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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vitali, Giovanni Pietro;

    This paper consists of the cataloguing, mapping, and the study of the street poetry of Rome, written on the walls of the Italian capital by a group of street artists who started their activity in 2012: The Poeti der Trullo (The poets of the Trullo). Through the use of digital humanities tools, the article describes the Poeti der Trullo and their district, developing some considerations on the themes and the language that characterise their poems. The aim is to understand the cultural and social roots of this street poetry phenomenon and its effects on contemporary society. This study, which combines tools such as WordSmith, TXM, RStudio, Q-GIS, CartoDB, and Gephi, explains how the Poeti der Trullo interpret and interact with society through an interdisciplinary approach. The activity of the Poeti der Trullo, which blends the tradition of Roman graffiti and Pasquinate with the urban culture of slam poetry, shows a poetic resistance towards the image of contemporary society. Through a simple gesture such as writing a poetic message on a wall, these young performers reveal the strength of a cultural tradition that discloses a new act of resistance which has a pragmatic effect on society. In only six years of existence, these poets have effectively created a movement able to generate effective change in their district. Umanistica Digitale, No 3 (2018)

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    Umanistica Digitale
    Article . 2018
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    AMS Acta
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Umanistica Digitalearrow_drop_down
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      Umanistica Digitale
      Article . 2018
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      AMS Acta
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Volot, F; Zweigenbaum, P; Bachimont, B; Ben Said, M; +3 Authors

    The use of a taxonomy, such as the concept type lattice (CTL) of Conceptual Graphs, is a central structuring piece in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge it contains is constantly used by the system, and its structure provides a guide for the acquisition of other pieces of knowledge. We show how UMLS can be used as a knowledge resource to build a CTL and how the CTL can help the process of acquisition for other kinds of knowledge. We illustrate this method in the context of the MENELAS natural language understanding project.

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    Other literature type . 1993
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    Other literature type . 1993
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 1993
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      Other literature type . 1993
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    Authors: Travers, Alice;

    Based on autobiographical written and oral accounts by Tibetan aristocrats, this article aims to discuss the Horse-Riding and Target-Shooting Contest for Lay Officials (drung 'khor rtsal rgyugs). Its origins, its evolutions during the first half of the 20th century, and its significance help to understand the link between the Tibetan aristocracy and the military domain. Though the Tibetan aristocracy was mainly an administrative elite and can therefore not be described as exercising a "defensive function" during this period, there are elements indicating a privileged relationship with the army. The permanence of this compulsory contest in the 20th century might be explained by its symbolic efficiency in linking the aristocracy to Tibet's military glorious past and to a past probably, more warlike identity. Cet article fondé sur des récits autobiographiques oraux et écrits de nobles tibétains étudie la Compétition de tir à cheval des fonctionnaires laïcs (drung 'khor rtsal rgyugs), ses origines, ses évolutions pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle, et son importance pour comprendre la relation entre la noblesse tibétaine et le domaine guerrier. Bien que la noblesse tibétaine fût principalement une élite administrative, ne pouvant donc être décrite comme exerçant une fonction défensive pendant la période étudiée, certains éléments indiquent une relation privilégiée avec l'armée. La permanence de cette compétition obligatoire au XXe siècle peut s'expliquer par son efficacité symbolique à lier la noblesse à un passé militaire glorieux du Tibet et à une identité probablement plus guerrière dans le passé.

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    Article . 2011
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    Other literature type . 2011
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    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Winston, Cynthia; Winston, Michael; Boyd, Alexis;

