in the context of the changing nature of the border. Further, by looking at how subjects mediate different regimes of sovereignty, and how such mediation practices are suffused with memories of violence, I aim to provide an important person-centred ethnographic dimension to studies of sovereignty, exploring how their multiple characters are lived. Tied in to my examination of citizenship is a desire to engage in the fertile debate exploring citizenship and Christianity in post-conflict settings (O'Neill, 2009). I want to scrutinize whether O'Neill's concept of 'Christian citizenship' based on Neo-Pentecostalism, can account for the role Christianity plays on the periphery of Guatemala, in a region permeated with Latter Day Saints Christian movement and associated with memories not just of violence but also flight from it. There is a need to explore the nature and multiplicity of Christian practices and beliefs on the border and to theoretically integrate them into the graduated and multiple natures of sovereignty projects taking place there. Through this I hope to engage in the current debate of the role of Christianity in producing forms of citizenship. EXCEEDED WORD LIMIT
The aim of this research is the production of a book on decision making that applies to situations in which we don't know what all the alternative are and have not made up our mind about those that we are aware of. \n\nThe first part of the book will present, explain and then reformulate the core of Bayesian decision theory, currently the standard theory of decision making. The focus will be on foundational questions and in particular on two problems: one normative, the other epistemological. The first is what might be termed the problem of justification, namely that of providing grounds for believing that people should follow its prescriptions. The second is the problem of interpretation, which in its starkest form is the question of how we can have knowledge of non-observable mental states such as beliefs and preferences. A solution to this problem is crucial to the applicability of decision theory, for unless we can determine what someone believes or desires, we cannot use the theory to say what he should do or explain what he was observed to do. \n\nThe second part will address the problem of decision making in the kinds of situations described above. The main thought here is that since people cannot plan for all contingencies, a theory which gives advice on the presumption that agents can make their minds up about everything in advance is going to be of limited help. Consequently, this part of the project will attempt to address three main research questions. Firstly, how people should change their mind about the possibilities they face as they become aware of previously unforeseen features of them? Secondly, how should they make up their mind about what probability and desirability to attach to prospects in the first place? And thirdly, how should they make decisions when they have not made their mind up about all relevant features of the decision problem, including how likely are the various contingencies upon which the success of the their decisions depend and how desirable are the possible consequences of the choices they make. \n
My project will investigate and analyse the development of Japanese rubber manufacturing between 1909 and 1963. My conceptual framework places Dunlop Japan at the centre of a process of capability formation essential to the development of rubber manufacturing in industrialising Japan. The successful indigenisation of Dunlop's explicit and tacit knowledge led to the emergence of internationally competitive rubber companies such as Bridgestone Tyres (est. 1930) & Yokohama Rubber (est. 1917) in Japan and Hankook Tyres (est. 1941) in South Korea. The year 1909 marks the beginning of 'modern' rubber production in Japan with the establishment of British company Dunlop Rubber's factory in Kobe, which became known as the 'rubber school' in Japan. 1963 marks the year Sumitomo Electric - a lead firm in the Sumitomo group - became the lead shareholder in Dunlop Japan, in so doing changing the company's name to Sumitomo Rubber. My research will answer two primary questions: 1) What were the most important factors in facilitating the indigenisation of Dunlop's expertise and technology which led to the rise of Japanese rubber companies such as Yokohama Rubber and Bridgestone? 2) Did developments in the 1930s and 40s driven by nationalism and militarisation lay the groundwork for the emergence of internationally competitive rubber industries in parts of East Asia in the post-war era? In answering those questions, this project will serve as an empirical study on the ingredients needed in developing countries for local industry to successfully grow out of foreign direct investment (FDI), and on the role of nationalism in the emergence of internationally competitive industries. The key theoretical & historiographical themes my research will engage with at the micro- and meso-level are entrepreneurship, labour-management relationships, and the role of Japanese trading companies. At the macro-level this study will consider the importance of economic nationalism and military demand as facilitators of capability formation. There is currently very little literature in English on the Japanese rubber industry and in Japanese most of the relevant critical literature appears to be consigned to a handful of academic articles focusing on relatively specific. Despite this, there is a wealth of quantitative and qualitative data in the company histories of Bridgestone, Sumitomo Rubber and Yokohama Rubber, and in the largely descriptive three volume history of the Japanese rubber history published by the Nihon Gomu Kogyokai (Japan Rubber Manufacturers Association). On top of making extensive use of the company and industry histories, primary material will be central to this research project. I plan to access the company archives of Sumitomo Rubber, Bridgestone and Yokohama located in Japan, and those of Dunlop located in London. I also aim to make extensive use of the readily accessible Mitsui Bunko in Tokyo. My methodology draws on the approach to business history pioneered by Chandler in 1959 which favours deep historical research to answer clear and compelling research questions. In addition, qualitative analysis such as this will be tested and complemented by drawing on quantitative data from company accounts and the published company & industry histories.