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  • Authors: 
    Thomas Bonner;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    When Cyrille Arnavon translated Kate Chopin’s 1899 novel The Awakening, he set in motion one of the most significant changes of a writer’s critical and popular reputation in American literary histo...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Thorsten Lutz; Benjamin Arnold; Alexander Wolf; Ewald Krämer;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing

    Minimizing the flow-induced noise is an important issue in the design of modern onshore wind turbines. There is a number of proven passive means to reduce the aeroacoustic noise, such as the implementation of serrations, porous trailing edges or the aeroacoustic airfoil design. The noise emission can be further reduced by active flow control techniques. In the present study the impact of distributed boundary layer suction on the noise emission of an airfoil and a complete rotor is investigated. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel tests were performed for the NACA 64-418 airfoil and supplemented by numerical calculations. The aeroacoustic analyses have been conducted by means of the institute's Rnoise prediction scheme. The 2D studies have shown that noise reductions of 5 dB can be achieved by suction at moderate mass flow rates. To study the impact of three-dimensional effects numerical investigations have been conducted on the example of the generic NREL 5MW rotor with suction applied in the outer part of the blade. The predictions for the complete rotor provided smaller benefits compared to those for the isolated airfoil, mainly because the examined suction configurations were not optimized with respect to the extent of the suction patch and suction distribution.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pamela Resuli; Sokol Dervishi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The present paper includes a study focused on the thermal performance of cultural Heritage Italian housing built in 1920's. The study includes the indoor environmental (thermal) building performance evaluation via occupancy satisfaction and building performance simulation. In addition, the houses were further evaluated via parametric computational simulation. Detailed information of the building characteristics, schedule was implemented. As such, possible improvement scenarios could be analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate that changes in the building fabric could improve the buildings’ energy performance. Specifically, certain combination of improvement measures could be shown to significantly reduce the annual heating energy up to 30%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    I Sakho; Malick Sow; A. Wagué;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing

    Please Auger energies and X-ray wavelengths of the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like ions (Z = 6-18) are reported. New Auger energies and wavelengths for B-like N2+, F4+, Na6+, Al8+, P10+, S11+, Cl12+, and Ar13+ ions are tabulated as benchmarked values for future experimental and theoretical studies.

  • Publication . Article . 2014
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Paolo Martore;
    Publisher: OpenEdition

    Conservation as a basic task of the museum rests on the recognition of artworks. However, within the domain of contemporary art, the recognition process is often demanding and controversial, demonstrating a performative and reflexive effect. As a crucial action through which Conservation defines itself by defining the artwork’s values, recognition is the moment when the neglected ideological facet of the museum’s mission comes to light. La conservation comme fonction fondamentale du musée repose sur la reconnaissance de l’œuvre d’art. Toutefois, dans le domaine de l’art contemporain, la reconnaissance est très souvent un processus difficile et controversé, à caractère performatif et réflexif. En tant qu'action essentielle à travers laquelle la conservation se définit en définissant les valeurs de l’œuvre d’art, la reconnaissance est le moment où l’aspect idéologique de la mission du musée vient à la lumière.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Xuebo Zheng; Jianbo Fan; Jian Cui; Yi Wang; Jing Zhou; Mao Ye; Mingming Sun;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Biogas slurry (BS) was known to influence soil–plant ecosystems when applied as a fertilizer, especially in combination with a chemical fertilizer (CF). Limited information was available regarding how this combination of BS–CF actually affected the soil–plant ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of BS–CF combinations on peanut yield, soil properties, and carbon (C) storage in a red soil (Ultisol) in southern China. The soil was fertilized with five treatments, including a control (T1), CF-only (T2) treatment, and three treatments with different BS–CF combinations (T3–T5). The final quantities of N/P2O5/K2O applied in T2–T5 were 120:90:135 kg ha−1. In T3–T5, 15 % (18 kg ha−1), 30 % (36 kg ha−1), and 45 % (54 kg ha−1) of total N (TN), respectively, were applied with BS and the remaining TN was applied with CF. Crop yield, soil nutrients, C storage, and microbial activity were determined through field and laboratory experiments. In the field experiment, peanut grain yields of T3–T5 were higher than those of T1 (44.5–55.7 %) and T2 (10.8–19.4 %), with the highest yield from T4 (3588 kg ha−1). The relationship between BS–TN inputs and peanut grain yield conformed to the linear-quadratic equation: y = −1.14x 2 + 59.1x + 2988 (R 2 = 0.98). The biomasses of peanut plants, at the flowering, pod production, and harvesting stages, were higher in T4 compared with those in T1 and T2. Moreover, T4 produced higher soil N and P (total and available) concentrations at the pod production and harvesting stages relative to other treatments, with increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and enhanced dehydrogenase and urease activities, at the flowering, pod production, and harvesting stages. Data from the incubation experiment were fitted to a first-order kinetic model, which showed that although the application of BS increased potentially mineralizable C, the additional C seemed to slowly degrade, and so would be retained in the soil for a longer period. A BS–CF combination increased peanut grain yield and biomass, due to increases in soil N and P availability, microbial biomass C and N concentrations, and urease and dehydrogenase activities. Moreover, the organic C retention time in the red soil was extended. Combined application of BS–CF at a suitable ratio (36 kg BS–TN ha−1), together with proper management practices, could be effective to improve the quality and nutrient balance of amended soils.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Fernando Núñez-Useche; Ricardo Barragán; Josep Anton Moreno-Bedmar; Carles Canet;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The lower to lower-upper Aptian succession of northern Mexico documents the drowning of the shallow-water Cupido/Cupidito carbonate platform system followed by deposition of the deep-water sediments of the La Pena Formation. Using δ 13 C stratigraphy, geochemical and mineralogical information coupled with previous microfacies, paleontological and total organic carbon (TOC) data from a stratigraphic section, which includes such lithological change, this study identifies distinctive episodes of accelerated global environmental change, and determines the paleoenvironmental conditions conducive to the deposition of TOC-rich intervals. Within the Cupidito unit, the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE 1a) is recorded near the base of the section and the Intra-Furcata Negative Excursion in the topmost beds of the unit. The upper part of the section, within the La Pena Formation, is correlatable with the Noire level. Organic-carbon rich intervals occur in the lower and middle part of the OAE 1a, upper part of the Cupidito unit, base of the La Pena Formation, and in the Noire level equivalent. Reducing conditions within the sediment and oxic–dysoxic at the seafloor, locally controlled, persisted both before and during OAE 1a interval in the Cupidito lagoon. Oxygen-depleted conditions (dysoxic–anoxic) were more permanent and stronger during the deposition of the base of the la Pena Formation and the Noire equivalent level. It is proposed here that deposition of the lower-middle part of the OAE 1a and the base of the La Pena Formation was influenced by climate-controlled increases in detrital and accompanying nutrient influx that supplied especially biolimiting nutrients (Fe, P), fostering marine productivity and TOC burial. Upwelling of nutrient-rich deeper waters and minor arrival of nutrients from runoff, both account for the domination of radiolaria and organic-carbon burial during the Noire level equivalent. Record of the OAE 1a time-equivalent facies in the Cupidito lagoonal sediments confirms the diachronism of the Cupidito–La Pena flooding. Heterozoan carbonate production in the Cupidito ramp was uninterrupted during and after OAE 1a. Periodic arrival of detrital components and nutrients during warmer/humid periods accelerated platform drowning, which peaked during the diachronic deposition of the La Pena Formation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giuseppe Vercellotti; Barbara A. Piperata; Amanda M. Agnew; Warren M. Wilson; Darna L. Dufour; Julio C. Reina; Rosa Boano; Hedy M. Justus; Clark Spencer Larsen; Sam D. Stout; +1 more
    Publisher: Wiley

