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114 Research products, page 1 of 12

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 4. Education

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  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Nicole Tutiaux-Guillon;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Canada

    Le « développement durable » (DD) est depuis 2004 en France l’objet d’une « éducation à » transdisciplinaire et obligatoire ; il est aussi thème structurant le programme de 5e depuis 2008, et figure dans d’autres programmes. Ces prescriptions sont inégalement convergentes et se heurtent aux structures des disciplines constituées, en même temps qu’à l’absence de savoirs de référence stabilisés. Comment la dimension éducative (comportements, valeurs) est-elle articulée sur les contenus disciplinaires ? Qu’en est-il de la place faite aux enjeux politiques du DD ? L’éducation au DD est-elle « disciplinarisée », aux dépens des dimensions éducatives explicites, ou au contraire modifie-t-elle le modèle disciplinaire de l’histoire-géographie ? Une recherche empirique apporte des réponses provisoires. Les formes de travail choisies par les enseignants oscillent entre pratique disciplinaire classique et essais de trans/pluridisciplinarité, entre incitation au questionnement et à la réflexion et transmission de savoirs factuels et impartiaux, entrecomplexité et simplification. Le changement de comportement est toujours supposé résulter des savoirs – parfois des actions pédagogiques. Les manuels reflètent les mêmes hésitations et se situent entre neutralisation/disciplinarisation des questions de DD et explicitation des débats et des conflits/posture implicante. La dimension éducative et surtout la question du politique divisent fortement les enseignants. «Sustainable development» (SD) is in France since 2004 is a transdisciplinary and binding «education to» and is also the theme structuring the fifth degree program since 2008, and is included in other programs. These requirements are unevenly convergent and are encounter to structure of already built diciplines at the same time as the lack of stabilised reference-knowledge. How is the educational dimension (attitudes, values) articulated to disciplinary content ? What about the place given to political issues of SD? Education in SD as constitutive of a discipline isn’t at the expense of educational dimensions explicit or is it modify disciplinary model of history and geography? An empirical search provides tentative answers. The forms of work chosen by the teachers ranged from classical disciplinary practice and testing of trans / multidisciplinary between incitement to questioning and reflection and transmission of factual and impartial knowledge entrecomplexité and simplification. Behavior change is always assumed result of knowledge - sometimes educational activities. The textbooks reflect the same hesitation and are situated between neutralization / disciplinarisation of SD issues and explicitation of discussion and conflicts / implicante posture. The educational dimension and especially the question of political strongly divided the teachers.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Héctor Morales Morgado;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Este trabajo describe nuevas formas de subjetividad política en la era del multiculturalismo. En las últimas tres décadas en Chile y Latinoamérica las etnias se han incorporado a un nuevo escenario político, creado por su reconocimiento jurídico. Reconocer la diversidad étnica ha sido un logro continental, aunque no pasó mucho tiempo para que la conquista democrática se enfrentará a la etnopolítica de la propia diversidad. Una cosa es la diversidad como sistema plural de formas culturales y otra muy diferente es el complicado escenario de las interacciones y limitaciones con que se realiza o no la diversidad en la política. Por ello, aquí se adentra en los ejes de la diversidad cultural atacameña; cómo se construye la etnicidad, sus actores intervinientes y se ahonda en la etnificación como un proceso diferencial, administrativo e inclusivo de población con cualidades culturales heterogéneas. Se muestra un campo o estructura social específica que da cuenta de una etnogénesis y etnopolítica atacameña en el norte de Chile. This paper proposes a description of the newforms of political subjectivity in the Age of Multiculturalism. During the last three decades, in Latin America and Chile ethnic groups have accessed to a new political scenario produced by their legal recognition. The recognition of the ethnic diversity has been a continental achievement; however this democratic conquest had to face very early the ethnopolitical conflicts of diversity itself. One thing is diversity as a pluralistic system of cultural forms, quite another is the complex scenario of interactions and constraints, which makes (or makes not)possible diversity in politics. Therefore, this study explores the main issues on cultural diversity in Atacama, how ethnicity is constructed and who are their intervening actors. It also delves into the analysis of ethnification as an administrative process of differentiation and inclusion of people with heterogeneous cultural qualities. Thus we attempt to show a field or a specific social structure that displays an ethnogenesis process andAtacamenian form of ethnopolitics in northern Chile.

