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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shi, Haoyue; Livescu, Karen; Gimpel, Kevin;

    We analyze several recent unsupervised constituency parsing models, which are tuned with respect to the parsing $F_1$ score on the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) development set (1,700 sentences). We introduce strong baselines for them, by training an existing supervised parsing model (Kitaev and Klein, 2018) on the same labeled examples they access. When training on the 1,700 examples, or even when using only 50 examples for training and 5 for development, such a few-shot parsing approach can outperform all the unsupervised parsing methods by a significant margin. Few-shot parsing can be further improved by a simple data augmentation method and self-training. This suggests that, in order to arrive at fair conclusions, we should carefully consider the amount of labeled data used for model development. We propose two protocols for future work on unsupervised parsing: (i) use fully unsupervised criteria for hyperparameter tuning and model selection; (ii) use as few labeled examples as possible for model development, and compare to few-shot parsing trained on the same labeled examples. Comment: EMNLP 2020. Project page: https://ttic.uchicago.edu/~freda/project/rsucp/

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
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    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
    Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.aclweb.o...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jin, Qiao; Dhingra, Bhuwan; Liu, Zhengping; Cohen, William W.; +1 Authors

    We introduce PubMedQA, a novel biomedical question answering (QA) dataset collected from PubMed abstracts. The task of PubMedQA is to answer research questions with yes/no/maybe (e.g.: Do preoperative statins reduce atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting?) using the corresponding abstracts. PubMedQA has 1k expert-annotated, 61.2k unlabeled and 211.3k artificially generated QA instances. Each PubMedQA instance is composed of (1) a question which is either an existing research article title or derived from one, (2) a context which is the corresponding abstract without its conclusion, (3) a long answer, which is the conclusion of the abstract and, presumably, answers the research question, and (4) a yes/no/maybe answer which summarizes the conclusion. PubMedQA is the first QA dataset where reasoning over biomedical research texts, especially their quantitative contents, is required to answer the questions. Our best performing model, multi-phase fine-tuning of BioBERT with long answer bag-of-word statistics as additional supervision, achieves 68.1% accuracy, compared to single human performance of 78.0% accuracy and majority-baseline of 55.2% accuracy, leaving much room for improvement. PubMedQA is publicly available at https://pubmedqa.github.io. Comment: EMNLP 2019

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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      Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: V. Wennrich; P. S. Minyuk; V. Ya. Borkhodoev; A. Francke; +5 Authors

    Abstract. The 3.6 Ma sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia, Far East Russian Arctic, represents the longest continuous climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Its elemental composition as determined by X-ray fluorescence scanning exhibits significant changes since the mid-Pliocene caused by climate-driven variations in primary production, postdepositional diagenetic processes, and lake circulation as well as weathering processes in its catchment. During the mid- to late Pliocene, warmer and wetter climatic conditions are reflected by elevated Si / Ti ratios, indicating enhanced diatom production in the lake. Prior to 3.3 Ma, this signal is overprinted by intensified detrital input from the catchment, visible in maxima of clastic-related proxies, such as K. In addition, calcite formation in the early lake history points to enhanced Ca flux into the lake caused by intensified weathering in the catchment. A lack of calcite deposition after ca. 3.3 Ma is linked to the development of permafrost in the region triggered by cooling in the mid-Pliocene. After ca. 3.0 Ma the elemental data suggest a gradual transition to Pleistocene-style glacial–interglacial cyclicity. In the early Pleistocene, the cyclicity was first dominated by variations on the 41 kyr obliquity band but experienced a change to a 100 kyr eccentricity dominance during the middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) at ca. 1.2–0.6 Ma. This clearly demonstrates the sensitivity of the Lake El'gygytgyn record to orbital forcing. A successive decrease of the baseline levels of the redox-sensitive Mn / Fe ratio and magnetic susceptibility between 2.3 and 1.8 Ma reflects an overall change in the bottom-water oxygenation due to an intensified occurrence of pervasive glacial episodes in the early Pleistocene. The coincidence with major changes in the North Pacific and Bering Sea paleoceanography at ca. 1.8 Ma implies that the change in lake hydrology was caused by a regional cooling in the North Pacific and the western Beringian landmass and/or changes in the continentality. Further increases in total organic carbon and total nitrogen content after ca. 1.6 Ma are attributed to reduced organic matter decay in the sediment during prolonged anoxic periods. This points to more extensive periods of perennial ice coverage, and thus, to a progressive shifts towards more intense peak glacial periods. In the course of the Pleistocene glacial–interglacial sequence eight so-called "super-interglacials" occur. Their exceptionally warm conditions are reflected by extreme Si / Ti peaks accompanied by lows in Ti, K, and Fe, thus indicating extraordinary high lake productivity.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-9-...
    Preprint . 2013
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2014
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-9-...
      Preprint . 2013
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2014
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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  • Authors: McKenzie-McHarg, Andrew;

