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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dhondt, Frederik;

    The call for the present conference explicitly asks if law reduces the differences between man and woman, from an evolutionary point of view. In an age where female political representation is far from guaranteed, even in the most gender-oriented Western democracies, I would like to bring the example of a forceful and proud female Ancien Régime ruler: Elisabeth Farnese, the “Termagant Queen of Spain”, who, together with her feeble husband Philip V, “esclavo de sus mujeres”, ruled the Iberian peninsula and the Spanish colonies in both of the Indies, and terrified her native Italian peninsula. Elisabeth has the image of a “strong” and “ambitious”, but also unreliable and outright irrational woman. Philip had found in her his second wife. The already numerous children from his first marriage would precede those of his Italian bride. Yet, Elisabeth’s relentless quest for a dominion for her children, or of a dowry for herself as “administratrix”, kept the European state system in suspense from the end of the Spanish (1701-1714) to the end of the Austrian War of Succession (1740-1748). The multiple twists and turns of Spanish foreign policy are attributed to the de facto absolute government Elisabeth held over her “Imbecile” husband. However, as her legal status was concerned, she was but the spouse of the ruling monarch, who personally incarnated sovereignty. Recent historians have called for a reassessment of Philip’s mental lability (e.g. Henry Kamen), or of the aggressive Spanish foreign policy, or new “Risorgimento” in Italy (Christopher Storss), where the Spanish monarchy succeeded in founding two secondary branches (Parma-Piacenza and Naples), against all odds. Elisabeth correctly understood the Balance of Power in European relations after the Treaty of Utrecht. Yet, there was more than mere political shrewdness. If the Queen was capable of bullying male sovereigns into submission, she exploited legal arguments as well. Not only the historical Spanish presence in Italy, but foremost her position as relative ofthe extinct Farnese and Medici-dynasties, were the trump card in Philip’s hand. She managed to bend and bow Imperial succession law, excluding women, to plant the Bourbon flag in the heart of Habsburg dominated Italy.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Zancarini, Jean-Claude;

    International audience; HyperMachiavel (HM) is a software package designed to assist research into aligned corpora encoded in XML-TEI. It compares the editio princeps (Blado 1532) with the four French translations of the XVIth century (Jacques de Vintimille (1546), Gaspard d’Auvergne et Jacques Cappel (1553), Jacques Gohory (1571). This paper begins explaining the reasons, hypotheses and translation practises which led me to conceive of the usefulness of such a tool: the importance of translations in the western world; a conception of the coherence in the act of translation; an approach to the texts based on “political philology”. Then, it develops the first reflections concerning the use of the HM tool and its possible developments by dealing with the translations of stato and presenting the first hypotheses on the practises of the sixteenth century translators: it is thus possible to state a thesis about the language of The Prince and the effects of translations of the vocabulary of politics.

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    Authors: Grinin, Leonid; Baker, David; Quaedackers, Esther; Korotayev, Andrey;

    International audience; Big History has been developing very fast indeed. We are currently observinga ‘Cambrian explosion’ in terms of its popularity and diffusion.Big History courses are taught in the schools and universities of severaldozen countries, including China, Korea, the Netherlands, the USA, India,Russia, Japan, Australia, Great Britain, Germany, and many more.The International Big History Association (IBHA) is gaining momentumin its projects and membership. Conferences are beginning to be heldregularly (this edited volume has been prepared on the basis of the proceedingsof the International Big History Association Inaugural Conference[see below for details]). Hundreds of researchers are involved instudying and teaching Big History.

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    Authors: Lee, Gregory B.;

    The period in China's recent history between the death of Mao and the débâcle of 1989 can be seen as a long decade, but also historically as a "lost" decade. It is "lost" in the sense that the political engagement of intellectuals and makers of culture has been occulted by official history-telling; it is also "lost" in that its memory has been abandoned even by many who lived through it; "lost" also in the embarrassed silence of those who prefer to focus on the subsequent economic miracle of the 1990s that gave rise to today's more prosperous China; and "lost" as a time of opportunity for cultural and political change that ultimately did not happen. Calling on over thirty years of acquaintance with China including five years spent studying the cultural scene in Beijing during the 1980s, the author here traces the imbrication of culture, politics and history of a decade when everything seemed possible.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2009
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    Authors: Leonid Grinin; Andrey Korotayev; David Baker;

    International audience; Global studies can be made not only with respect to the humans who inhabit the Earth, they can well be done with respect to biological and abiotic systems of our planet. Such an approach opens wide horizons for the modern university education as it helps to form a global view of various processes. However, we can also ask ourselves whether the limits of our studies can be moved further. Would not it be useful for the students to understand the evolution of our planet within the context of the evolution of our Universe? The need to see this process of development holistically, in its origins and growing complexity, is fundamental to what drives not only science but the human imagination. This shared vision of the grand narrative is one of the most effective ways to conceptualize and integrate our growing knowledge of the Universe, society, and human thought. Note that the respective discipline already exists and it has been developing quite successfully for more than three decades; it is denotes as Big History.

