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53 Research products, page 1 of 6

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • 2013-2022
  • English
  • ZENODO
  • COVID-19
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Fighting terrorism is a complex task, not limited to military options. It also concerns State-building, nationalism and inclusive sustainable development. The roots of underlying conflicts were already laid during colonialism, the slave trade, plundering of resources and arbitrary border establishment. The battle cannot be won by occupation nor by internal efforts of the countries affected alone, particularly not when terrorist enjoy secret support from parts of the army and the country's political elite. There are outside sources fomenting violent conflict by close cooperation between transnational crime and terrorist networks. Money laundering and financing of terrorism in global financial systems are part and parcel of the problem. Also many activists and combatants are not just driven by religious fanaticism and ideological zeal. Revenge, mere survival and local strives between conflicting groups often play a decisive role too. Ill- and ungoverned spaces favour warlordism, both of radical jihadist and non-religious terrorist movements, driven by localism and informal networks. The military response of some governments and security services degenerated into inadequate state counterterrorism with no regard for local populations. It resulted in challenges for the rule of law and human rights in these countries. Although trans-national military counterinsurgency among ECOWAS governments improved, it remained hampered by the divide between Anglophone and Francophone countries and the vested interest of former colonial rulers France and Great Britain. By now, terrorists also effectively use cyberspace and social media to create fear and spread their violent ideologies. The interactions between crime and terror in West Africa will continue in the foreseeable future. It may even increase, considering the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and famines caused by failing cereal imports as result of the Russian war in Ukraine. The effects on the social structure are considerable, including the population's dwindling trust in the state administration and the villagers' willingness to side with the terrorists. The fight of terrorism demands viable long-term solutions that take into account the linkages between counterterrorism, the rule of law and human rights and socio-economic development. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RÉSUMÉ : [Sources extérieures des menaces terroristes en Afrique de l'Ouest] - La lutte contre le terrorisme est une tâche complexe, qui ne se limite pas aux options militaires. Il concerne également l'édification de l'État, le nationalisme et le développement durable inclusif. Les racines des conflits sous-jacents étaient déjà posées pendant le colonialisme, la traite des esclaves, le pillage des ressources et l'établissement arbitraire des frontières. La bataille ne peut être gagnée par l'occupation ni par les seuls efforts internes des pays touchés, en particulier lorsque les terroristes bénéficient du soutien secret de certaines parties de l'armée et de l'élite politique du pays. Il existe des sources extérieures fomentant des conflits violents par une coopération étroite entre la criminalité transnationale et les réseaux terroristes. Le blanchiment d'argent et le financement du terrorisme dans les systèmes financiers mondiaux font partie intégrante du problème. De plus, de nombreux militants et combattants ne sont pas seulement motivés par le fanatisme religieux et le zèle idéologique. La vengeance, la simple survie et les luttes locales entre des groupes en conflit jouent souvent aussi un rôle décisif. Les espaces mal gouvernés et non gouvernés favorisent le seigneur de la guerre, à la fois des mouvements terroristes djihadistes radicaux et non-religieux, animés par le localisme et les réseaux informels. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en un contre-terrorisme étatique inadéquat sans égard pour les populations locales. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en contre-terrorisme de l'État au détriment de la population locale. Cela a entraîné des défis pour l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme dans ces pays. Bien que la contre-insurrection militaire transnationale parmi les gouvernements de la CEDEAO se soit améliorée, elle est restée entravée par le fossé entre les pays anglophones et francophones et l'intérêt égoïste des anciens dirigeants coloniaux, la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Pendant ce temps, les terroristes utilisent également efficacement le cyberespace et les médias sociaux pour créer la peur et répandre leurs idéologies violentes. Les interactions entre le crime et le terrorisme en Afrique de l'Ouest se poursuivront dans un avenir prévisible. Il pourrait même augmenter, compte tenu des effets dévastateurs de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des famines causées par l'échec des importations de céréales à la suite de la guerre russe en Ukraine. Les effets sur la structure sociale sont considérables, notamment la perte de confiance de la population dans l'administration de l'État et la volonté des villageois de se ranger du côté des terroristes. La lutte contre le terrorisme exige des solutions viables à long terme qui tiennent compte des liens entre la lutte contre le terrorisme, l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme et le développement socioéconomique. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : [Externe Quellen terroristischer Bedrohungen in Westafrika] - . Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus ist eine komplexe Aufgabe, die nicht auf militärische Optionen beschränkt ist. Er betrifft auch den Staatsaufbau, Nationalismus und inklusive nachhaltige Entwicklung. Die Wurzeln der zugrunde liegenden Konflikte wurden bereits während des Kolonialismus, des Sklavenhandels, der Plünderung von Ressourcen und der willkürlichen Grenzziehung in Afrika gelegt. Der Kampf kann weder durch Besatzung noch durch interne Bemühungen der betroffenen Länder allein gewonnen werden, insbesondere dann nicht, wenn Terroristen heimliche Unterstützung von Teilen der Armee und der politischen Elite des Landes genießen. Es gibt externe Quellen, die durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen transnationaler Kriminalität und terroristischen Netzwerken gewalttätige Konflikte schüren. Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung in globalen Finanzsystemen sind Teil des Problems. Auch viele Aktivisten und Kämpfer werden nicht nur von religiösem Fanatismus und ideologischem Eifer getrieben. Auch Rache, bloßes Überleben und lokale Kämpfe zwischen verfeindeten Gruppen spielen oft eine entscheidende Rolle. Schlecht verwaltete und unregierbare Räume begünstigen Warlords, sowohl in radikalen dschihadistischen als auch in nicht-religiösen terroristischen Bewegungen, die von lokalen Konflikten und informellen Netzwerken angetrieben werden. Die militärische Reaktion einiger Regierungen und Sicherheitsdienste degenerierte zu unangemessener staatlicher Terrorismusbekämpfung ohne Rücksicht auf die lokale Bevölkerung. Dies führte zu Herausforderungen für die Rechtsstaatlichkeit und die Menschenrechte in diesen Ländern. Obwohl sich die transnationale militärische Aufstandsbekämpfung unter den ECOWAS-Regierungen verbesserte, wurde sie immer noch durch die Kluft zwischen anglophonen und frankophonen Ländern und eigennützigen Interessen der ehemaligen Kolonialherren Frankreich und Großbritannien behindert. Inzwischen nutzen Terroristen auch effektiv den Cyberspace und soziale Medien, um Angst zu erzeugen und ihre gewalttätigen Ideologien zu verbreiten. Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kriminalität und Terror in Westafrika werden in absehbarer Zeit fortbestehen. Angesichts der verheerenden Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie und der Hungersnöte, die durch fehlende Getreideimporte infolge des russischen Krieges in der Ukraine verursacht wurden, könnten sie sogar noch zunehmen. Die Auswirkungen auf die Sozialstruktur sind erheblich, darunter das schwindende Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die staatliche Verwaltung und die Bereitschaft der Dorfbewohner, sich auf die Seite der Terroristen zu stellen. Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus erfordert tragfähige langfristige Lösungen, die die Verbindungen zwischen Terrorismusbekämpfung, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Menschenrechten sowie sozioökonomischer Entwicklung berücksichtigen.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    O'Toole, Karen;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ARIADNEplus (823914)