    Adult stature variation is commonly attributed to differential stress-levels during develop- ment. However, due to selective mortality and heteroge- neous frailty, a population's tall stature may be more indicative of high selective pressures than of positive life conditions. This article examines stature in a biocultural context and draws parallels between bioarchaeological and living populations to explore the multidimensional- ity of stature variation in the past. This study investi- gates: 1) stature differences between archaeological populations exposed to low or high stress (inferred from skeletal indicators); 2) similarities in growth retardation patterns between archaeological and living groups; and 3) the apportionment of variance in growth outcomes at the regional level in archaeological and living popula- tions. Anatomical stature estimates were examined in relation to skeletal stress indicators (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, linear enamel hypoplasia) in two medieval bioarchaeological populations. Stature and bio- cultural information were gathered for comparative liv- ing samples from South America. Results indicate 1) significant (P < 0.01) differences in stature between groups exposed to different levels of skeletal stress; 2) greater prevalence of stunting among living groups, with similar patterns in socially stratified archaeological and modern groups; and 3) a degree of regional variance in growth outcomes consistent with that observed for highly selected traits. The relationship between early stress and growth is confounded by several factors— including catch-up growth, cultural buffering, and social inequality. The interpretations of early life conditions based on the relationship between stress and stature should be advanced with caution. Am J Phys Anthropol

  • Authors: 
    George Sarton;
    Publisher: University of Chicago Press

    Before leaving Belgium in October 1914, I had buried all my smaller notes in my garden. The rediscovery of these notes and of a good part of my library and of my larger notes, in August 1919, enabled me to resume at once the realization of an old design, namely, the writing of an -introduction to the history and philosophy of science. Many months of the fall and winter of 1920 were almost entirely devoted to the reclassification of my material, and it was only on January 12, 1921 that I could begin the actual writing. I had at first thought that as soon as my material was duly classified, the writing would be relatively easy, for it is a fact that the Introduction exists potentially in my notes. Yet I discovered once more that there is a long, long way from such potentiality to reality. I am now publishing this preliminary paper because: 1. I realize that more time may elapse before the appearance of the Introduction than I had at first reckoned; 2. To ensure greater completeness and accuracy I propose to submit parts of my work as soon as they are ready, to various specialists: this note will explain my purpose to them more fully than I could do it in a letter.

  • Authors: 
    Nick Smith;
    Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)

    AFICIONADOS of the James Bond movie franchise will recognise the vehicle in the blueprint as the modified Lotus Esprit S1 from 'The Spy Who Loved Me'. The car takes centre stage in an exhilarating car chase, during which it converts into a submarine to make its escape underwater. The 007 Lotus Esprit is routinely voted the best movie car of all time and, as with so many of Bond's gadgets, it comes armed to the teeth with all kinds of explosives, weaponry and other fiendish devices to assist with the defence of Queen and country. Known as 'Wet Nellie', the wet-sub was named after the Wallis WA-116 Agile gyrocopter 'Little Nellie' in 'You Only Live Twice', that had in turn been named after the music hall star and actress Nellie Wallace.