  • Authors: 
    Pieter Dhondt;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    During the nineteenth century, educationists, professors and politicians in many European countries struggled with the question of whether secondary school teachers should be trained at the university, or in separate teachers’ colleges, where they would receive a proper vocational training. This article explores the development of the training of classics teachers in nineteenth‐century Belgium and characterises it as a compromise between the two options. When William I in 1816 established three state universities in the southern Netherlands, teacher training, which was offered during the French period at the specialised college in Paris, was not replaced. Very soon, certain German professors took the initiative of establishing philological‐pedagogical seminars to fill the gap. However, these seminars did not survive the chaos of the Belgian revolution and it took almost 20 years before teacher training courses were reintroduced in separate colleges attached to the universities. At first, the teachers’ col...

  • Authors: 
    Jana Obrovská; Kateřina Sidiropulu Janků;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | ISOTIS (727069)

    This mixed methods study from 2017 to 2018 documents the living conditions and Czech Roma mothers’ experiences of the education system. Based on a comparative analysis of quantitative survey data a...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Iskandar Keskes; Farah Benamara Zitoune; Lamia Hadrich Belguith;
    Country: France

    International audience; In this article, we propose the first work that investigates the feasibility of Arabic discourse segmentation into elementary discourse units within the segmented discourse representation theory framework. We first describe our annotation scheme that defines a set of principles to guide the segmentation process. Two corpora have been annotated according to this scheme: elementary school textbooks and newspaper documents extracted from the syntactically annotated Arabic Treebank. Then, we propose a multiclass supervised learning approach that predicts nested units. Our approach uses a combination of punctuation, morphological, lexical, and shallow syntactic features. We investigate how each feature contributes to the learning process. We show that an extensive morphological analysis is crucial to achieve good results in both corpora. In addition, we show that adding chunks does not boost the performance of our system.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Clémence Cardon-Quint;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This paper deals with the way French language and literature teachers have addressed the question of social inequities at school in France from 1959 until today. Classical Humanities, which had constituted the basis of elite education for many centuries, were harshly questioned from the eighteenth century on as being inadequate to a modern world. During the twentieth century, a new criticism was expressed against classical education: it was considered as a way of reproducing the domination of the bourgeoisie by setting up a barrier against the popular pupils, who frequented the so‐called primary schools, and were thus excluded from this classical culture. The democratisation of the French school system, through the transformation of primary and secondary systems from parallel systems (for lower‐class pupils and upper‐class pupils) into sequent degrees, was therefore accompanied by the extension of a new subject: French literature. French authors, read, studied, commented on from the lowest grades of primary schools to the last grades of secondary schools, seemed to offer the common cultural references needed by a democratic society. The creation of the “Agrégation de lettres modernes” in 1959 crowned this controversial evolution, a few months after the Berthoin reform had theoretically opened the secondary schools to every pupil whatever his or her social background. However, far from being a triumphal decade for the French literary studies, the end of the 1960s witnessed violent attacks against this traditional teaching. Considered as a part of bourgeois culture, it was accused of dooming pupils from a popular background to inexorable failure. Just like the Classical Humanities earlier, French literature appeared as an instrument of ideological domination and social reproduction. At the same time, the success of structuralism in linguistics and literary studies opened alternative possibilities to the classical literary history and proposed new ways of analysing texts and literary works. In this context the transformation of the discipline itself appeared to some teachers as both an adequate and legitimate way to democratise secondary schools. This paper describes the rise, the extension, and the abandonment of this original attempt from the 1950s to today. The proposals made by the promoters of the reforms are considered, in this paper, as a complex construction where social experience, political engagement, praxis, and theory are inextricably intertwined, thus questioning the relationship between politics and school culture. This paper also examines how the emergence of didactics as a scientific field at the end of the 1970s, and the subsequent rejection of political considerations from its technical and pedagogical discourse, tended to prevent teachers from grappling directly and efficiently with the issue of social inequities in French literature and language courses. This “de‐politicisation” of the curriculum debates may well have been the symptom of an inability to conceive how culture might be defined and what role it might play in a democratic society.