    The FAIR Principles are the foundation of data management for present-day researchers in any discipline. However, the application of these principles is relatively new and as archaeologists we often rely on data created prior to their implementation. Reusing such data poses a number of obstacles that can be time-consuming and difficult to tackle. However, particularly in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the reuse of data has come to the forefront as an approach researchers can use to mitigate or substitute for data that is inaccessible either temporarily or permanently. While challenges such as the interoperability, standardisation and original purpose of such data continue to exist, the opportunities presented to us by the reuse of data are becoming increasingly clear. Using the construction of an Irish bog butter database as a case study, this presentation will explore why I chose to reuse data; the challenges associated with this; and the opportunities this has presented. It will also look at how applying modern techniques to old data can create new knowledge and revolutionise our understanding of previously poorly understood phenomena – how we can make old data new again.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Trung Hung Vo; Thi Le Thuyen Phan; Khanh Chi Ninh;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    With the development of the Internet, social networks and different communication channels, people can get information quickly and easily. However, in addition to real and useful news, we also receive false and unreal information. The problem of fake news has become a difficult and unresolved issue. For languages with few users, such as Vietnamese, the research on fake news detection is still very limited and has not received much attention. In this paper, we present research results on building a tool to support fake news detection for Vietnamese. Our idea is to apply text classification techniques to fake news detection. We have built a database of 4 groups of 2 topics about politics (fake news and real news) and about Covid-19 (fake news and real news). Then use deep learning techniques CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) to create the corresponding models. When there is new news that needs to be verified, we just need to apply the classification to see which of the four groups they label into to decide whether it is fake news or not. The tool was able to detect fake news quickly and easily with a correct rate of about 85 %. This result will be improved when getting a larger training data set and adjusting the parameters for the machine learning model. These results make an important contribution to the research on detecting fake news for Vietnamese and can be applied to other languages. In the future, besides using classification techniques (based on content analysis), we can combine many other methods such as checking the source, verifying the author's information, checking the distribution process to improve the quality of fake news detection.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Richards, Julian;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ARIADNEplus (823914)

    This Deliverable D2.5 reports the work done in Tasks 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6, and follows on from the interim report at Month 36 (D2.4). Work done under Task 2.2 has been reported in D2.3. The overall objective of WP2 is to “Extend and Support the ARIADNE community”. This has been achieved partly through online meetings, training events and conferences, social media, and promotional materials. There has also been a focus on engaging with new partners to bring them to the same level of awareness as those who participated in the previous project, and a particular aim to extend our coverage in central and south-eastern Europe. We have also worked with major associations and international bodies, such as the European Archaeological Council (EAC) and European Association of Archaeologists (EAA), to help promote a FAIR approach to archaeological data, and to inform strategic policy making. We have tried to target archaeological professionals and heritage managers, who may be less aware of ARIADNE than those working in academic and research institutions. In addition, we have worked closely with our international partners to extend the reach of ARIADNEplus beyond Europe. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of face-to-face networking opportunities between M18 and M36; nearly all meetings had to be held online but this did not lead to any major deviations from the workplan. Face-to-face events resumed from summer 2022, with a major ARIADNEplus presence at the 2022 EAA and CHNT conferences. Since our interim report at M36, the ARIADNEplus portal has allowed us to demonstrate the benefits of data aggregation according to the enhanced AO-Cat data model, and this activity intensified during the final work period. We have extended the ARIADNE community by creating a category of Associate partners. This has been hugely successful, with 17 organisations joining the consortium, in a self-funding capacity, but amounting to over 24 person months of discretionary effort. This has allowed us to provide integrated access to several additional internationally important datasets. Other organisations, such as the British Museum, have not joined as formal Associate partners, but have invested time and staff resource in working with an ARIADNE partner to provide access to their own data. Several of the European schools abroad, including French and British schools based in Athens and Ankara, have been keen to participate. Our emphasis on south-eastern Europe has attracted associate partners in countries such as North Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia and the Slovak Republic, where there has been little previous tradition of open access to research data in archaeology and heritage. In conclusion, within the project lifetime ARIADNE has become established as a major component of the European e-infrastructure. It is certainly the largest research data aggregator within the Arts and Humanities, and a significant player across all disciplines. This leaves us with confidence for the future sustainability, and in the last few months of the current funded project we are exploring the best options to maintain the community we have established.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonid M. Grigoryev; Ekaterina A. Kheifets;
    Publisher: Non-profit partnership "Voprosy Ekonomiki"

    In 2020 the energy transition path was distorted by the COVID-19 pandemic which caused a sharp economic decline and a fast global recovery in 2021. Unlike that period, the years between 2001 and 2019 illustrated a different type of energy evolution for developed and developing countries regarding primary energy consumption. During this period the composition of energy balances of these two major groups demonstrated dramatic disparity, notably marked by the high share of coal in developing countries. The shock of 2020 led to a belief in expediting the transition to green energy, but in 2021 the economic recovery revived demand for oil and coal, dashing hopes for the growing renewable energy sources sector in the European Union that year. The return of coal, however, to the EU energy sector and stable demand for motor fuel globally led to the restoration of the GHG emission growth against the backdrop of the climate policy implementation failure. The current energy transition is denoted by features such as the flat oil demand in developed countries, the flat global demand for motor gasoline and the growing demand for diesel. The econometrics of demand for two motor oil products are quite opposite. For gasoline we have almost all hypotheses met: the negative influence of climate policy and oil prices, strong effect of dummies for shock of 2020 and 2021, and naturally 0.3 coefficient at GDP growth rate. Nevertheless, for diesel everything is exactly the opposite — only 0,4 coefficient at GDP and practically nothing else. This effect shows the strong role and trend for cargo use of diesel fueled trucks in the global economy. The high income of oil and gas majors in 2021 did not secure the investment upturn. A mature oil industry receives substantial profits for its investors, supplying dividends, and buying back debts without enlarging production capacities. At this point climate policy expectations of phasing out fossil fuels in the foreseeable future operated as a braking mechanism against reinvesting oil incomes. Moreover, at this junction we can observe governments’ limited capacity to pursue policies toward multiple objectives simultaneously: modest energy prices, energy transition and securing the sufficient capital formation for energy. The continued fusion of the economic upturn and energy transition will be dependent on demand and supply matching in the oil markets. It is also possible that the sanctions policies of 2022 may aggravate the situation, triggering high prices and uncertainties.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gatherer, Derek;
    Publisher: Dryad

    The data file is a spreadsheet used to record queries made via CQPweb (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk). Search Terms For clarity, in the ensuing descriptions, we use bold font for search terms and italic font for collocates and other quotations. Based on clinical descriptions of COVID-19 (reviewed by Cevik et al., 2020), we identified the following search terms: 1) “cough”, 2) “fever”, 3) “pneumonia”. To avoid confusion with years when influenza pandemics may have occurred, we added 4) “influenza” and 5) “epidemic”. Any combination of terms 1 to 3 co-occurring with term 4 alone or terms 4 and 5 together, would be indicative of a respiratory outbreak caused by, or at the least attributed to, influenza. By contrast, any combination of terms 1 to 3 co-occurring with term 5 alone, or without either of terms 4 and 5, would suggest a respiratory disease that was not confidently identified as influenza at the time. This outbreak would provide a candidate coronavirus epidemic for further investigation. Newspapers Newspapers and years searched were as follows: Belfast Newsletter (1828-1900), The Era (1838-1900), Glasgow Herald (1820-1900), Hampshire & Portsmouth Telegraph (1799-1900), Ipswich Journal (1800-1900), Liverpool Mercury (1811-1900), Northern Echo (1870-1900) Pall Mall Gazette (1865-1900), Reynold’s Daily (1850-1900), Western Mail (1869-1900) and The Times (1785-2009). The search in The Times was extended to 2009 in order to provide a comparison with the 20th century. Searches were performed using Lancaster University’s instance of the CQPweb (Corpus Query Processor) corpus analysis software (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk/; Hardie, 2012). CQPweb’s database is populated from the newspapers listed, using optical character recognition (OCR), so for older publications in particular, some errors may be present (McEnery et al., 2019). Statistics The occurrence of each of the five search terms was calculated per million words within the annual output of each publication, in CQPweb. This is compared to a background distribution constituting the corresponding words per million for each search term over the total year range for each newspaper. Within the annual distributions, for each search term and each newspaper, we determined the years lying in the top 1% (i.e. p<0.05 after application of a Bonferroni correction), following Gabrielatos et al. (2012). These are deemed to be years when that search term was in statistically significant usage above its background level for the newspaper in which it occurs. For years when search terms were significantly elevated, we also calculated collocates at range n. Collocates, in corpus linguistics, are other words found at statistically significant usage, over their own background levels, in a window from n positions to the left to n positions to the right of the search term. In other words, they are found in significant proximity to the search term. A default value of n=10 was used throughout, unless specified. Collocation analysis therefore assists in showing how a search term associates with other words within a corpus, providing information about the context in which that search term is used. CQPweb provides a log ratio method for the quantification of the strength of collocation. COVID-19 is the first known coronavirus pandemic. Nevertheless, the seasonal circulation of the four milder coronaviruses of humans – OC43, NL63, 229E and HKU1 – raises the possibility that these viruses are the descendants of more ancient coronavirus pandemics. This proposal arises by analogy to the observed descent of seasonal influenza subtypes H2N2 (now extinct), H3N2 and H1H1 from the pandemic strains of 1957, 1968 and 2009, respectively. Recent historical revisionist speculation has focussed on the influenza pandemic of 1889-1892, based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions that show the emergence of human coronavirus OC43 around that time, probably by zoonosis from cattle. If the “Russian influenza”, as The Times named it in early 1890, was not influenza but caused by a coronavirus, the origins of the other three milder human coronaviruses may also have left a residue of clinical evidence in the 19th century medical literature and popular press. In this paper, we search digitised 19th century British newspapers for evidence of previously unsuspected coronavirus pandemics. We conclude that there is little or no corpus linguistic signal in the UK national press for large-scale outbreaks of unidentified respiratory disease for the period 1785 to 1890. To view data, open in Microsoft Excel. To reproduce the data from scratch, a login is needed to CQPweb (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk). This is free of charge but requires authorization, which can be applied for at the URL given.

