The FAIR Principles are the foundation of data management for present-day researchers in any discipline. However, the application of these principles is relatively new and as archaeologists we often rely on data created prior to their implementation. Reusing such data poses a number of obstacles that can be time-consuming and difficult to tackle. However, particularly in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the reuse of data has come to the forefront as an approach researchers can use to mitigate or substitute for data that is inaccessible either temporarily or permanently. While challenges such as the interoperability, standardisation and original purpose of such data continue to exist, the opportunities presented to us by the reuse of data are becoming increasingly clear. Using the construction of an Irish bog butter database as a case study, this presentation will explore why I chose to reuse data; the challenges associated with this; and the opportunities this has presented. It will also look at how applying modern techniques to old data can create new knowledge and revolutionise our understanding of previously poorly understood phenomena – how we can make old data new again.
Vo, Trung Hung; Phan, Thi Le Thuyen; Ninh, Khanh Chi;
Vo, Trung Hung; Phan, Thi Le Thuyen; Ninh, Khanh Chi;
Publisher: РС ТЕСHNOLOGY СЕNTЕR
З розвитком Інтернету, соціальних мереж і різних каналів комунікації люди можуть отримувати інформацію швидко та легко. Однак, крім реальних та корисних новин, ми також отримуємо неправдиву і несправжню інформацію. Проблема фейкових новин стала складним та невирішеним питанням. Для мов з невеликою кількістю користувачів, таких як в'єтнамська, дослідження з виявлення фейкових новин все ще дуже обмежені і не отримали великої уваги. У даній роботі представлені результати дослідження по створенню інструменту виявлення фейкових новин для в'єтнамської мови. Наша ідея полягає у застосуванні методів класифікації тексту для виявлення фейкових новин. Нами створена база даних з 4 груп за 2 темами про політику (фейкові новини та реальні новини) і про Covid-19 (фейкові новини та реальні новини). Потім використані методи глибокого навчання ЗНМ (згорткова нейронна мережа) та РНМ (рекурентна нейронна мережа) для створення відповідних моделей. При появі нових новин, які необхідно перевірити, потрібно просто застосувати класифікацію, щоб побачити, до якої з чотирьох груп вони належать, щоб вирішити, чи є вони фейковими новинами чи ні. Даний інструмент дозволив швидко і легко виявити фейкові новини з імовірністю близько 85 %. Цей результат може бути поліпшений при збільшенні набору навчальних даних і налаштуванні параметрів моделі машинного навчання. Дані результати вносять важливий внесок у дослідження з виявлення фейкових новин для в'єтнамської мови і можуть бути застосовані до інших мов. Надалі, окрім використання методів класифікації (заснованих на контент-аналізі), ми можемо комбінувати багато інших методів, таких як перевірка джерела, перевірка інформації автора, перевірка процесу поширення для підвищення ефективності виявлення фейковий новин. With the development of the Internet, social networks and different communication channels, people can get information quickly and easily. However, in addition to real and useful news, we also receive false and unreal information. The problem of fake news has become a difficult and unresolved issue. For languages with few users, such as Vietnamese, the research on fake news detection is still very limited and has not received much attention. In this paper, we present research results on building a tool to support fake news detection for Vietnamese. Our idea is to apply text classification techniques to fake news detection. We have built a database of 4 groups of 2 topics about politics (fake news and real news) and about Covid-19 (fake news and real news). Then use deep learning techniques CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) to create the corresponding models. When there is new news that needs to be verified, we just need to apply the classification to see which of the four groups they label into to decide whether it is fake news or not. The tool was able to detect fake news quickly and easily with a correct rate of about 85 %. This result will be improved when getting a larger training data set and adjusting the parameters for the machine learning model. These results make an important contribution to the research on detecting fake news for Vietnamese and can be applied to other languages. In the future, besides using classification techniques (based on content analysis), we can combine many other methods such as checking the source, verifying the author's information, checking the distribution process to improve the quality of fake news detection.
