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18 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • earth and related environmental sciences
  • 3. Good health

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pylieva, Hanna; Chernodub, Artem; Grabar, Natalia; Hamon, Thierry;

    International audience; Patients and their families often require a better understanding of medical information provided by doctors. We currently address this issue by improving the identification of difficult to understand medical words. We introduce novel embeddings received from RNN - FrnnMUTE (French RNN Medical Understandability Text Embeddings) which allow to reach up to 87.0 F1 score in identification of difficult words. We also note that adding pre-trained FastText word embeddings to the feature set substantially improves the performance of the model which classifies words ac- cording to their difficulty. We study the generalizability of different models through three cross-validation scenarios which allow testing classifiers in real-world conditions: understanding of medical words by new users, and classification of new unseen words by the automatic models. The RNN - FrnnMUTE embeddings and the categorization code are being made available for the research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.aclweb.o...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/w1...
    Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Conference object . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.aclweb.o...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: W. Christopher Carleton; Mark Collard;

    We report a study in which we systematically reviewed the recent literature dealing with human-environment interaction in prehistory. We first identified the 165 most highly cited papers published ...

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zietz, Björn P.; Dunkelberg, Hartmut;

    The plague is an infectious bacterial disease having a high fatality rate without treatment. It has occurred in three huge pandemics since the 6th century with millions of deaths and numerous smaller epidemics and sporadic cases. Referring to specific clinical symptoms of pulmonary plague the disease became known as the Black Death. This pandemic probably originated in central Asia and began spreading westward along major trade routes. Upon the arrival in the eastern Mediterranean the disease quickly spread especially by sea traffic to Italy, Greece and France and later throughout Europe by land. Until the 18th century many European cities were frequently affected by other great plague epidemics. The worldwide spread of the third pandemic began when the plague reached Hong Kong and Canton in the year 1894. The gram-negative coccobacillus now designated as Yersinia pestis has been discovered as the causative agent of plague in this Hong Kong outbreak. In the following years the role of rats and fleas and their detailed role in the transmission of plague has been discovered and experimentally verified. Today the plague is still endemic in many countries of the world.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2004
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    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2004
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      International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kormilitzin, Andrey; Vaci, Nemanja; Liu, Qiang; Ni, Hao; +2 Authors

    In this work we addressed the problem of capturing sequential information contained in longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs). Clinical notes, which is a particular type of EHR data, are a rich source of information and practitioners often develop clever solutions how to maximise the sequential information contained in free-texts. We proposed a systematic methodology for learning from chronological events available in clinical notes. The proposed methodological {\it path signature} framework creates a non-parametric hierarchical representation of sequential events of any type and can be used as features for downstream statistical learning tasks. The methodology was developed and externally validated using the largest in the UK secondary care mental health EHR data on a specific task of predicting survival risk of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. The signature-based model was compared to a common survival random forest model. Our results showed a 15.4$\%$ increase of risk prediction AUC at the time point of 20 months after the first admission to a specialist memory clinic and the signature method outperformed the baseline mixed-effects model by 13.2 $\%$. 4 pages, 2 figures, 7 tables

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.aclweb.o...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
    Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.aclweb.o...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
      Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Dittbrenner, Nils; Schmitt, Hannah; Capowiez, Yvan; Triebskorn, Rita;