  • Open Access English

    Covid-19 has sojourned the world as we know then into a cessation. It affects various disciplinary fields to a standstill which includes art and tourism. In Malaysia, to adapt to the global pandemic; new opportunities have emerged and dealt with it no longer becomes optional but rather a solution. Therefore, this research is mainly focused on implementing virtual tours to cope with the new norms; and evaluates its implication specifically in showcasing art exhibitions. The researcher uses the concept of Google Street View to capture virtual spaces; combining with Pano2Vr software as constructing tools; for audiences to interact and discusses its usefulness based on their ease of accessibility. Through the usage of this software, the researcher was able to reconstruct the actual gallery into series of interconnected images that trajectories within a web hosting server which are accessible over various platforms. The researcher purposely uses 360 panoramic images to maintain the ingenuity and actuality of the exhibition surroundings; due to most audiences are more complacent to the practicality compared to 3D digital replication. The advantages and disadvantages of this particular application of Virtual Tours (VTs) are then assessed through data collected based on the accessed devices, accessed locations, and total participation to see whether this concept can be used as a new alternative tool in showcasing art exhibitions in the effort of avoiding the pandemic widespread while still keeping the art activity at a sensible pace.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arana-Catania, Miguel; Kochkina, Elena; Zubiaga, Arkaitz; Liakata, Maria; Procter, Rob; He, Yulan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | Learning from COVID-19: A... (EP/V048597/1)