  • Authors: 
    Jiří Zounek; Michal Šimáně; Dana Knotová;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Studie se zaměřuje na každodennost zakladnich skol v Ceskoslovensku v obdobi tzv. pražskeho jara a nasledneho utužovani komunistickeho režimu po invazi vojsk Varsavske smlouvy. Autoři se soustředi zejmena na ucitele a zejmena pak na to, jak udalosti tohoto složiteho obdobi zasahly do jejich profesniho života a jak se v praci ucitelů projevilo opětovne prosazovani totalitni moci. Text vychazi z výzkumu realizovaneho na zakladě metody oralni historie a studia archivnich pramenů. Výsledky ukazuji, že podobně jako v cele ceskoslovenske spolecnosti tak i v prostředi zakladnich skol se během pražskeho jara projevilo uvolněni spolecensko-politickeho klimatu a oslabeni vlivu komunisticke moci, a to jak v chodu skoly, tak přimo ve výuce. Po srpnove invazi vojsk Varsavske smlouvy doslo i ve skolach k opětovnemu výraznemu utuženi režimu. To se projevovalo zejmena v důslednem prověřovani cinnosti ucitelů v obdobi pražskeho jara, jejich perzekvovanim a zesilenim důrazu na ideologickou stranku připravy ucitelů i výchovy žaků ve výuce.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard Lété; Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Pascale Colé;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This article presents MANULEX, a Web-accessible database that provides grade-level word frequency lists of nonlemmatized and lemmatized words (48,886 and 23,812 entries, respectively) computed from the 1.9 million words taken from 54 French elementary school readers. Word frequencies are provided for four levels: first grade (G1), second grade (G2), third to fifth grades (G3-5), and all grades (G1-5). The frequencies were computed following the methods described by Carroll, Davies, and Richman (1971) and Zeno, Ivenz, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995), with four statistics at each level (F, overall word frequency; D, index of dispersion across the selected readers; U, estimated frequency per million words; and SFI, standard frequency index). The database also provides the number of letters in the word and syntactic category information. MANULEX is intended to be a useful tool for studying language development through the selection of stimuli based on precise frequency norms. Researchers in artificial intelligence can also use it as a source of information on natural language processing to simulate written language acquisition in children. Finally, it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sianan Healy; Kate Darian-Smith;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Designing Australian scho... (DP110100505)

    This article combines perspectives from architectural history, educational history and social history to examine the development of Australian schooling in the 20th century, with a particular emphasis on the period following World War II to the 1970s. In these decades, there was increased interest in Australia and internationally in pedagogical approaches that embraced the development of the ‘whole’ child, and fresh ideas about the design of schools and classrooms, including specialised facilities, that emphasised the importance of space and place to learning. This article surveys the relevant if disparate historiography of education and design and provides an overview of the Australian school in the post-war period. It argues for greater historical recognition of the relationships between school design and pedagogy for understanding the history of educational policy and the experiences of schooling in modern Australia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jean-François Rouet; Gastón Saux; Christine Ros; Marc Stadtler; Nicolas Vibert; M. Anne Britt;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Argentina

    Fil: Rouet, Jean-François. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Rouet, Jean-François. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Saux, Gastón. Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina. Facultad de Piscología y Psicopedagogía; Argentina Fil: Saux, Gastón. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: Ros, Christine. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Ros, Christine. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Stadtler, Marc. University of Bochum. Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft; Alemania Fil: Vibert, Nicolás. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Vibert, Nicolás. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Britt, Anne M. Northern Illinois University. Department of Psychology; Estados Unidos Abstract: Text comprehension involves the ability to understand how texts relate to the situation they describe and to each other (i.e., a Document model; Perfetti, Rouet, & Britt, 1999). Research into Document models has emphasized the role of information sources in structuring readers' mental models of situations. The present paper reviews research on source comprehension and examines new hypotheses regarding source encoding during text comprehension. Two experiments examined college students’ evaluation and recognition of two embedded sources as a function of the consistency of their statements (Experiments 1 and 2) and the demands of the reading task (Experiment 2). Sources were introduced either with a knowledge feature (e.g., how the source knew what they knew) or a control feature. Readers were more likely to select the knowledgeable source as more competent and to justify their selection by referring to the knowledge feature (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 found that readers’ preference for knowledgeable sources was stronger when the content statements were discrepant. Preference for knowledgeable sources was also stronger when the task focused on source knowledge, as compared to a control evaluation task or a baseline reading task. The source knowledge evaluation task distinctively enhanced participants' integration of the source designations with their respective statements, as compared to the control and baseline conditions. Results are discussed in light of current theories of single and multiple document comprehension.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
114 Research products, page 1 of 12
  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Nicole Tutiaux-Guillon;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Canada