    International audience; The use of only one or a few species-representing an entire taxon-in ecotoxicological standard tests poses risk of underestimating the impact of toxicants on the environment. In earthworm ecotoxicity tests, the species Eisenia fetida or Eisenia andrei are commonly used, and there is evidence that these species respond relatively insensitive towards environmental pollution. With the present study, we wanted to evaluate the risk of underestimating effects of the insecticide imidacloprid in soil organisms by comparing E. fetida with two other earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) regarding their sensitivities towards soil contaminated with this widely used insecticide. In laboratory experiments, the specimens were individually exposed to various concentrations of the pesticide (0.2, 0.66, 2 and 4 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)) for 1, 7 and 14 days. Afterwards, histopathological changes in the midgut, chloragogenous tissue and skin, as well as body mass changes, were assessed. While significant changes in body mass in E. fetida and A. caliginosa occurred after exposure to imidacloprid concentrations as low as 0.2 (7 days) and 0.66 mg kg(-1) DW (14 days), significant body mass changes in L. terrestris observed to 2 and 4 mg kg(-1) DW, for 7 and 14 days of exposure, respectively. The histopathological examinations revealed that significant cellular changes already occurred after 24 h exposure to the lowest test concentrations in all species, but the degree of detrimental effects as well as species-specific differences were dependent on the monitor tissue. In general, E. fetida seemed to be more sensitive than L. terrestris concerning cellular alterations, but the hierarchy in species-specific differences was less obvious than for body mass change. Even if E. fetida proved to be the most sensitive species in this study, general differences in sensitivity make evident that always a range of species-being representatives of an animal taxon-in ecotoxicological tests should be tested in order to avoid underestimations of effects. In the case of testing only one species, an increase of safety factors should be considered. Since effects already occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations, the use of imidacloprid in agriculture might be of great concern.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Soils and...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Soils and Sediments
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Soils and...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Soils and Sediments
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mayer, Tobias; Marro, Santiago; Villata, Serena; Cabrio, Elena;

    International audience; In the latest years, the healthcare domain has seen an increasing interest in the definition of intelligent systems to support clinicians in their everyday tasks and activities. Among others, also the field of Evidence-Based Medicine is impacted by this twist, with the aim to combine the reasoning frameworks proposed thus far in the field with mining algorithms to extract structured information from clinical trials, clinical guidelines, and Electronic Health Records. In this paper, we go beyond the state of the art by proposing a new end-to-end pipeline to address argumentative outcome analysis on clinical trials. More precisely, our pipeline is composed of (i) an Argument Mining module to extract and classify argumentative components (i.e., evidence and claims of the trial) and their relations (i.e., support, attack), and (ii) an outcome analysis module to identify and classify the effects (i.e., improved, increased, decreased, no difference, no occurrence) of an intervention on the outcome of the trial, based on PICO elements. We annotated a dataset composed of more than 500 abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) from the MEDLINE database, leading to a labeled dataset with 4198 argument components, 2601 argument relations, and 3351 outcomes on five different diseases (i.e., neoplasm, glaucoma, hepatitis, diabetes, hypertension). We experiment with deep bidirectional transformers in combination with different neural architectures (i.e., LSTM, GRU and CRF) and obtain a macro F1-score of .87 for component detection and .68 for relation prediction, outperforming current state-of-the-art end-to-end Argument Mining systems, and a macro F1-score of .80 for outcome classification.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Artificial Intellige...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Artificial Intellige...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: A. Gumberidze; Daniel Thorn; S. Trotsenko; Dariusz Banaś; +23 Authors

    The projectile excitation of high-Z ions has been investigated in relativistic ion-atoms collisions by observing the subsequent x-ray emission. Within this experiment information about the population of the magnetic sublevels has been obtained via an angular differential study of the decay photons associated with the subsequent de-excitation process. In addition, we have observed for the first time the effect of electron-impact excitation in a heavy highly charged ion undergoing a collision with a neutral atom.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics :...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2012
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Seltenrich, Nate;