    The peer-reviewed publication for this dataset has been presented in the 2022 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL), and can be accessed here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.02596. Please cite this when using the dataset. This dataset contains a heterogeneous set of True and False COVID claims and online sources of information for each claim. The claims have been obtained from online fact-checking sources, existing datasets and research challenges. It combines different data sources with different foci, thus enabling a comprehensive approach that combines different media (Twitter, Facebook, general websites, academia), information domains (health, scholar, media), information types (news, claims) and applications (information retrieval, veracity evaluation). The processing of the claims included an extensive de-duplication process eliminating repeated or very similar claims. The dataset is presented in a LARGE and a SMALL version, accounting for different degrees of similarity between the remaining claims (excluding respectively claims with a 90% and 99% probability of being similar, as obtained through the MonoT5 model). The similarity of claims was analysed using BM25 (Robertson et al., 1995; Crestani et al., 1998; Robertson and Zaragoza, 2009) with MonoT5 re-ranking (Nogueira et al., 2020), and BERTScore (Zhang et al., 2019). The processing of the content also involved removing claims making only a direct reference to existing content in other media (audio, video, photos); automatically obtained content not representing claims; and entries with claims or fact-checking sources in languages other than English. The claims were analysed to identify types of claims that may be of particular interest, either for inclusion or exclusion depending on the type of analysis. The following types were identified: (1) Multimodal; (2) Social media references; (3) Claims including questions; (4) Claims including numerical content; (5) Named entities, including: PERSON − People, including fictional; ORGANIZATION − Companies, agencies, institutions, etc.; GPE − Countries, cities, states; FACILITY − Buildings, highways, etc. These entities have been detected using a RoBERTa base English model (Liu et al., 2019) trained on the OntoNotes Release 5.0 dataset (Weischedel et al., 2013) using Spacy. The original labels for the claims have been reviewed and homogenised from the different criteria used by each original fact-checker into the final True and False labels. The data sources used are: - The CoronaVirusFacts/DatosCoronaVirus Alliance Database. https://www.poynter.org/ifcn-covid-19-misinformation/ - CoAID dataset (Cui and Lee, 2020) https://github.com/cuilimeng/CoAID - MM-COVID (Li et al., 2020) https://github.com/bigheiniu/MM-COVID - CovidLies (Hossain et al., 2020) https://github.com/ucinlp/covid19-data - TREC Health Misinformation track https://trec-health-misinfo.github.io/ - TREC COVID challenge (Voorhees et al., 2021; Roberts et al., 2020) https://ir.nist.gov/covidSubmit/data.html The LARGE dataset contains 5,143 claims (1,810 False and 3,333 True), and the SMALL version 1,709 claims (477 False and 1,232 True). The entries in the dataset contain the following information: - Claim. Text of the claim. - Claim label. The labels are: False, and True. - Claim source. The sources include mostly fact-checking websites, health information websites, health clinics, public institutions sites, and peer-reviewed scientific journals. - Original information source. Information about which general information source was used to obtain the claim. - Claim type. The different types, previously explained, are: Multimodal, Social Media, Questions, Numerical, and Named Entities. Funding. This work was supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant no. EP/V048597/1, EP/T017112/1). ML and YH are supported by Turing AI Fellowships funded by the UK Research and Innovation (grant no. EP/V030302/1, EP/V020579/1). References - Arana-Catania M., Kochkina E., Zubiaga A., Liakata M., Procter R., He Y.. Natural Language Inference with Self-Attention for Veracity Assessment of Pandemic Claims. NAACL 2022 https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.02596 - Stephen E Robertson, Steve Walker, Susan Jones, Micheline M Hancock-Beaulieu, Mike Gatford, et al. 1995. Okapi at trec-3. Nist Special Publication Sp,109:109. - Fabio Crestani, Mounia Lalmas, Cornelis J Van Rijsbergen, and Iain Campbell. 1998. “is this document relevant?. . . probably” a survey of probabilistic models in information retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 30(4):528–552. - Stephen Robertson and Hugo Zaragoza. 2009. The probabilistic relevance framework: BM25 and beyond. Now Publishers Inc. - Rodrigo Nogueira, Zhiying Jiang, Ronak Pradeep, and Jimmy Lin. 2020. Document ranking with a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model. In Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Findings, pages 708–718. - Tianyi Zhang, Varsha Kishore, Felix Wu, Kilian Q Weinberger, and Yoav Artzi. 2019. Bertscore: Evaluating text generation with bert. In International Conference on Learning Representations. - Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, and Veselin Stoyanov. 2019. Roberta: A robustly optimized bert pretraining approach. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.11692. - Ralph Weischedel, Martha Palmer, Mitchell Marcus, Eduard Hovy, Sameer Pradhan, Lance Ramshaw, Nianwen Xue, Ann Taylor, Jeff Kaufman, Michelle Franchini, et al. 2013. Ontonotes release 5.0 ldc2013t19. Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia, PA, 23. - Limeng Cui and Dongwon Lee. 2020. Coaid: Covid-19 healthcare misinformation dataset. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.00885. - Yichuan Li, Bohan Jiang, Kai Shu, and Huan Liu. 2020. Mm-covid: A multilingual and multimodal data repository for combating covid-19 disinformation. - Tamanna Hossain, Robert L. Logan IV, Arjuna Ugarte, Yoshitomo Matsubara, Sean Young, and Sameer Singh. 2020. COVIDLies: Detecting COVID-19 misinformation on social media. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics. - Ellen Voorhees, Tasmeer Alam, Steven Bedrick, Dina Demner-Fushman, William R Hersh, Kyle Lo, Kirk Roberts, Ian Soboroff, and Lucy Lu Wang. 2021. Trec-covid: constructing a pandemic information retrieval test collection. In ACM SIGIR Forum, volume 54, pages 1–12. ACM New York, NY, USA.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ms. Jeyarani Milton; Dr. Godwin John;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    {"references": ["[1]\tViner, R., Russell, S., Croker, H., Packer, J., Ward, J., Stansfield, C., Mytton, O., Bonell, C., & Booy, R. (2020). School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: A rapid systematic review. The Lancet Child https://doi.org/10.1016/s2352-4642(20)30095-x & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 397-404.", "[2]\tLokanath, M., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1(2020), 100012. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012", "[3]\tMuthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, S., Aditya, K. S., & Jha, G. K. (2021). Students' perception and preference for online education in India during COVID-19 pandemic. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 100101. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100101 Pappas, C. (2021).", "[4]\tFree educational technology for teachers. Retrieved 6 April 2021 from https://elearningindustry.com/321-free-tools-for-teachers-free-educational-technology Paudel, P. (2021). Online education: Benefits, challenges and strategies during and after COVID-19 in higher education. International Journal https://doi.org/10.46328/ijonse.32 on Studies in Education, 3(2), 70-85.", "[5]\tDannenbring, G. L. (1984). System response time and user performance. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-14 (3), 473-478.", "[6]\tDoherty, W. J., & Kelisky, R. P. (1979). Managing VM/CMS systems for user effectiveness. IBM Systems Journal 18, No. 1, 143-163.", "[7]\tGoodman, T. J., & Spence, R. (1978). The effect of system response time on interactive computer-aided problem solving. Proceedings of Siggraph'78 Conference . Association for computing Machinery, New York .", "[8]\tLightner, N. J., Bose, I. , & Salvendy, G. (1996). What is wrong with the World-Wide Web?: A diagnosis of some problems and prescription of some remedies. Ergonomics, 39(8), 995-1004.", "[9]\tMartin, G. L., & Corl, K. G. (1986). System response time effects on user productivity. Behavior and Information Technology, 5 (1), 3-13.", "[10]\tMorfield, M. A., Wlesen, R. A., Grossberg, M., & Yntema, D. B. (1969). Initial experiments on the effects of system delay on on-line problem solving . Lincoln Laboratory Tech. ED031961", "[11]\tMoore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. Belmont : Wadsworth Publishing Company.", "[12]\tThadhani, A. J. (1981). Interactive user productivity. IBM Systems Journal, 20 (4), 407-423.", "[13]\tLazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (Eds.) (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping . New York : Springer-Verlag.", "[14]\tDennis, A. R., & Kinney, S. T. (1998). Testing media richness theory in the new media: the effects of cues, feedback, and task equivocality. Information Systems Research, 9 (3), 256-274", "[15]\tNewman, H. (2001). Survey shows high speed Internet connection as vital as coffee. Detroit Free Press (MI).", "[16]\tNielsen, J. (2000). Designing Web Usability . New Riders, Indianapolis .", "[17]\tRappoport, P. N., Kridel, D. J., & Taylor, L. D. (2002). Alternative approaches to analysis and modeling of residential broadband demand. In Robert Crandall, editor, Broadband Communication: Overcoming the Barriers. Brookings Institution, Washington , DC .", "[18]\tBerchtold, J., Dengler, V. V., Johnson, B. M., & Prakash, S. (2001). What do broadband consumers want? McKinsey Quarterly , 4.", "[19]\tTelecom Review (2020). The evolution of Oman's telecom industry. Retrieved from https://www.telecomreview. com/index.php/articles/reports-and-coverage/3795-the-evolution-of-oman-s-telecom-industry?tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=", "[20]\tGlobalData (2021). Oman Telecom Operators Country Intelligence Report Retrieved from https://www.market research.com/GlobalData-v3648/Oman-Telecom-Operators-Country-Intelligence-14344863/"]} Abstract: Online education, proven very efficient in the recent years, has two main components, namely Online learning, and Online teaching, which, in order to be successful to the optimum level, require appropriate resources. The root source playing a vital role in online education is none other than Information Technology, having rapidly developed over the years with number of applications such as google class, WhatsApp, zoom, MS Teams and other information media, helping us lecturers to stay in touch with the students (Viner et al., 2020). It is obvious that Computer Hardware Configuration, Computer Operating System, Internet Browser, Software Applications, Internet connection and Internet speed take leading roles in online learning and teaching. At University, robust wired and wireless networks are available almost anywhere and computer labs have specialized software required for the students’ majors. But when the students moving off from the traditional way of learning to online learning remotely appeared challenging as the access to technologies dropped significantly, especially for the ICT classes. To access the success of online learning based on available technological resources, this study evaluated the (i) student’s internet connection capability, (ii) the availability of learning devices and software, and (iii) the student’s interest in online learning because of various online activities provided. Data is collected using a cross-sectional research methodology, mainly the online record survey method. Keywords: Online Learning, Bandwidth, Learning Devices, A’Sharqiyah University, Oman. Title: A study on availability of technological resources for Online Learning during the pandemic period, A’Sharqiyah University, Oman Author: Ms. Jeyarani Milton, Dr. Godwin John International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning ISSN 2394-9686 Vol. 9, Issue 4, July 2022 - August 2022 Page No: 10-17 Novelty Journals Website: www.noveltyjournals.com Published Date: 07-July-2022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6806382 International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, ISSN 2394-9686, Novelty Journals, Website: www.noveltyjournals.com

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ovi, Dewan Alif; Reza, Tanvir;
    Publisher: Mr. Arvind Sharma

    ABSTRACT Custodial death is the most ominous indicator in our country's capture, detention, and remand. It has now become all the rage across the country. Deaths in police custody usually generate a great deal of public attention and are frequently coupled with causality disputes. Accused individuals frequently come into encounter with the criminal justice system, with those suffering from mental illnesses over-represented in police custody. As a result, identifying vulnerability is critical in order to guarantee that proper precautions may be put in place. This research is helping to show that to prevent such a curse from afflicting society, the country has some existing legislation, directions, guidelines, and precedents that are constantly derived from court decisions of other nations. The judicial system in Bangladesh is no exception. In context of this, the research examined, with the goal of emphasizing on judicial reforms, applicable legislation and their implementation, national legislative framework, and court precedents on the banning of inhumane custodial torture, including arrest, custody, and remand by police. Finding of the research particularly concentrate upon irregularities of provision to safeguarding accused right in the jail. The lack of sanitation, healthcare, standard food quality also found as errors of concern authorities. Beside these normal and natural death also counted as death in custody but not due to torture by police. The political believes and support nurture by police is also one of the key reasons to increasing torture and deaths. To solve these problems state should amend existing provision which is contradictory related to custodial torture, Increase the circumference of Human Rights Commission and give them power to investigate these properly and follow the guidelines given by courts. This research demonstrated a real-life scenario of custodial torture and critically analyzed national mechanisms that directly contradict custodial deaths and brutal punishment. {"references": ["'Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability' (2022) IV Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research", "Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability. (2022), IV(III), 1266-1287", "Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 2022. Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability. IV(III), pp.1266-1287", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability.\". IV, no. III, 2022, pp. 1266-1287", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\" (2022) IV(III)", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\". Indian Journal Of Law And Legal Research no. (2022): 1266-1287. doi:https://doi-ds.org/doilink/06.2022-37714716/IJLLR/V4/I3/A90.", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\", (2022) IV Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research 1266-1287."]}