    In the late eighteenth century the principle of accommodation became so closely associated with the historical-critical approach of Johann Salomo Semler (1725–1791), a prominent theologian at the University of Halle, that he has on occasion been deemed its originator. As some scholars have, however, noted, accommodation as a principle of scriptural hermeneutics has a far longer history, extending back to the patristic writings. What by contrast has eluded closer investigation is the affinity that this principle exhibits to notions of deception. Nor has much consideration been given to the manner in which accommodation as an interpretative scheme has on occasion inspired accommodation as a form of strategic action. This article uses the opportunity provided by Semler in his interaction with a number of other figures associated with the late Enlightenment in Protestant Germany to explore these neglected aspects of accommodation.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Henna Farooq; Baijnath Kaushik;

    The amazing research of Artificial Intelligence is natural language processing (NLP) and the mesmerizing field in NLP is machine reading comprehension (MRC). MRC alleviates the efforts of making machines behave like a human as it helps information accessing in natural language by developing Question answering systems. MRC is summarized as a task to read a piece of text, understand it, and answer the related question of the text. Reading text can be cloze style reading (fill in the blanks from the text) as well as open style reading (separate question) and understanding the piece of text as well as the query is accomplished by contextual representation and Attention mechanism. In the MRC literature, various methodologies have been used for extracting answers from the given text including primitive methods to the deep learning methods to have a step towards deploying machine intelligence. The introduction of deep learning and large datasets in the recent few years has encouraged the success of MRC. This paper gives a recent review of MRC models based on deep learning, datasets on which they have been evaluated, and also their word representations.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/iciccs...
    Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aniruddha Ghosh; Guofu Li; Tony Veale; Paolo Rosso; +3 Authors

    This report summarizes the objectives and evaluation of the SemEval 2015 task on the sentiment analysis of figurative language on Twitter (Task 11). This is the first sentiment analysis task wholly dedicated to analyzing figurative language on Twitter. Specifically, three broad classes of figurative language are considered: irony, sarcasm and metaphor. Gold standard sets of 8000 training tweets and 4000 test tweets were annotated using workers on the crowdsourcing platform CrowdFlower. Participating systems were required to provide a fine-grained sentiment score on an 11-point scale (-5 to +5, including 0 for neutral intent) for each tweet, and systems were evaluated against the gold standard using both a Cosinesimilarity and a Mean-Squared-Error measure.

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    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/s1...
    Conference object . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Christina T. Accornero;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Missiology An Intern...arrow_drop_down
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    Missiology An International Review
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Missiology An International Review
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Missiology An International Review
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      Missiology An International Review
      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Zaman, Farooq; Shardlow, Matthew; Hassan, Saeed-Ul; Aljohani, Naif Radi; +1 Authors

    Abstract Text simplification and text summarisation are related, but different sub-tasks in Natural Language Generation. Whereas summarisation attempts to reduce the length of a document, whilst keeping the original meaning, simplification attempts to reduce the complexity of a document. In this work, we combine both tasks of summarisation and simplification using a novel hybrid architecture of abstractive and extractive summarisation called HTSS. We extend the well-known pointer generator model for the combined task of summarisation and simplification. We have collected our parallel corpus from the simplified summaries written by domain experts published on the science news website EurekaAlert ( www.eurekalert.org ). Our results show that our proposed HTSS model outperforms neural text simplification (NTS) on SARI score and abstractive text summarisation (ATS) on the ROUGE score. We further introduce a new metric (CSS1) which combines SARI and Rouge and demonstrates that our proposed HTSS model outperforms NTS and ATS on the joint task of simplification and summarisation by 38.94% and 53.40%, respectively. We provide all code, models and corpora to the scientific community for future research at the following URL: https://github.com/slab-itu/HTSS/.