With concepts of participation discussed in multiple disciplines from media studies to anthropology, from political sciences to sociology, the first issue of the new yearbook History of Intellectual Culture (HIC) dedicates a thematic section to the way knowledge can and arguably must be conceptualized as "participatory".Introducing and exploring "participatory knowledge", the volume aims to draw attention to the potential of looking at knowledge formation and circulation through a new lens and to open a dialogue about how and what concepts and theories of participation can contribute to the history of knowledge. By asking who gets to participate in defining what counts as knowledge and in deciding whose knowledge is circulated, modes of participation enter into the examination of knowledge on various levels and within multiple cultural contexts.The articles in this volume attest to the great variety of approaches, contexts, and interpretations of "participatory knowledge", from the sociological projects of the Frankfurt School to the Uppsala-based Institute for Race Biology, from the Argentinian National Folklore Survey to current hashtag activism and Covid-19-archive projects. HIC sees knowledge as rooted in social and political structures, determined by modes of transfer and produced in collaborative processes. The notion of "participatory knowledge" highlights in a compelling way how knowledge is rooted in cultural practices and social configurations.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Refereed article - Matthew Rimmer. "The Internet Archive and the National Emergency Library: Copyright Law and COVID-19" (2022) 11 (5) Laws Article No. 79. Abstract: In the tradition of legal writing about landmark intellectual property cases, this paper provides an in-depth case study and analysis of an important copyright conflict during the COVID-19 crisis. The Internet Archive established the National Emergency Library to provide for access to knowledge for those who were unable to access their usual libraries, schools, and educational institutions. In response, four large publishers have brought a copyright lawsuit against the Internet Archive, alleging both direct copyright infringement, as well as secondary copyright infringement. The Author’s Guild has supported this action. Fearful of litigation, the Internet Archive has decided to close the National Emergency Library earlier than it anticipated. The litigation raises a range of issues in respect of copyright infringement, the defence of fair use, library exceptions, digital lending, and intermediary liability. The conflict also raises questions about the operation of the first sale doctrine in the digital era. There are also divided views as to what, if any, remedies are appropriate in the case over the Internet Archive and the National Emergency Library. It is argued that there needs to better mechanisms under copyright law to enable access to knowledge in a public health crisis – such as the coronavirus outbreak. This case study makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the relationship between authors, publishers, and libraries in the digital age. It also provides an insight into copyright litigation – in particular, the role of amicus curiae submissions, and the nature and scope of copyright exceptions. This paper also raises larger considerations about the intersection of copyright law with larger concerns about access to knowledge, competition policy, and public health emergencies.
In this Introduction, the guest editors discuss the main themes of this special issue and relate them to the growing field of research on how the extraordinary social conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic affected the practices of religious individuals, groups, and institutions. As we suggest here, the pandemic revealed and catalysed important trends within religious traditions and also exacerbated the issues of specific religious identities as confronted against, or negotiated with, the dominant frame of secular state-controlled public health priorities, policies, and protocols.
We report new data from a survey of loneliness in Australia during the Covid-19 lockdowns of 2020–21, in order to identify those age groups most at risk of increased loneliness. Counter-intuitively, proportionately fewer elderly Australians experienced increased loneliness as a result of lockdowns, as compared with 44% of those aged 19–29 and 31% of those aged 40–49. To explain this pattern, we investigated how lockdowns disturbed the complex connections between types of place affordance and the age-specific cultural scripts that normally give rise to a sense of belonging. For younger age groups, such scripts demand their identification with future orientations and a sense of belonging tied to the more distant and wide-ranging places of career advance, meeting, play, and pleasure that lockdown inhibited. By contrast, older retired cohorts were more inclined to frame their sense of belonging in the past through the maintenance of community connections and closer place-bonds of their locality, cultural places of memory and return that they were more happily confined to during lockdowns. Refereed/Peer-reviewed
Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi
The years 2020-2022 engraved our existence with epidemiological and political monstrosities that will not be forgotten for quite some time. The COVID-19 pandemic dragged us to contemplating the possibilities of a plague that, rather than being confined to the global south’s ‘invisible’ territories of diseases, heavily affected the global north and with the prospect of wiping out a large number of the world’s population in a similar manner to that of the 1918 influenza epidemic. Governments were caught between choices to either privilege lives or economies and eugenics reared its head as a spectre from the historical past. A benign marine monster, the Amabie, a prophetic yōkai from Japanese folklore, became popular, initially in Japan and, rather rapidly on a global scale, assumed a prominent position, becoming an icon for the COVID-19 pandemic. I interrogate how people resorted to this chimeric creature from marine and historical depths to deal with existential uncertainty and abnormal lives, rendering it a chronotope that connects times and spaces. Such aquapelagic creatures frame the ambiguity of a world where political, environmental and health disasters merge.