    Climate change is expected to have profound effects on weather patterns and temperatures worldwide in the coming decades, with serious implications for public health.1 Among the many ways in which global warming bears on human health,2,3,4,5,6 few are more readily apparent than the trend of increasing heat waves, which are often regarded as the deadliest of all natural disasters.7,8 And despite current and future adaptation efforts,9,10 the overall health burden of heat waves could grow as average temperatures continue their upward tick and extreme heat events become more frequent, severe, and long-lasting.11 Although heat waves and cold snaps pose major health risks and grab headlines when they occur, recent studies have uncovered a more complex and perhaps unexpected relationship between temperature and public health. But while isolated heat waves pose a major health risk and grab headlines when they occur, recent research has uncovered a more complex and perhaps unexpected relationship between temperature and public health—on the whole, far more deaths occur in cold weather than in hot. This reality is obscured by the fact that, unlike heat-related health effects, which spike during discrete events, cold-related illnesses and deaths are diffuse throughout the year, don’t require extreme temperatures, and can lag well behind cold snaps.12,13 An analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of U.S. temperature-related deaths between 2006 and 2010 showed that 63% were attributable to cold exposure, while only 31% were attributable to heat exposure.14 In Australia and the United Kingdom, cold-related mortality between 1993 and 2006 exceeded heat-related mortality by an even greater margin—and is likely to do so through at least the end of the century.15 Researchers who evaluated 74 million U.K. and U.S. deaths reported in May 2015 that low temperatures are associated with 7.3% of all deaths versus just 0.4% for high temperatures, a ratio of more than 18 to 1.16 “You try to focus on the high-exposure situations, and sometimes you don’t realize that the important impact can be much higher for mild exposures, not because they are more dangerous but because they are far more common,” explains Antonio Gasparrini of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, lead author of the 2015 paper.16 “These results are quite surprising because we never address [the relationship of temperature and health] from this perspective.” In an effort to better understand the direct effects of cold temperature on human health in an era of climate change, researchers are fine-tuning their models and methods to account for nuances including seasonal public-health trends unrelated to the direct effects of temperature. One recent paper argued that cold-season deaths likely are largely associated with increases in respiratory infections such as influenza,17 thought to be facilitated both by cooler, drier air and by more hours spent indoors.18 In this view, future climate warming may bring less relief from the increases in mortality associated with cold weather than previously thought. Other recent research has examined links between public health and extreme temperatures (highs and lows alike), which are more likely to actually cause effects, not just be associated with them. One study concluded that physiological acclimatization to extreme heat is unlikely to keep pace with climate change.19 Another helped quantify the so-called mortality displacement effect—deaths “bunch up” after a heat or cold event as seriously ill individuals die days or weeks earlier than they otherwise would have, then dip below normal.20 But evolving technological and behavioral adaptation to extreme temperature by individuals and communities is a more difficult concept to integrate into models, says Weiwei (Vivian) Yu, an expert on statistical modeling and methods at the University of Queensland. “We’re not sure how to measure these factors, even though we know they’re very important to the effect on health,” she says. Ultimately, despite their huge scope of impacts, heat and cold exposures are individual phenomena and thus highly relative, researchers have found—from one person, home, neighborhood, city, and region to the next.21,22,23,24 That simple fact, it turns out, may dictate how researchers and public officials talk about temperature and health as climate change progresses.

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    Environmental Health Perspectives
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Environmental Health Perspectives
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      Environmental Health Perspectives
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Erica R. Fuhrmeister; Ayse Ercumen; Amy J. Pickering; Kaitlyn M. Jeanis; +16 Authors

    Fecal indicator organisms are measured to indicate the presence of fecal pollution, yet the association between indicators and pathogens varies by context. The goal of this study was to empirically evaluate the relationships between indicator Escherichia coli, microbial source tracking markers, select enteric pathogen genes, and potential sources of enteric pathogens in 600 rural Bangladeshi households. We measured indicators and pathogen genes in stored drinking water, soil, and on mother and child hands. Additionally, survey and observational data on sanitation and domestic hygiene practices were collected. Log10 concentrations of indicator E. coli were positively associated with the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli genes in all sample types. Given the current need to rely on indicators to assess fecal contamination in the field, it is significant that in this study context indicator E. coli concentrations, measured by IDEXX Colilert-18, provided quantitative information on the presence of pathogenic E. coli in different sample types. There were no significant associations between the human fecal marker (HumM2) and human-specific pathogens in any environmental sample type. There was an increase in the prevalence of Giardia lamblia genes, any E. coli virulence gene, and the specific E. coli virulence genes stx1/2 with every log10 increase in the concentration of the animal fecal marker (BacCow) on mothers’ hands. Thus, domestic animals were important contributors to enteric pathogens in these households.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Environmental Science & Technology
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    Authors: Jérôme, Yolette; Alexis, Magline; Telcy, David; Saffache, Pascal; +1 Authors