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  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Fighting terrorism is a complex task, not limited to military options. It also concerns State-building, nationalism and inclusive sustainable development. The roots of underlying conflicts were already laid during colonialism, the slave trade, plundering of resources and arbitrary border establishment. The battle cannot be won by occupation nor by internal efforts of the countries affected alone, particularly not when terrorist enjoy secret support from parts of the army and the country's political elite. There are outside sources fomenting violent conflict by close cooperation between transnational crime and terrorist networks. Money laundering and financing of terrorism in global financial systems are part and parcel of the problem. Also many activists and combatants are not just driven by religious fanaticism and ideological zeal. Revenge, mere survival and local strives between conflicting groups often play a decisive role too. Ill- and ungoverned spaces favour warlordism, both of radical jihadist and non-religious terrorist movements, driven by localism and informal networks. The military response of some governments and security services degenerated into inadequate state counterterrorism with no regard for local populations. It resulted in challenges for the rule of law and human rights in these countries. Although trans-national military counterinsurgency among ECOWAS governments improved, it remained hampered by the divide between Anglophone and Francophone countries and the vested interest of former colonial rulers France and Great Britain. By now, terrorists also effectively use cyberspace and social media to create fear and spread their violent ideologies. The interactions between crime and terror in West Africa will continue in the foreseeable future. It may even increase, considering the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and famines caused by failing cereal imports as result of the Russian war in Ukraine. The effects on the social structure are considerable, including the population's dwindling trust in the state administration and the villagers' willingness to side with the terrorists. The fight of terrorism demands viable long-term solutions that take into account the linkages between counterterrorism, the rule of law and human rights and socio-economic development. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RÉSUMÉ : [Sources extérieures des menaces terroristes en Afrique de l'Ouest] - La lutte contre le terrorisme est une tâche complexe, qui ne se limite pas aux options militaires. Il concerne également l'édification de l'État, le nationalisme et le développement durable inclusif. Les racines des conflits sous-jacents étaient déjà posées pendant le colonialisme, la traite des esclaves, le pillage des ressources et l'établissement arbitraire des frontières. La bataille ne peut être gagnée par l'occupation ni par les seuls efforts internes des pays touchés, en particulier lorsque les terroristes bénéficient du soutien secret de certaines parties de l'armée et de l'élite politique du pays. Il existe des sources extérieures fomentant des conflits violents par une coopération étroite entre la criminalité transnationale et les réseaux terroristes. Le blanchiment d'argent et le financement du terrorisme dans les systèmes financiers mondiaux font partie intégrante du problème. De plus, de nombreux militants et combattants ne sont pas seulement motivés par le fanatisme religieux et le zèle idéologique. La vengeance, la simple survie et les luttes locales entre des groupes en conflit jouent souvent aussi un rôle décisif. Les espaces mal gouvernés et non gouvernés favorisent le seigneur de la guerre, à la fois des mouvements terroristes djihadistes radicaux et non-religieux, animés par le localisme et les réseaux informels. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en un contre-terrorisme étatique inadéquat sans égard pour les populations locales. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en contre-terrorisme de l'État au détriment de la population locale. Cela a entraîné des défis pour l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme dans ces pays. Bien que la contre-insurrection militaire transnationale parmi les gouvernements de la CEDEAO se soit améliorée, elle est restée entravée par le fossé entre les pays anglophones et francophones et l'intérêt égoïste des anciens dirigeants coloniaux, la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Pendant ce temps, les terroristes utilisent également efficacement le cyberespace et les médias sociaux pour créer la peur et répandre leurs idéologies violentes. Les interactions entre le crime et le terrorisme en Afrique de l'Ouest se poursuivront dans un avenir prévisible. Il pourrait même augmenter, compte tenu des effets dévastateurs de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des famines causées par l'échec des importations de céréales à la suite de la guerre russe en Ukraine. Les effets sur la structure sociale sont considérables, notamment la perte de confiance de la population dans l'administration de l'État et la volonté des villageois de se ranger du côté des terroristes. La lutte contre le terrorisme exige des solutions viables à long terme qui tiennent compte des liens entre la lutte contre le terrorisme, l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme et le développement socioéconomique. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : [Externe Quellen terroristischer Bedrohungen in Westafrika] - . Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus ist eine komplexe Aufgabe, die nicht auf militärische Optionen beschränkt ist. Er betrifft auch den Staatsaufbau, Nationalismus und inklusive nachhaltige Entwicklung. Die Wurzeln der zugrunde liegenden Konflikte wurden bereits während des Kolonialismus, des Sklavenhandels, der Plünderung von Ressourcen und der willkürlichen Grenzziehung in Afrika gelegt. Der Kampf kann weder durch Besatzung noch durch interne Bemühungen der betroffenen Länder allein gewonnen werden, insbesondere dann nicht, wenn Terroristen heimliche Unterstützung von Teilen der Armee und der politischen Elite des Landes genießen. Es gibt externe Quellen, die durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen transnationaler Kriminalität und terroristischen Netzwerken gewalttätige Konflikte schüren. Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung in globalen Finanzsystemen sind Teil des Problems. Auch viele Aktivisten und Kämpfer werden nicht nur von religiösem Fanatismus und ideologischem Eifer getrieben. Auch Rache, bloßes Überleben und lokale Kämpfe zwischen verfeindeten Gruppen spielen oft eine entscheidende Rolle. Schlecht verwaltete und unregierbare Räume begünstigen Warlords, sowohl in radikalen dschihadistischen als auch in nicht-religiösen terroristischen Bewegungen, die von lokalen Konflikten und informellen Netzwerken angetrieben werden. Die militärische Reaktion einiger Regierungen und Sicherheitsdienste degenerierte zu unangemessener staatlicher Terrorismusbekämpfung ohne Rücksicht auf die lokale Bevölkerung. Dies führte zu Herausforderungen für die Rechtsstaatlichkeit und die Menschenrechte in diesen Ländern. Obwohl sich die transnationale militärische Aufstandsbekämpfung unter den ECOWAS-Regierungen verbesserte, wurde sie immer noch durch die Kluft zwischen anglophonen und frankophonen Ländern und eigennützigen Interessen der ehemaligen Kolonialherren Frankreich und Großbritannien behindert. Inzwischen nutzen Terroristen auch effektiv den Cyberspace und soziale Medien, um Angst zu erzeugen und ihre gewalttätigen Ideologien zu verbreiten. Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kriminalität und Terror in Westafrika werden in absehbarer Zeit fortbestehen. Angesichts der verheerenden Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie und der Hungersnöte, die durch fehlende Getreideimporte infolge des russischen Krieges in der Ukraine verursacht wurden, könnten sie sogar noch zunehmen. Die Auswirkungen auf die Sozialstruktur sind erheblich, darunter das schwindende Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die staatliche Verwaltung und die Bereitschaft der Dorfbewohner, sich auf die Seite der Terroristen zu stellen. Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus erfordert tragfähige langfristige Lösungen, die die Verbindungen zwischen Terrorismusbekämpfung, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Menschenrechten sowie sozioökonomischer Entwicklung berücksichtigen.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    O'Toole, Karen;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ARIADNEplus (823914)