In 2020 the energy transition path was distorted by the COVID-19 pandemic which caused a sharp economic decline and a fast global recovery in 2021. Unlike that period, the years between 2001 and 2019 illustrated a different type of energy evolution for developed and developing countries regarding primary energy consumption. During this period the composition of energy balances of these two major groups demonstrated dramatic disparity, notably marked by the high share of coal in developing countries. The shock of 2020 led to a belief in expediting the transition to green energy, but in 2021 the economic recovery revived demand for oil and coal, dashing hopes for the growing renewable energy sources sector in the European Union that year. The return of coal, however, to the EU energy sector and stable demand for motor fuel globally led to the restoration of the GHG emission growth against the backdrop of the climate policy implementation failure. The current energy transition is denoted by features such as the flat oil demand in developed countries, the flat global demand for motor gasoline and the growing demand for diesel. The econometrics of demand for two motor oil products are quite opposite. For gasoline we have almost all hypotheses met: the negative influence of climate policy and oil prices, strong effect of dummies for shock of 2020 and 2021, and naturally 0.3 coefficient at GDP growth rate. Nevertheless, for diesel everything is exactly the opposite — only 0,4 coefficient at GDP and practically nothing else. This effect shows the strong role and trend for cargo use of diesel fueled trucks in the global economy. The high income of oil and gas majors in 2021 did not secure the investment upturn. A mature oil industry receives substantial profits for its investors, supplying dividends, and buying back debts without enlarging production capacities. At this point climate policy expectations of phasing out fossil fuels in the foreseeable future operated as a braking mechanism against reinvesting oil incomes. Moreover, at this junction we can observe governments’ limited capacity to pursue policies toward multiple objectives simultaneously: modest energy prices, energy transition and securing the sufficient capital formation for energy. The continued fusion of the economic upturn and energy transition will be dependent on demand and supply matching in the oil markets. It is also possible that the sanctions policies of 2022 may aggravate the situation, triggering high prices and uncertainties.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
This paper discusses the effectiveness of EU economic measures towards the pandemic crisis in the case of Greece. As the pandemic crisis was an exogenous and symmetric crisis, EU member states decided to take supply and demand side measures to tackle economic recession. Not only the Recovery plan for Europe (NGEU), but also the Escape Clause, as well as non-standard monetary measures, were implemented in order to achieve growth. Furthermore, fiscal expansion, as well as common debt extraction, using green and social bonds led to higher government spending and sovereign debt. The paper’s research question is “Could fiscal expansion mitigate the economic consequences of pandemic crisis?” In other worlds, the research gap which this paper tries to fill is that for the contemporary EU response to two different crises, the economic and the pandemic. Our analysis, by using a comparative approach, shows that government spending and fiscal expansion is effective in the short-run, as the temporary measures led to higher GDP growth rates and lower unemployment rates, but in the long-run demand side measures led to higher inflation and higher sovereign debt.
The transition to full online teaching format has posed a number of challenges of journalism higher education. The goal of this research is to show Georgian journalism teachers’ attitudes towards online learning during the covid-19 pandemic. To reach this goal and explore this issue a social constructivism framework is used. The main research questions: How effective is this process? What are the strengths and weakness of full online learning? What opportunities of the development are arisen? This study is based on the qualitative approach and a semi-structured interviews method is used for this research. The interviews (n=17) were conducted among journalism professors, different Georgian media schools. This study was carried out from 20 June till 20 October 2021. According to the results of this study, there are a lot of challenges facing during the full remote classes but nevertheless there are a number of development opportunities. At the end of the research the author suggests certain recommendations for media schools.