    Haitian cities are more and more prone to demographic growth, which has a lasting effect on water distribution infrastructures, as well as those that make it possible to clean it up. They are in touch with the growing demand for water, but also with the management methods of this resource. Over the past 25 years, the enlarged agglomeration of Port-au-Prince, the largest agglomeration in the country, has experienced very strong urban expansion with the creation of new precarious spaces. The literature reports that Haiti is now more than 64% urban and 35% of its population lives in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, in the West Department. Over the past decade, the footprint of the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area has grown by 35%. Recent observations on the formation and development of some slums highlight the country’s vulnerability to land-based hazards, which support this form of urbanization through the emergence of environmental displaced persons. Canaan, a human settlement created following the earthquake of January 12, 2010 by presidential decree, and inhabited by the victims of this event, has a deficit in infrastructure and basic urban services. The results of our previous work on this territory lead to a much more in-depth reflection on the need to develop an index of vulnerability to environmental diseases for the population. In fact, most of the households that live there face very precarious situations. The health conditions associated with this context expose the population to increased risks of disease. The measures taken by families to treat water at home do not seem to limit their vulnerability to environmental diseases (infectious and chronic). Improving living conditions in Canaan with a view to sustainability therefore underlies major challenges. What avenues of intervention should be favored to facilitate a favorable development of the population, while taking into account the strong constraints that weigh on their daily lives? The objective of this study is precisely to analyze the vulnerability of the population to water-borne diseases.

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    https://doi.org/10.5772/intech...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pylieva, Hanna; Chernodub, Artem; Grabar, Natalia; Hamon, Thierry;

    International audience; Patients and their families often require a better understanding of medical information provided by doctors. We currently address this issue by improving the identification of difficult to understand medical words. We introduce novel embeddings received from RNN - FrnnMUTE (French RNN Medical Understandability Text Embeddings) which allow to reach up to 87.0 F1 score in identification of difficult words. We also note that adding pre-trained FastText word embeddings to the feature set substantially improves the performance of the model which classifies words ac- cording to their difficulty. We study the generalizability of different models through three cross-validation scenarios which allow testing classifiers in real-world conditions: understanding of medical words by new users, and classification of new unseen words by the automatic models. The RNN - FrnnMUTE embeddings and the categorization code are being made available for the research.

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    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/w1...
    Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: W. Christopher Carleton; Mark Collard;

    We report a study in which we systematically reviewed the recent literature dealing with human-environment interaction in prehistory. We first identified the 165 most highly cited papers published ...

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    Authors: Zietz, Björn P.; Dunkelberg, Hartmut;

    The plague is an infectious bacterial disease having a high fatality rate without treatment. It has occurred in three huge pandemics since the 6th century with millions of deaths and numerous smaller epidemics and sporadic cases. Referring to specific clinical symptoms of pulmonary plague the disease became known as the Black Death. This pandemic probably originated in central Asia and began spreading westward along major trade routes. Upon the arrival in the eastern Mediterranean the disease quickly spread especially by sea traffic to Italy, Greece and France and later throughout Europe by land. Until the 18th century many European cities were frequently affected by other great plague epidemics. The worldwide spread of the third pandemic began when the plague reached Hong Kong and Canton in the year 1894. The gram-negative coccobacillus now designated as Yersinia pestis has been discovered as the causative agent of plague in this Hong Kong outbreak. In the following years the role of rats and fleas and their detailed role in the transmission of plague has been discovered and experimentally verified. Today the plague is still endemic in many countries of the world.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2004
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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