    The FAIR Principles are the foundation of data management for present-day researchers in any discipline. However, the application of these principles is relatively new and as archaeologists we often rely on data created prior to their implementation. Reusing such data poses a number of obstacles that can be time-consuming and difficult to tackle. However, particularly in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the reuse of data has come to the forefront as an approach researchers can use to mitigate or substitute for data that is inaccessible either temporarily or permanently. While challenges such as the interoperability, standardisation and original purpose of such data continue to exist, the opportunities presented to us by the reuse of data are becoming increasingly clear. Using the construction of an Irish bog butter database as a case study, this presentation will explore why I chose to reuse data; the challenges associated with this; and the opportunities this has presented. It will also look at how applying modern techniques to old data can create new knowledge and revolutionise our understanding of previously poorly understood phenomena – how we can make old data new again.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Trung Hung Vo; Thi Le Thuyen Phan; Khanh Chi Ninh;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    With the development of the Internet, social networks and different communication channels, people can get information quickly and easily. However, in addition to real and useful news, we also receive false and unreal information. The problem of fake news has become a difficult and unresolved issue. For languages with few users, such as Vietnamese, the research on fake news detection is still very limited and has not received much attention. In this paper, we present research results on building a tool to support fake news detection for Vietnamese. Our idea is to apply text classification techniques to fake news detection. We have built a database of 4 groups of 2 topics about politics (fake news and real news) and about Covid-19 (fake news and real news). Then use deep learning techniques CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) to create the corresponding models. When there is new news that needs to be verified, we just need to apply the classification to see which of the four groups they label into to decide whether it is fake news or not. The tool was able to detect fake news quickly and easily with a correct rate of about 85 %. This result will be improved when getting a larger training data set and adjusting the parameters for the machine learning model. These results make an important contribution to the research on detecting fake news for Vietnamese and can be applied to other languages. In the future, besides using classification techniques (based on content analysis), we can combine many other methods such as checking the source, verifying the author's information, checking the distribution process to improve the quality of fake news detection.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Richards, Julian;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ARIADNEplus (823914)

    This Deliverable D2.5 reports the work done in Tasks 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6, and follows on from the interim report at Month 36 (D2.4). Work done under Task 2.2 has been reported in D2.3. The overall objective of WP2 is to “Extend and Support the ARIADNE community”. This has been achieved partly through online meetings, training events and conferences, social media, and promotional materials. There has also been a focus on engaging with new partners to bring them to the same level of awareness as those who participated in the previous project, and a particular aim to extend our coverage in central and south-eastern Europe. We have also worked with major associations and international bodies, such as the European Archaeological Council (EAC) and European Association of Archaeologists (EAA), to help promote a FAIR approach to archaeological data, and to inform strategic policy making. We have tried to target archaeological professionals and heritage managers, who may be less aware of ARIADNE than those working in academic and research institutions. In addition, we have worked closely with our international partners to extend the reach of ARIADNEplus beyond Europe. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of face-to-face networking opportunities between M18 and M36; nearly all meetings had to be held online but this did not lead to any major deviations from the workplan. Face-to-face events resumed from summer 2022, with a major ARIADNEplus presence at the 2022 EAA and CHNT conferences. Since our interim report at M36, the ARIADNEplus portal has allowed us to demonstrate the benefits of data aggregation according to the enhanced AO-Cat data model, and this activity intensified during the final work period. We have extended the ARIADNE community by creating a category of Associate partners. This has been hugely successful, with 17 organisations joining the consortium, in a self-funding capacity, but amounting to over 24 person months of discretionary effort. This has allowed us to provide integrated access to several additional internationally important datasets. Other organisations, such as the British Museum, have not joined as formal Associate partners, but have invested time and staff resource in working with an ARIADNE partner to provide access to their own data. Several of the European schools abroad, including French and British schools based in Athens and Ankara, have been keen to participate. Our emphasis on south-eastern Europe has attracted associate partners in countries such as North Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia and the Slovak Republic, where there has been little previous tradition of open access to research data in archaeology and heritage. In conclusion, within the project lifetime ARIADNE has become established as a major component of the European e-infrastructure. It is certainly the largest research data aggregator within the Arts and Humanities, and a significant player across all disciplines. This leaves us with confidence for the future sustainability, and in the last few months of the current funded project we are exploring the best options to maintain the community we have established.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonid M. Grigoryev; Ekaterina A. Kheifets;
    Publisher: Non-profit partnership "Voprosy Ekonomiki"

    In 2020 the energy transition path was distorted by the COVID-19 pandemic which caused a sharp economic decline and a fast global recovery in 2021. Unlike that period, the years between 2001 and 2019 illustrated a different type of energy evolution for developed and developing countries regarding primary energy consumption. During this period the composition of energy balances of these two major groups demonstrated dramatic disparity, notably marked by the high share of coal in developing countries. The shock of 2020 led to a belief in expediting the transition to green energy, but in 2021 the economic recovery revived demand for oil and coal, dashing hopes for the growing renewable energy sources sector in the European Union that year. The return of coal, however, to the EU energy sector and stable demand for motor fuel globally led to the restoration of the GHG emission growth against the backdrop of the climate policy implementation failure. The current energy transition is denoted by features such as the flat oil demand in developed countries, the flat global demand for motor gasoline and the growing demand for diesel. The econometrics of demand for two motor oil products are quite opposite. For gasoline we have almost all hypotheses met: the negative influence of climate policy and oil prices, strong effect of dummies for shock of 2020 and 2021, and naturally 0.3 coefficient at GDP growth rate. Nevertheless, for diesel everything is exactly the opposite — only 0,4 coefficient at GDP and practically nothing else. This effect shows the strong role and trend for cargo use of diesel fueled trucks in the global economy. The high income of oil and gas majors in 2021 did not secure the investment upturn. A mature oil industry receives substantial profits for its investors, supplying dividends, and buying back debts without enlarging production capacities. At this point climate policy expectations of phasing out fossil fuels in the foreseeable future operated as a braking mechanism against reinvesting oil incomes. Moreover, at this junction we can observe governments’ limited capacity to pursue policies toward multiple objectives simultaneously: modest energy prices, energy transition and securing the sufficient capital formation for energy. The continued fusion of the economic upturn and energy transition will be dependent on demand and supply matching in the oil markets. It is also possible that the sanctions policies of 2022 may aggravate the situation, triggering high prices and uncertainties.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gatherer, Derek;
    Publisher: Dryad

    The data file is a spreadsheet used to record queries made via CQPweb (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk). Search Terms For clarity, in the ensuing descriptions, we use bold font for search terms and italic font for collocates and other quotations. Based on clinical descriptions of COVID-19 (reviewed by Cevik et al., 2020), we identified the following search terms: 1) “cough”, 2) “fever”, 3) “pneumonia”. To avoid confusion with years when influenza pandemics may have occurred, we added 4) “influenza” and 5) “epidemic”. Any combination of terms 1 to 3 co-occurring with term 4 alone or terms 4 and 5 together, would be indicative of a respiratory outbreak caused by, or at the least attributed to, influenza. By contrast, any combination of terms 1 to 3 co-occurring with term 5 alone, or without either of terms 4 and 5, would suggest a respiratory disease that was not confidently identified as influenza at the time. This outbreak would provide a candidate coronavirus epidemic for further investigation. Newspapers Newspapers and years searched were as follows: Belfast Newsletter (1828-1900), The Era (1838-1900), Glasgow Herald (1820-1900), Hampshire & Portsmouth Telegraph (1799-1900), Ipswich Journal (1800-1900), Liverpool Mercury (1811-1900), Northern Echo (1870-1900) Pall Mall Gazette (1865-1900), Reynold’s Daily (1850-1900), Western Mail (1869-1900) and The Times (1785-2009). The search in The Times was extended to 2009 in order to provide a comparison with the 20th century. Searches were performed using Lancaster University’s instance of the CQPweb (Corpus Query Processor) corpus analysis software (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk/; Hardie, 2012). CQPweb’s database is populated from the newspapers listed, using optical character recognition (OCR), so for older publications in particular, some errors may be present (McEnery et al., 2019). Statistics The occurrence of each of the five search terms was calculated per million words within the annual output of each publication, in CQPweb. This is compared to a background distribution constituting the corresponding words per million for each search term over the total year range for each newspaper. Within the annual distributions, for each search term and each newspaper, we determined the years lying in the top 1% (i.e. p<0.05 after application of a Bonferroni correction), following Gabrielatos et al. (2012). These are deemed to be years when that search term was in statistically significant usage above its background level for the newspaper in which it occurs. For years when search terms were significantly elevated, we also calculated collocates at range n. Collocates, in corpus linguistics, are other words found at statistically significant usage, over their own background levels, in a window from n positions to the left to n positions to the right of the search term. In other words, they are found in significant proximity to the search term. A default value of n=10 was used throughout, unless specified. Collocation analysis therefore assists in showing how a search term associates with other words within a corpus, providing information about the context in which that search term is used. CQPweb provides a log ratio method for the quantification of the strength of collocation. COVID-19 is the first known coronavirus pandemic. Nevertheless, the seasonal circulation of the four milder coronaviruses of humans – OC43, NL63, 229E and HKU1 – raises the possibility that these viruses are the descendants of more ancient coronavirus pandemics. This proposal arises by analogy to the observed descent of seasonal influenza subtypes H2N2 (now extinct), H3N2 and H1H1 from the pandemic strains of 1957, 1968 and 2009, respectively. Recent historical revisionist speculation has focussed on the influenza pandemic of 1889-1892, based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions that show the emergence of human coronavirus OC43 around that time, probably by zoonosis from cattle. If the “Russian influenza”, as The Times named it in early 1890, was not influenza but caused by a coronavirus, the origins of the other three milder human coronaviruses may also have left a residue of clinical evidence in the 19th century medical literature and popular press. In this paper, we search digitised 19th century British newspapers for evidence of previously unsuspected coronavirus pandemics. We conclude that there is little or no corpus linguistic signal in the UK national press for large-scale outbreaks of unidentified respiratory disease for the period 1785 to 1890. To view data, open in Microsoft Excel. To reproduce the data from scratch, a login is needed to CQPweb (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk). This is free of charge but requires authorization, which can be applied for at the URL given.