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    Information Processing & Management
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      Information Processing & Management
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: K. Suominen; Mikko Liukkonen; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen;

    Old (>100 years, situated below 15 cm depth) sediment layers, of two humic forest lakes contained 400 to 600 mg of solvent soluble organic halogen (EOX) (kg C)-1. This was two to three fold more than in the most recent layers at the depth of 0 to 10 cm. Sediment accumulation of EOX in humic forest lakes correlated positively with the sediment accumulation of organic matter. Lake water concentration of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) correlated positively with water concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) and with the water colour in the different strata, seasons and lakes. These facts suggest that organic halogen in boreal humic lakes originated from the drainage area. Paleolimnological study of diatom remains showed that sediment concentration of organic halogen correlated negatively with the historical pH of the lake water column. This fact supports a view that the presence of organic halogen was promoted by haloperoxidase type of enzyme, which is most active at low pH (3.5 to 4). The dates of forest management events (clear cutting, prescribed burning) matched with the observed changes in lake water column historical pH and decrease in sediment content organic halogen in dated sediment layers. Clear cutting and prescribed burning are known to increase soil pH. This may decrease the intrinsic formation of organic halogens in soil, thereby decreasing the flow of organic halogens from the runoff area to the forest lake. Our results support a conclusion that changes in natural organically bound halogen in the sediment were promoted by acidification, forest fires and forest management in the drainage area. The organic halogen content in the most polluted layer of the pulp mill recipient sediment was 10 to 100 fold as compared to forest lake sediments.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Soils and...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Soils and Sediments
    Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Soils and...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Soils and Sediments
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Teng-Fei Li; Liang Hu; Jian-Feng Chu; Hong-Tu Li; +1 Authors

    It is hard to select and read suitable documents due to the rapidly growing number of scholarly documents. Keyphrases can be considered as the gist of a document so that a researcher can select the documents that they want using keyphrase queries. However, there are also many scholarly documents without any keyphrases tagged by the authors or other researchers. Automatic keyphrase extraction can help researchers to quickly extract keyphrases. This paper proposed an unsupervised approach for keyphrase extraction using graph-based ranking and topic-based clustering under the assumption that we only use the within-collection resources. We use graph-based ranking to describe the relevance between two words and topic-based clustering to embed semantical information into words. In this paper, we assume that each word has its own meaning, and each meaning can be considered as a topic, though we know nothing about these meanings. We use topic-based clustering to assign the “correct meaning” to the “correct word”. In addition, by taking the relevance among phrases into consideration and only using within-collection resources, we can use the graph-based ranking in our approach. The edges in a graph that are built for phrases can describe the hidden relevance between two phrases, and the weights that are set for edges can measure the connection between two phrases. Then, after using the position feature, our approach consists of an enhanced graph-based ranking and a topic-based clustering. The experiments are run on four datasets: KDD, WWW, GSN and ACM. The results indicate that our approach has better performance than the state-of-the-art methods.

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    IEEE Access
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    IEEE Access
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      IEEE Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shi, Haoyue; Livescu, Karen; Gimpel, Kevin;

    We analyze several recent unsupervised constituency parsing models, which are tuned with respect to the parsing $F_1$ score on the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) development set (1,700 sentences). We introduce strong baselines for them, by training an existing supervised parsing model (Kitaev and Klein, 2018) on the same labeled examples they access. When training on the 1,700 examples, or even when using only 50 examples for training and 5 for development, such a few-shot parsing approach can outperform all the unsupervised parsing methods by a significant margin. Few-shot parsing can be further improved by a simple data augmentation method and self-training. This suggests that, in order to arrive at fair conclusions, we should carefully consider the amount of labeled data used for model development. We propose two protocols for future work on unsupervised parsing: (i) use fully unsupervised criteria for hyperparameter tuning and model selection; (ii) use as few labeled examples as possible for model development, and compare to few-shot parsing trained on the same labeled examples. Comment: EMNLP 2020. Project page: https://ttic.uchicago.edu/~freda/project/rsucp/