    Le « développement durable » (DD) est depuis 2004 en France l’objet d’une « éducation à » transdisciplinaire et obligatoire ; il est aussi thème structurant le programme de 5e depuis 2008, et figure dans d’autres programmes. Ces prescriptions sont inégalement convergentes et se heurtent aux structures des disciplines constituées, en même temps qu’à l’absence de savoirs de référence stabilisés. Comment la dimension éducative (comportements, valeurs) est-elle articulée sur les contenus disciplinaires ? Qu’en est-il de la place faite aux enjeux politiques du DD ? L’éducation au DD est-elle « disciplinarisée », aux dépens des dimensions éducatives explicites, ou au contraire modifie-t-elle le modèle disciplinaire de l’histoire-géographie ? Une recherche empirique apporte des réponses provisoires. Les formes de travail choisies par les enseignants oscillent entre pratique disciplinaire classique et essais de trans/pluridisciplinarité, entre incitation au questionnement et à la réflexion et transmission de savoirs factuels et impartiaux, entrecomplexité et simplification. Le changement de comportement est toujours supposé résulter des savoirs – parfois des actions pédagogiques. Les manuels reflètent les mêmes hésitations et se situent entre neutralisation/disciplinarisation des questions de DD et explicitation des débats et des conflits/posture implicante. La dimension éducative et surtout la question du politique divisent fortement les enseignants. «Sustainable development» (SD) is in France since 2004 is a transdisciplinary and binding «education to» and is also the theme structuring the fifth degree program since 2008, and is included in other programs. These requirements are unevenly convergent and are encounter to structure of already built diciplines at the same time as the lack of stabilised reference-knowledge. How is the educational dimension (attitudes, values) articulated to disciplinary content ? What about the place given to political issues of SD? Education in SD as constitutive of a discipline isn’t at the expense of educational dimensions explicit or is it modify disciplinary model of history and geography? An empirical search provides tentative answers. The forms of work chosen by the teachers ranged from classical disciplinary practice and testing of trans / multidisciplinary between incitement to questioning and reflection and transmission of factual and impartial knowledge entrecomplexité and simplification. Behavior change is always assumed result of knowledge - sometimes educational activities. The textbooks reflect the same hesitation and are situated between neutralization / disciplinarisation of SD issues and explicitation of discussion and conflicts / implicante posture. The educational dimension and especially the question of political strongly divided the teachers.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Héctor Morales Morgado;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Este trabajo describe nuevas formas de subjetividad política en la era del multiculturalismo. En las últimas tres décadas en Chile y Latinoamérica las etnias se han incorporado a un nuevo escenario político, creado por su reconocimiento jurídico. Reconocer la diversidad étnica ha sido un logro continental, aunque no pasó mucho tiempo para que la conquista democrática se enfrentará a la etnopolítica de la propia diversidad. Una cosa es la diversidad como sistema plural de formas culturales y otra muy diferente es el complicado escenario de las interacciones y limitaciones con que se realiza o no la diversidad en la política. Por ello, aquí se adentra en los ejes de la diversidad cultural atacameña; cómo se construye la etnicidad, sus actores intervinientes y se ahonda en la etnificación como un proceso diferencial, administrativo e inclusivo de población con cualidades culturales heterogéneas. Se muestra un campo o estructura social específica que da cuenta de una etnogénesis y etnopolítica atacameña en el norte de Chile. This paper proposes a description of the newforms of political subjectivity in the Age of Multiculturalism. During the last three decades, in Latin America and Chile ethnic groups have accessed to a new political scenario produced by their legal recognition. The recognition of the ethnic diversity has been a continental achievement; however this democratic conquest had to face very early the ethnopolitical conflicts of diversity itself. One thing is diversity as a pluralistic system of cultural forms, quite another is the complex scenario of interactions and constraints, which makes (or makes not)possible diversity in politics. Therefore, this study explores the main issues on cultural diversity in Atacama, how ethnicity is constructed and who are their intervening actors. It also delves into the analysis of ethnification as an administrative process of differentiation and inclusion of people with heterogeneous cultural qualities. Thus we attempt to show a field or a specific social structure that displays an ethnogenesis process andAtacamenian form of ethnopolitics in northern Chile.