  • Open Access English

    Covid-19 has sojourned the world as we know then into a cessation. It affects various disciplinary fields to a standstill which includes art and tourism. In Malaysia, to adapt to the global pandemic; new opportunities have emerged and dealt with it no longer becomes optional but rather a solution. Therefore, this research is mainly focused on implementing virtual tours to cope with the new norms; and evaluates its implication specifically in showcasing art exhibitions. The researcher uses the concept of Google Street View to capture virtual spaces; combining with Pano2Vr software as constructing tools; for audiences to interact and discusses its usefulness based on their ease of accessibility. Through the usage of this software, the researcher was able to reconstruct the actual gallery into series of interconnected images that trajectories within a web hosting server which are accessible over various platforms. The researcher purposely uses 360 panoramic images to maintain the ingenuity and actuality of the exhibition surroundings; due to most audiences are more complacent to the practicality compared to 3D digital replication. The advantages and disadvantages of this particular application of Virtual Tours (VTs) are then assessed through data collected based on the accessed devices, accessed locations, and total participation to see whether this concept can be used as a new alternative tool in showcasing art exhibitions in the effort of avoiding the pandemic widespread while still keeping the art activity at a sensible pace.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arana-Catania, Miguel; Kochkina, Elena; Zubiaga, Arkaitz; Liakata, Maria; Procter, Rob; He, Yulan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | Learning from COVID-19: A... (EP/V048597/1)