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    ZENODO
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    ZENODO
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Houbre, Gabrielle;

    International audience; Covering the period from the 1850s until the eve of World War I, this book examines the second half of the nineteenth century with its intertwining of political stability and turmoil, economic prosperity and poverty, social traditions and upheavals , cultural classicism and avant-gardism. out of these contrasts, although tempered by mobile, nuanced interfaces, emerged the striking scenery of prostitution depicted in its plurality, ambivalence and emotional power. Paintings, sculptures, photographs, films, furniture and objects led to so many encounters with the protagonists of a shady world that intrigues, attracts, turns off, repulses, questions without ever becoming tiresome. This theory of eva-nescent powers, whereby sex is exchanged for money, bundles together prostitute(s) and client(s), as well as pimps and madams, councillors and police officers, actors and actresses, in the shadow and the bright light of a contested prostitutional order. Regulation, contestation by placing women and girl prostitutes under the supervision of the police des moeurs (vice squad), by forcing them to submit to medical checkups (1802), then by legalising the existence of brothels or maisons de tolérance (1804), the Consulate opted for a novel method of overseeing female prostitution outlined during the Revolutionary period. Regulationism met venal sexuality halfway by taking it in hand rather than banning it or trying to eradicate it. With this regulatory social mission to carry out, it was then regarded as a 'necessary evil' in the light of sexual demands consubstan-tial with virility. This doxa, reflecting ingrained beliefs with respect to differentiated sexual identities, persisted throughout the nineteenth century, and beyond. At the start of the Third Republic, Maxime Du Camp returned to the same type of topos in explaining prostitution in terms of 'the brutality of men's passions, the organic and moral weakness of women' . These prejudices, mixed with pragmatism, incited the authorities to present reg-ulationism, also developed in the colonies, as a public health measure helping to control venereal disease and liable to maintain the cosy family unit. The idea was first to identify and create a file for women engaged in debauchery, then to relegate them to specific locations. Placed under the watchful eye of doctors and police, the brothel was expected to optimise the system's efficiency. It fell to the mayors to draft their local byelaws and register the said filles soumises, the one exception being Paris, where this task was assigned to the chief of police. Women who applied to join a brothel were registered on the brothel-keeper's books and issued with a number, while those opting to be streetwalkers received a card listing their health and other obligations. So prostitutional activity per se was not an offence. However, it could become one, as a 'public offense against decency' under the criminal code of 1810, which also explicitly punished procuring when performed on minors under the age of twenty-one. Published in 1836, De la prostitution dans la ville de Paris, a veri-table sociological survey of prostitutes, left a lasting mark on minds and writings, and established its author, the physician Alexandre Parent-Duchâtelet, as the iconic exponent of regulations. Paradoxically, it was when it was checked by the rise of illegal prostitution and the closing of many brothels that the 'French system' was exported to Victorian England. Feminists were mobilised, notably under the leadership of the Englishwoman Josephine butler and the Frenchwoman Maria Deraismes, and the protest movement built up momentum during the 1870s. The French model at that time crystallised the converging criticism from both men and women who called for its abolition in the name of women's dignity , family values, religion, as well as the upholding of common law and individual freedoms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hyper Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Trentini, Bruno;

    International audience; This article aims at conceptually marking out the different cognitive processes involved in the experience of mobile art devices, and at understanding to what extent the involvement of these cognitive processes is different from their involvement in other forms of art.

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    Authors: Bonin, Hubert;

    When European powers annexed parts of Asia, banking systems were an important part of that process. The essays in this edited collection are based on original research using primary sources in English, French, Russian, Chinese and Japanese. The book as a whole provides new insights into banking in imperial Asia and a platform for further research.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
    Hal-Diderot
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
      Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
      Hal-Diderot
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Lafi, Nora;

    International audience; In his 1954 address to the American Philosophical Society on the role of the Ottoman Empire in world history, Arnold Toynbee emphasized the importance of the year 1453. The subsequent centuries he envisioned as merely a series of splendours and failures leading inevitably to the collapse of the Empire and the creation of the modern Turkish state. For many years, the process was seen as follows: the Ottoman Empire was a counterpoint to great global frescoes which had little to do with the methodological progress to be accomplished later in the field of history, now tackled from a global perspective. Even in this framework, as will be seen, the place of the eighteenth century cannot be taken for granted. The Ottoman Empire’s important position is recognized, of course, in valuations of the interlaced cultural and institutional spheres which have shaped the world; it is conceded that the Empire incarnated certain crucial aspects of the evolution of these spheres and their interstices at the moment when modernity emerged, the fundamentals of which are to be discussed on a solid base, beyond cumbersome ideological wreckage. Nevertheless, in the field of Ottoman studies, the common era eighteenth century is rarely considered as a key period. Work has tended to focus on Ottoman expansion in earlier period, as well as on the decline, portrayed as irremediable, of the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, for the Ottoman Empire – and in particular for its Arab provinces, the eighteenth century represents a crucial moment. (This is not to ignore other aspects of the Empire nor non-Ottoman areas of the Arabic cultural domain). From a global historical perspective, the study of these provinces is a crucial area for current research.

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    Authors: Vettorato, Cyril;

    This paper examines the relationship between language and diaspora by trying to look beyond the question of what befalls native tongues in the countries of arrival. The experience of forced migration undergone by African people brought to the Americas might have dispossessed them from their ancestral tongues, but it did not prevent them from aspiring to use language, be it the language of the former slave owner, to express their identity and shared historical experience. Using the example of American poet Langston Hughes and his Cuban peer Nicolás Guillén, this article will highlight the way poets from the African diaspora have influenced and translated each other as a way of bridging the linguistic and cultural gap brought about by history. The literature of the diaspora might well lie in that very rift, which calls for continued translation and rewriting of each other.

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    Arrow@TU Dublin
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: Arrow@TU Dublin
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