  • Authors: 
    Pieter Dhondt;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    During the nineteenth century, educationists, professors and politicians in many European countries struggled with the question of whether secondary school teachers should be trained at the university, or in separate teachers’ colleges, where they would receive a proper vocational training. This article explores the development of the training of classics teachers in nineteenth‐century Belgium and characterises it as a compromise between the two options. When William I in 1816 established three state universities in the southern Netherlands, teacher training, which was offered during the French period at the specialised college in Paris, was not replaced. Very soon, certain German professors took the initiative of establishing philological‐pedagogical seminars to fill the gap. However, these seminars did not survive the chaos of the Belgian revolution and it took almost 20 years before teacher training courses were reintroduced in separate colleges attached to the universities. At first, the teachers’ col...

  • Authors: 
    Jana Obrovská; Kateřina Sidiropulu Janků;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | ISOTIS (727069)

    This mixed methods study from 2017 to 2018 documents the living conditions and Czech Roma mothers’ experiences of the education system. Based on a comparative analysis of quantitative survey data a...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Iskandar Keskes; Farah Benamara Zitoune; Lamia Hadrich Belguith;
    Country: France

    International audience; In this article, we propose the first work that investigates the feasibility of Arabic discourse segmentation into elementary discourse units within the segmented discourse representation theory framework. We first describe our annotation scheme that defines a set of principles to guide the segmentation process. Two corpora have been annotated according to this scheme: elementary school textbooks and newspaper documents extracted from the syntactically annotated Arabic Treebank. Then, we propose a multiclass supervised learning approach that predicts nested units. Our approach uses a combination of punctuation, morphological, lexical, and shallow syntactic features. We investigate how each feature contributes to the learning process. We show that an extensive morphological analysis is crucial to achieve good results in both corpora. In addition, we show that adding chunks does not boost the performance of our system.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Clémence Cardon-Quint;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This paper deals with the way French language and literature teachers have addressed the question of social inequities at school in France from 1959 until today. Classical Humanities, which had constituted the basis of elite education for many centuries, were harshly questioned from the eighteenth century on as being inadequate to a modern world. During the twentieth century, a new criticism was expressed against classical education: it was considered as a way of reproducing the domination of the bourgeoisie by setting up a barrier against the popular pupils, who frequented the so‐called primary schools, and were thus excluded from this classical culture. The democratisation of the French school system, through the transformation of primary and secondary systems from parallel systems (for lower‐class pupils and upper‐class pupils) into sequent degrees, was therefore accompanied by the extension of a new subject: French literature. French authors, read, studied, commented on from the lowest grades of primary schools to the last grades of secondary schools, seemed to offer the common cultural references needed by a democratic society. The creation of the “Agrégation de lettres modernes” in 1959 crowned this controversial evolution, a few months after the Berthoin reform had theoretically opened the secondary schools to every pupil whatever his or her social background. However, far from being a triumphal decade for the French literary studies, the end of the 1960s witnessed violent attacks against this traditional teaching. Considered as a part of bourgeois culture, it was accused of dooming pupils from a popular background to inexorable failure. Just like the Classical Humanities earlier, French literature appeared as an instrument of ideological domination and social reproduction. At the same time, the success of structuralism in linguistics and literary studies opened alternative possibilities to the classical literary history and proposed new ways of analysing texts and literary works. In this context the transformation of the discipline itself appeared to some teachers as both an adequate and legitimate way to democratise secondary schools. This paper describes the rise, the extension, and the abandonment of this original attempt from the 1950s to today. The proposals made by the promoters of the reforms are considered, in this paper, as a complex construction where social experience, political engagement, praxis, and theory are inextricably intertwined, thus questioning the relationship between politics and school culture. This paper also examines how the emergence of didactics as a scientific field at the end of the 1970s, and the subsequent rejection of political considerations from its technical and pedagogical discourse, tended to prevent teachers from grappling directly and efficiently with the issue of social inequities in French literature and language courses. This “de‐politicisation” of the curriculum debates may well have been the symptom of an inability to conceive how culture might be defined and what role it might play in a democratic society.