    The peer-reviewed publication for this dataset has been presented in the 2022 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL), and can be accessed here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.02596. Please cite this when using the dataset. This dataset contains a heterogeneous set of True and False COVID claims and online sources of information for each claim. The claims have been obtained from online fact-checking sources, existing datasets and research challenges. It combines different data sources with different foci, thus enabling a comprehensive approach that combines different media (Twitter, Facebook, general websites, academia), information domains (health, scholar, media), information types (news, claims) and applications (information retrieval, veracity evaluation). The processing of the claims included an extensive de-duplication process eliminating repeated or very similar claims. The dataset is presented in a LARGE and a SMALL version, accounting for different degrees of similarity between the remaining claims (excluding respectively claims with a 90% and 99% probability of being similar, as obtained through the MonoT5 model). The similarity of claims was analysed using BM25 (Robertson et al., 1995; Crestani et al., 1998; Robertson and Zaragoza, 2009) with MonoT5 re-ranking (Nogueira et al., 2020), and BERTScore (Zhang et al., 2019). The processing of the content also involved removing claims making only a direct reference to existing content in other media (audio, video, photos); automatically obtained content not representing claims; and entries with claims or fact-checking sources in languages other than English. The claims were analysed to identify types of claims that may be of particular interest, either for inclusion or exclusion depending on the type of analysis. The following types were identified: (1) Multimodal; (2) Social media references; (3) Claims including questions; (4) Claims including numerical content; (5) Named entities, including: PERSON − People, including fictional; ORGANIZATION − Companies, agencies, institutions, etc.; GPE − Countries, cities, states; FACILITY − Buildings, highways, etc. These entities have been detected using a RoBERTa base English model (Liu et al., 2019) trained on the OntoNotes Release 5.0 dataset (Weischedel et al., 2013) using Spacy. The original labels for the claims have been reviewed and homogenised from the different criteria used by each original fact-checker into the final True and False labels. The data sources used are: - The CoronaVirusFacts/DatosCoronaVirus Alliance Database. https://www.poynter.org/ifcn-covid-19-misinformation/ - CoAID dataset (Cui and Lee, 2020) https://github.com/cuilimeng/CoAID - MM-COVID (Li et al., 2020) https://github.com/bigheiniu/MM-COVID - CovidLies (Hossain et al., 2020) https://github.com/ucinlp/covid19-data - TREC Health Misinformation track https://trec-health-misinfo.github.io/ - TREC COVID challenge (Voorhees et al., 2021; Roberts et al., 2020) https://ir.nist.gov/covidSubmit/data.html The LARGE dataset contains 5,143 claims (1,810 False and 3,333 True), and the SMALL version 1,709 claims (477 False and 1,232 True). The entries in the dataset contain the following information: - Claim. Text of the claim. - Claim label. The labels are: False, and True. - Claim source. The sources include mostly fact-checking websites, health information websites, health clinics, public institutions sites, and peer-reviewed scientific journals. - Original information source. Information about which general information source was used to obtain the claim. - Claim type. The different types, previously explained, are: Multimodal, Social Media, Questions, Numerical, and Named Entities. Funding. This work was supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant no. EP/V048597/1, EP/T017112/1). ML and YH are supported by Turing AI Fellowships funded by the UK Research and Innovation (grant no. EP/V030302/1, EP/V020579/1). References - Arana-Catania M., Kochkina E., Zubiaga A., Liakata M., Procter R., He Y.. Natural Language Inference with Self-Attention for Veracity Assessment of Pandemic Claims. NAACL 2022 https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.02596 - Stephen E Robertson, Steve Walker, Susan Jones, Micheline M Hancock-Beaulieu, Mike Gatford, et al. 1995. Okapi at trec-3. Nist Special Publication Sp,109:109. - Fabio Crestani, Mounia Lalmas, Cornelis J Van Rijsbergen, and Iain Campbell. 1998. “is this document relevant?. . . probably” a survey of probabilistic models in information retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 30(4):528–552. - Stephen Robertson and Hugo Zaragoza. 2009. The probabilistic relevance framework: BM25 and beyond. Now Publishers Inc. - Rodrigo Nogueira, Zhiying Jiang, Ronak Pradeep, and Jimmy Lin. 2020. Document ranking with a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model. In Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Findings, pages 708–718. - Tianyi Zhang, Varsha Kishore, Felix Wu, Kilian Q Weinberger, and Yoav Artzi. 2019. Bertscore: Evaluating text generation with bert. In International Conference on Learning Representations. - Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, and Veselin Stoyanov. 2019. Roberta: A robustly optimized bert pretraining approach. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.11692. - Ralph Weischedel, Martha Palmer, Mitchell Marcus, Eduard Hovy, Sameer Pradhan, Lance Ramshaw, Nianwen Xue, Ann Taylor, Jeff Kaufman, Michelle Franchini, et al. 2013. Ontonotes release 5.0 ldc2013t19. Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia, PA, 23. - Limeng Cui and Dongwon Lee. 2020. Coaid: Covid-19 healthcare misinformation dataset. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.00885. - Yichuan Li, Bohan Jiang, Kai Shu, and Huan Liu. 2020. Mm-covid: A multilingual and multimodal data repository for combating covid-19 disinformation. - Tamanna Hossain, Robert L. Logan IV, Arjuna Ugarte, Yoshitomo Matsubara, Sean Young, and Sameer Singh. 2020. COVIDLies: Detecting COVID-19 misinformation on social media. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics. - Ellen Voorhees, Tasmeer Alam, Steven Bedrick, Dina Demner-Fushman, William R Hersh, Kyle Lo, Kirk Roberts, Ian Soboroff, and Lucy Lu Wang. 2021. Trec-covid: constructing a pandemic information retrieval test collection. In ACM SIGIR Forum, volume 54, pages 1–12. ACM New York, NY, USA.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ms. Jeyarani Milton; Dr. Godwin John;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    {"references": ["[1]\tViner, R., Russell, S., Croker, H., Packer, J., Ward, J., Stansfield, C., Mytton, O., Bonell, C., & Booy, R. (2020). School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: A rapid systematic review. The Lancet Child https://doi.org/10.1016/s2352-4642(20)30095-x & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 397-404.", "[2]\tLokanath, M., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1(2020), 100012. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012", "[3]\tMuthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, S., Aditya, K. S., & Jha, G. K. (2021). Students' perception and preference for online education in India during COVID-19 pandemic. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 100101. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100101 Pappas, C. (2021).", "[4]\tFree educational technology for teachers. Retrieved 6 April 2021 from https://elearningindustry.com/321-free-tools-for-teachers-free-educational-technology Paudel, P. (2021). Online education: Benefits, challenges and strategies during and after COVID-19 in higher education. International Journal https://doi.org/10.46328/ijonse.32 on Studies in Education, 3(2), 70-85.", "[5]\tDannenbring, G. L. (1984). System response time and user performance. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-14 (3), 473-478.", "[6]\tDoherty, W. J., & Kelisky, R. P. (1979). Managing VM/CMS systems for user effectiveness. IBM Systems Journal 18, No. 1, 143-163.", "[7]\tGoodman, T. J., & Spence, R. (1978). The effect of system response time on interactive computer-aided problem solving. Proceedings of Siggraph'78 Conference . Association for computing Machinery, New York .", "[8]\tLightner, N. J., Bose, I. , & Salvendy, G. (1996). What is wrong with the World-Wide Web?: A diagnosis of some problems and prescription of some remedies. Ergonomics, 39(8), 995-1004.", "[9]\tMartin, G. L., & Corl, K. G. (1986). System response time effects on user productivity. Behavior and Information Technology, 5 (1), 3-13.", "[10]\tMorfield, M. A., Wlesen, R. A., Grossberg, M., & Yntema, D. B. (1969). Initial experiments on the effects of system delay on on-line problem solving . Lincoln Laboratory Tech. ED031961", "[11]\tMoore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. Belmont : Wadsworth Publishing Company.", "[12]\tThadhani, A. J. (1981). Interactive user productivity. IBM Systems Journal, 20 (4), 407-423.", "[13]\tLazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (Eds.) (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping . New York : Springer-Verlag.", "[14]\tDennis, A. R., & Kinney, S. T. (1998). Testing media richness theory in the new media: the effects of cues, feedback, and task equivocality. Information Systems Research, 9 (3), 256-274", "[15]\tNewman, H. (2001). Survey shows high speed Internet connection as vital as coffee. Detroit Free Press (MI).", "[16]\tNielsen, J. (2000). Designing Web Usability . New Riders, Indianapolis .", "[17]\tRappoport, P. N., Kridel, D. J., & Taylor, L. D. (2002). Alternative approaches to analysis and modeling of residential broadband demand. In Robert Crandall, editor, Broadband Communication: Overcoming the Barriers. Brookings Institution, Washington , DC .", "[18]\tBerchtold, J., Dengler, V. V., Johnson, B. M., & Prakash, S. (2001). What do broadband consumers want? McKinsey Quarterly , 4.", "[19]\tTelecom Review (2020). The evolution of Oman's telecom industry. Retrieved from https://www.telecomreview. com/index.php/articles/reports-and-coverage/3795-the-evolution-of-oman-s-telecom-industry?tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=", "[20]\tGlobalData (2021). Oman Telecom Operators Country Intelligence Report Retrieved from https://www.market research.com/GlobalData-v3648/Oman-Telecom-Operators-Country-Intelligence-14344863/"]} Abstract: Online education, proven very efficient in the recent years, has two main components, namely Online learning, and Online teaching, which, in order to be successful to the optimum level, require appropriate resources. The root source playing a vital role in online education is none other than Information Technology, having rapidly developed over the years with number of applications such as google class, WhatsApp, zoom, MS Teams and other information media, helping us lecturers to stay in touch with the students (Viner et al., 2020). It is obvious that Computer Hardware Configuration, Computer Operating System, Internet Browser, Software Applications, Internet connection and Internet speed take leading roles in online learning and teaching. At University, robust wired and wireless networks are available almost anywhere and computer labs have specialized software required for the students’ majors. But when the students moving off from the traditional way of learning to online learning remotely appeared challenging as the access to technologies dropped significantly, especially for the ICT classes. To access the success of online learning based on available technological resources, this study evaluated the (i) student’s internet connection capability, (ii) the availability of learning devices and software, and (iii) the student’s interest in online learning because of various online activities provided. Data is collected using a cross-sectional research methodology, mainly the online record survey method. Keywords: Online Learning, Bandwidth, Learning Devices, A’Sharqiyah University, Oman. Title: A study on availability of technological resources for Online Learning during the pandemic period, A’Sharqiyah University, Oman Author: Ms. Jeyarani Milton, Dr. Godwin John International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning ISSN 2394-9686 Vol. 9, Issue 4, July 2022 - August 2022 Page No: 10-17 Novelty Journals Website: www.noveltyjournals.com Published Date: 07-July-2022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6806382 International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, ISSN 2394-9686, Novelty Journals, Website: www.noveltyjournals.com

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ovi, Dewan Alif; Reza, Tanvir;
    Publisher: Mr. Arvind Sharma

    ABSTRACT Custodial death is the most ominous indicator in our country's capture, detention, and remand. It has now become all the rage across the country. Deaths in police custody usually generate a great deal of public attention and are frequently coupled with causality disputes. Accused individuals frequently come into encounter with the criminal justice system, with those suffering from mental illnesses over-represented in police custody. As a result, identifying vulnerability is critical in order to guarantee that proper precautions may be put in place. This research is helping to show that to prevent such a curse from afflicting society, the country has some existing legislation, directions, guidelines, and precedents that are constantly derived from court decisions of other nations. The judicial system in Bangladesh is no exception. In context of this, the research examined, with the goal of emphasizing on judicial reforms, applicable legislation and their implementation, national legislative framework, and court precedents on the banning of inhumane custodial torture, including arrest, custody, and remand by police. Finding of the research particularly concentrate upon irregularities of provision to safeguarding accused right in the jail. The lack of sanitation, healthcare, standard food quality also found as errors of concern authorities. Beside these normal and natural death also counted as death in custody but not due to torture by police. The political believes and support nurture by police is also one of the key reasons to increasing torture and deaths. To solve these problems state should amend existing provision which is contradictory related to custodial torture, Increase the circumference of Human Rights Commission and give them power to investigate these properly and follow the guidelines given by courts. This research demonstrated a real-life scenario of custodial torture and critically analyzed national mechanisms that directly contradict custodial deaths and brutal punishment. {"references": ["'Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability' (2022) IV Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research", "Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability. (2022), IV(III), 1266-1287", "Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 2022. Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability. IV(III), pp.1266-1287", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability.\". IV, no. III, 2022, pp. 1266-1287", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\" (2022) IV(III)", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\". Indian Journal Of Law And Legal Research no. (2022): 1266-1287. doi:https://doi-ds.org/doilink/06.2022-37714716/IJLLR/V4/I3/A90.", "\"Police Custody Deaths In Bangladesh: An Analysis Of Legal Liability\", (2022) IV Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research 1266-1287."]}