    More than ever before in human history, rapid increases in innovation and discovery are critical to solving the world’s most pressing economic, climate, health, and human problems. Although women in the United States are earning more doctoral degrees in science and engineering fields than ever before, less then 24% of the science and engineering workforce includes women (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011). While in the last decade there has been an increase in national programs to recruit more women in science careers, women of color have largely been excluded and often are not specified in federal statistics on the science workforce (Mack, Rankins, & Winston, 2011). Moreover, among those programs that do exist, few adopt a synergistic psychologically grounded approach to sustained and culturally responsive professional development for women of color. The lives of women of color demand complex psychological negotiation and strategic life management of simultaneous experiences of racism, sexism, classism, and unique cultural imperatives (Cole, 2009). Thus, not only is getting them into the science workforce important, it is critical to generate scholarship guided by intersectionality theoretical frameworks that can inform the design of mechanisms for their retention, leadership training, and acquisition of knowledge and skills to sustain a healthy career and family life balance. Historical and biographical studies of women of color in science do not generally make reference to the history of White women in science in the United States. This neglect tends to underestimate the effect of gender per se on access to science education and careers in science. These biographical accounts focus principally on individuals with no attempt to identify systems of exclusion or patterns of success in overcoming exclusion. While the narratives about individual careers have real importance as documentation, those accounts by themselves cannot disclose the ways in which the social system and the educational matrix functioned to produce the result that few women of any race and ethnicity became scientists in one period of history. This paper demonstrates the theoretical and practical utility of the integration of narratives of the experiences of both white and women of color in science with systems level historical analysis of institutionalized gender prejudice in all women gaining access to science education and scientific careers. Vers Une Compréhension Accrue des Expériences Vécues par les Femmes de Couleur en matière de formation et de carrières scientifiques : Quelle est l’Utilité de l’Intégration des Récits d’ Expériences Diverses dans l’Analyse Historique des En général, les études historiques et biographiques des femmes de couleur dans le domaine des sciences ne font pas référence à l’histoire des femmes Blanches dans le domaine des sciences aux Etats-Unis. Cette lacune a souvent pour effet de sous-estimer l’ impacte du genre sur l’accès à l’enseignement des sciences et aux carrières scientifiques. Les biographies mettent principalement l’accent sur les individus et ne tentent pas d’identifier les systèmes d’exclusion ou les modèles de succès dans la lutte contre l’exclusion. Tandis que les récits portant sur des carrières individuelles ont une importance réelle en tant que documents, ces récits en tant que tels ne peuvent pas révéler comment le système social et la matrice de l’éducation ont fonctionné pour ne produire que peu de femmes de science, toutes races et ethnies confondues, durant une période donnée de l’histoire. Cet article démontre l’utilité théorique et pratique d’intégrer les récits des expériences des femmes de science tant blanches que de couleur dans l’analyse historique du préjugé sexiste institutionnalisé auquel les femmes sont confrontées lorsqu’elles poursuivent un cursus et une carrière scientifiques. Plus que jamais dans l‘histoire humaine, l’augmentation rapide de l’innovation et des découvertes est cruciale pour résoudre les problèmes économiques, climatiques, sanitaires, et humains les plus urgents du monde. Bien que les femmes aux Etats-Unis obtiennent davantage de doctorats en science et en ingénierie que jamais auparavant, elles ne constituent néanmoins que moins de 24% des salariés employés dans les domaines de la science et de l’ingénierie (Département Américain du Commerce, 2011).

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    Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Grandjean, Martin;

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: Drap, Pierre; Durand, Anne; Nedir, Malika; Seinturier, Julien; +9 Authors

    The paper presents an interdisciplinary project which is the first step towards a 3D Geographical Information System (GIS) dedicated to Cultural Heritage with a specific focus application on the Castle of Shawbak, also known as the ”Crac de Montral” in Jordan. The project continues to grow thanks to a synergy between a set of laboratories: The LSIS laboratory, France in charge of the pho- togrammetric survey phase connected with the knowledge based approach; ITABC, CNR lab in Roma, Italy in charge of the topometric survey, with DGPS and aerial photography with gas balloon, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kyoto, Japan for the 3D view point seek connected to the database, the image processing aspect managed by Stratos documentation, SimVis from The Department of Computer Science, University of Hull, UK, for the virtual reality aspect and of course the Dipartimento di Studi storici e Geografici from the University of Florence, Italy, in charge of the archaeological part. Our project focuses on a building scale encompassing its atomic elements such as ashlars blocks, cement, stratigraphic units and archi- tectonic elements. At this scale we need a full 3D interface in order to manage accurate measurements, a huge quantity of observations and a mainly heterogeneous archaeological documentation. This project described in this paper is work in progress. After four photogrammetric campaigns in Jordan the first results are available on the project web site: http://www.shawbak.net

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    Authors: Lopez, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu;

    International audience; This paper deals with an application allowing the automatic titling of texts. This one consists of four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentence determination for the titling, extraction of noun phrases among the candidate sentences, and finally the choice of the title.