  • Authors: 
    Jiří Zounek; Michal Šimáně; Dana Knotová;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Studie se zaměřuje na každodennost zakladnich skol v Ceskoslovensku v obdobi tzv. pražskeho jara a nasledneho utužovani komunistickeho režimu po invazi vojsk Varsavske smlouvy. Autoři se soustředi zejmena na ucitele a zejmena pak na to, jak udalosti tohoto složiteho obdobi zasahly do jejich profesniho života a jak se v praci ucitelů projevilo opětovne prosazovani totalitni moci. Text vychazi z výzkumu realizovaneho na zakladě metody oralni historie a studia archivnich pramenů. Výsledky ukazuji, že podobně jako v cele ceskoslovenske spolecnosti tak i v prostředi zakladnich skol se během pražskeho jara projevilo uvolněni spolecensko-politickeho klimatu a oslabeni vlivu komunisticke moci, a to jak v chodu skoly, tak přimo ve výuce. Po srpnove invazi vojsk Varsavske smlouvy doslo i ve skolach k opětovnemu výraznemu utuženi režimu. To se projevovalo zejmena v důslednem prověřovani cinnosti ucitelů v obdobi pražskeho jara, jejich perzekvovanim a zesilenim důrazu na ideologickou stranku připravy ucitelů i výchovy žaků ve výuce.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard Lété; Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Pascale Colé;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This article presents MANULEX, a Web-accessible database that provides grade-level word frequency lists of nonlemmatized and lemmatized words (48,886 and 23,812 entries, respectively) computed from the 1.9 million words taken from 54 French elementary school readers. Word frequencies are provided for four levels: first grade (G1), second grade (G2), third to fifth grades (G3-5), and all grades (G1-5). The frequencies were computed following the methods described by Carroll, Davies, and Richman (1971) and Zeno, Ivenz, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995), with four statistics at each level (F, overall word frequency; D, index of dispersion across the selected readers; U, estimated frequency per million words; and SFI, standard frequency index). The database also provides the number of letters in the word and syntactic category information. MANULEX is intended to be a useful tool for studying language development through the selection of stimuli based on precise frequency norms. Researchers in artificial intelligence can also use it as a source of information on natural language processing to simulate written language acquisition in children. Finally, it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sianan Healy; Kate Darian-Smith;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Designing Australian scho... (DP110100505)

    This article combines perspectives from architectural history, educational history and social history to examine the development of Australian schooling in the 20th century, with a particular emphasis on the period following World War II to the 1970s. In these decades, there was increased interest in Australia and internationally in pedagogical approaches that embraced the development of the ‘whole’ child, and fresh ideas about the design of schools and classrooms, including specialised facilities, that emphasised the importance of space and place to learning. This article surveys the relevant if disparate historiography of education and design and provides an overview of the Australian school in the post-war period. It argues for greater historical recognition of the relationships between school design and pedagogy for understanding the history of educational policy and the experiences of schooling in modern Australia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jean-François Rouet; Gastón Saux; Christine Ros; Marc Stadtler; Nicolas Vibert; M. Anne Britt;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Argentina

    Fil: Rouet, Jean-François. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Rouet, Jean-François. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Saux, Gastón. Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina. Facultad de Piscología y Psicopedagogía; Argentina Fil: Saux, Gastón. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: Ros, Christine. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Ros, Christine. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Stadtler, Marc. University of Bochum. Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft; Alemania Fil: Vibert, Nicolás. University of Poitiers; Francia Fil: Vibert, Nicolás. Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage; Francia Fil: Britt, Anne M. Northern Illinois University. Department of Psychology; Estados Unidos Abstract: Text comprehension involves the ability to understand how texts relate to the situation they describe and to each other (i.e., a Document model; Perfetti, Rouet, & Britt, 1999). Research into Document models has emphasized the role of information sources in structuring readers' mental models of situations. The present paper reviews research on source comprehension and examines new hypotheses regarding source encoding during text comprehension. Two experiments examined college students’ evaluation and recognition of two embedded sources as a function of the consistency of their statements (Experiments 1 and 2) and the demands of the reading task (Experiment 2). Sources were introduced either with a knowledge feature (e.g., how the source knew what they knew) or a control feature. Readers were more likely to select the knowledgeable source as more competent and to justify their selection by referring to the knowledge feature (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 found that readers’ preference for knowledgeable sources was stronger when the content statements were discrepant. Preference for knowledgeable sources was also stronger when the task focused on source knowledge, as compared to a control evaluation task or a baseline reading task. The source knowledge evaluation task distinctively enhanced participants' integration of the source designations with their respective statements, as compared to the control and baseline conditions. Results are discussed in light of current theories of single and multiple document comprehension.