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Jin, Qiao; Dhingra, Bhuwan; Liu, Zhengping; Cohen, William W.; +1 Authors

    We introduce PubMedQA, a novel biomedical question answering (QA) dataset collected from PubMed abstracts. The task of PubMedQA is to answer research questions with yes/no/maybe (e.g.: Do preoperative statins reduce atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting?) using the corresponding abstracts. PubMedQA has 1k expert-annotated, 61.2k unlabeled and 211.3k artificially generated QA instances. Each PubMedQA instance is composed of (1) a question which is either an existing research article title or derived from one, (2) a context which is the corresponding abstract without its conclusion, (3) a long answer, which is the conclusion of the abstract and, presumably, answers the research question, and (4) a yes/no/maybe answer which summarizes the conclusion. PubMedQA is the first QA dataset where reasoning over biomedical research texts, especially their quantitative contents, is required to answer the questions. Our best performing model, multi-phase fine-tuning of BioBERT with long answer bag-of-word statistics as additional supervision, achieves 68.1% accuracy, compared to single human performance of 78.0% accuracy and majority-baseline of 55.2% accuracy, leaving much room for improvement. PubMedQA is publicly available at https://pubmedqa.github.io. Comment: EMNLP 2019

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    Authors: V. Wennrich; P. S. Minyuk; V. Ya. Borkhodoev; A. Francke; +5 Authors

    Abstract. The 3.6 Ma sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia, Far East Russian Arctic, represents the longest continuous climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Its elemental composition as determined by X-ray fluorescence scanning exhibits significant changes since the mid-Pliocene caused by climate-driven variations in primary production, postdepositional diagenetic processes, and lake circulation as well as weathering processes in its catchment. During the mid- to late Pliocene, warmer and wetter climatic conditions are reflected by elevated Si / Ti ratios, indicating enhanced diatom production in the lake. Prior to 3.3 Ma, this signal is overprinted by intensified detrital input from the catchment, visible in maxima of clastic-related proxies, such as K. In addition, calcite formation in the early lake history points to enhanced Ca flux into the lake caused by intensified weathering in the catchment. A lack of calcite deposition after ca. 3.3 Ma is linked to the development of permafrost in the region triggered by cooling in the mid-Pliocene. After ca. 3.0 Ma the elemental data suggest a gradual transition to Pleistocene-style glacial–interglacial cyclicity. In the early Pleistocene, the cyclicity was first dominated by variations on the 41 kyr obliquity band but experienced a change to a 100 kyr eccentricity dominance during the middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) at ca. 1.2–0.6 Ma. This clearly demonstrates the sensitivity of the Lake El'gygytgyn record to orbital forcing. A successive decrease of the baseline levels of the redox-sensitive Mn / Fe ratio and magnetic susceptibility between 2.3 and 1.8 Ma reflects an overall change in the bottom-water oxygenation due to an intensified occurrence of pervasive glacial episodes in the early Pleistocene. The coincidence with major changes in the North Pacific and Bering Sea paleoceanography at ca. 1.8 Ma implies that the change in lake hydrology was caused by a regional cooling in the North Pacific and the western Beringian landmass and/or changes in the continentality. Further increases in total organic carbon and total nitrogen content after ca. 1.6 Ma are attributed to reduced organic matter decay in the sediment during prolonged anoxic periods. This points to more extensive periods of perennial ice coverage, and thus, to a progressive shifts towards more intense peak glacial periods. In the course of the Pleistocene glacial–interglacial sequence eight so-called "super-interglacials" occur. Their exceptionally warm conditions are reflected by extreme Si / Ti peaks accompanied by lows in Ti, K, and Fe, thus indicating extraordinary high lake productivity.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-9-...
    Preprint . 2013
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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