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    Authors: Munch, Damien; Dessalles, Jean-Louis;

    International audience; Current models of temporality in language are either inaccurate or too complex to be cognitively plausible. We present a cognitive model of the computation of aspect in French. Our approach emphasizes the importance of minimalism for cognitive plausibility: structures and computation are kept simple and combinatorial explosion is avoided. Though the model and its current implementation remain partial for now, our approach opens the way to a generic and cognitively plausible method for the determination of aspect.

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    Authors: Pimm, Christophe; Raynal, Céline; Tulechki, Nikola; Hermann, Eric; +2 Authors

    International audience; The human factor field is expected to evolve due to the development of Natural Language Processing tools which allow for new approaches to handle natural language data. In the current project, we use NLP methods to facilitate experience feedback in the field of civil aviation safety. In this paper, we present how NLP methods based on the extraction of textual information from the Air France ASR can contribute to (i) the improvement of the reliability of the coding, facilitating the coding itself, (ii) the analysis of reports regardless of the categorization in order to expand the analysis perimeter and to avoid the inherent limitations of the codification.

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    Authors: Vitali, Giovanni Pietro;

    This paper consists of the cataloguing, mapping, and the study of the street poetry of Rome, written on the walls of the Italian capital by a group of street artists who started their activity in 2012: The Poeti der Trullo (The poets of the Trullo). Through the use of digital humanities tools, the article describes the Poeti der Trullo and their district, developing some considerations on the themes and the language that characterise their poems. The aim is to understand the cultural and social roots of this street poetry phenomenon and its effects on contemporary society. This study, which combines tools such as WordSmith, TXM, RStudio, Q-GIS, CartoDB, and Gephi, explains how the Poeti der Trullo interpret and interact with society through an interdisciplinary approach. The activity of the Poeti der Trullo, which blends the tradition of Roman graffiti and Pasquinate with the urban culture of slam poetry, shows a poetic resistance towards the image of contemporary society. Through a simple gesture such as writing a poetic message on a wall, these young performers reveal the strength of a cultural tradition that discloses a new act of resistance which has a pragmatic effect on society. In only six years of existence, these poets have effectively created a movement able to generate effective change in their district. Umanistica Digitale, No 3 (2018)

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    Umanistica Digitale
    Article . 2018
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    AMS Acta
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
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      Article . 2018
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      AMS Acta
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Volot, F; Zweigenbaum, P; Bachimont, B; Ben Said, M; +3 Authors

    The use of a taxonomy, such as the concept type lattice (CTL) of Conceptual Graphs, is a central structuring piece in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge it contains is constantly used by the system, and its structure provides a guide for the acquisition of other pieces of knowledge. We show how UMLS can be used as a knowledge resource to build a CTL and how the CTL can help the process of acquisition for other kinds of knowledge. We illustrate this method in the context of the MENELAS natural language understanding project.

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    Other literature type . 1993
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      Other literature type . 1993
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    Authors: Travers, Alice;

    Based on autobiographical written and oral accounts by Tibetan aristocrats, this article aims to discuss the Horse-Riding and Target-Shooting Contest for Lay Officials (drung 'khor rtsal rgyugs). Its origins, its evolutions during the first half of the 20th century, and its significance help to understand the link between the Tibetan aristocracy and the military domain. Though the Tibetan aristocracy was mainly an administrative elite and can therefore not be described as exercising a "defensive function" during this period, there are elements indicating a privileged relationship with the army. The permanence of this compulsory contest in the 20th century might be explained by its symbolic efficiency in linking the aristocracy to Tibet's military glorious past and to a past probably, more warlike identity. Cet article fondé sur des récits autobiographiques oraux et écrits de nobles tibétains étudie la Compétition de tir à cheval des fonctionnaires laïcs (drung 'khor rtsal rgyugs), ses origines, ses évolutions pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle, et son importance pour comprendre la relation entre la noblesse tibétaine et le domaine guerrier. Bien que la noblesse tibétaine fût principalement une élite administrative, ne pouvant donc être décrite comme exerçant une fonction défensive pendant la période étudiée, certains éléments indiquent une relation privilégiée avec l'armée. La permanence de cette compétition obligatoire au XXe siècle peut s'expliquer par son efficacité symbolique à lier la noblesse à un passé militaire glorieux du Tibet et à une identité probablement plus guerrière dans le passé.

