This submission contains data and R-code that enable to reproduce the data manipulations and analyses in the paper “Why are population growth rate estimates of past and present hunter-gatherers so different?” by Miikka Tallavaara and Erlend Kirkeng Jørgensen (Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B). Please, cite the paper and this Zenodo repository if you use the files included in this Zenodo record in your work. The submission includes a html-file titled “Why are population growth rate estimates of past and present hunter-gatherers so different? - Data analyses” (TJ2020.html) that contains R-code and instructions and comments for running the code (open this file in your browser). In addition, the submission includes Rdata-file (dataTJ2020.Rdata) containing all the data that are not created within the code and pure R-code (TJ2020.R).