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    Article . 2011
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    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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      Other literature type . 2021
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2021
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Winston, Cynthia; Winston, Michael; Boyd, Alexis;

    More than ever before in human history, rapid increases in innovation and discovery are critical to solving the world’s most pressing economic, climate, health, and human problems. Although women in the United States are earning more doctoral degrees in science and engineering fields than ever before, less then 24% of the science and engineering workforce includes women (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011). While in the last decade there has been an increase in national programs to recruit more women in science careers, women of color have largely been excluded and often are not specified in federal statistics on the science workforce (Mack, Rankins, & Winston, 2011). Moreover, among those programs that do exist, few adopt a synergistic psychologically grounded approach to sustained and culturally responsive professional development for women of color. The lives of women of color demand complex psychological negotiation and strategic life management of simultaneous experiences of racism, sexism, classism, and unique cultural imperatives (Cole, 2009). Thus, not only is getting them into the science workforce important, it is critical to generate scholarship guided by intersectionality theoretical frameworks that can inform the design of mechanisms for their retention, leadership training, and acquisition of knowledge and skills to sustain a healthy career and family life balance. Historical and biographical studies of women of color in science do not generally make reference to the history of White women in science in the United States. This neglect tends to underestimate the effect of gender per se on access to science education and careers in science. These biographical accounts focus principally on individuals with no attempt to identify systems of exclusion or patterns of success in overcoming exclusion. While the narratives about individual careers have real importance as documentation, those accounts by themselves cannot disclose the ways in which the social system and the educational matrix functioned to produce the result that few women of any race and ethnicity became scientists in one period of history. This paper demonstrates the theoretical and practical utility of the integration of narratives of the experiences of both white and women of color in science with systems level historical analysis of institutionalized gender prejudice in all women gaining access to science education and scientific careers. Vers Une Compréhension Accrue des Expériences Vécues par les Femmes de Couleur en matière de formation et de carrières scientifiques : Quelle est l’Utilité de l’Intégration des Récits d’ Expériences Diverses dans l’Analyse Historique des En général, les études historiques et biographiques des femmes de couleur dans le domaine des sciences ne font pas référence à l’histoire des femmes Blanches dans le domaine des sciences aux Etats-Unis. Cette lacune a souvent pour effet de sous-estimer l’ impacte du genre sur l’accès à l’enseignement des sciences et aux carrières scientifiques. Les biographies mettent principalement l’accent sur les individus et ne tentent pas d’identifier les systèmes d’exclusion ou les modèles de succès dans la lutte contre l’exclusion. Tandis que les récits portant sur des carrières individuelles ont une importance réelle en tant que documents, ces récits en tant que tels ne peuvent pas révéler comment le système social et la matrice de l’éducation ont fonctionné pour ne produire que peu de femmes de science, toutes races et ethnies confondues, durant une période donnée de l’histoire. Cet article démontre l’utilité théorique et pratique d’intégrer les récits des expériences des femmes de science tant blanches que de couleur dans l’analyse historique du préjugé sexiste institutionnalisé auquel les femmes sont confrontées lorsqu’elles poursuivent un cursus et une carrière scientifiques. Plus que jamais dans l‘histoire humaine, l’augmentation rapide de l’innovation et des découvertes est cruciale pour résoudre les problèmes économiques, climatiques, sanitaires, et humains les plus urgents du monde. Bien que les femmes aux Etats-Unis obtiennent davantage de doctorats en science et en ingénierie que jamais auparavant, elles ne constituent néanmoins que moins de 24% des salariés employés dans les domaines de la science et de l’ingénierie (Département Américain du Commerce, 2011).

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    Other literature type . 2014
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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