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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tartu Ülikool;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1025951~S1*est

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Pärnamaa, Tanel;

    Selle töö eesmärgiks on treenida statistiline masin ehk algoritm, mis on võimeline pilte eesti keeles kirjeldama. Vastav mudel oleks kasulik nii pildiotsingul kui ka nägemisvaegustega inimestele navigeerimisel. Eesti keel on morfoloogiliselt rikas (palju käändeid ja pöördeid), mis teeb selle modelleerimise keeruliseks. Enne kui on võimalik genereerida grammatiliselt korrektset kirjeldust, tuleb osata lauseid ja sõnu informatiivselt esitada. Selleks uurin neurovõrkudel põhinevaid meetodeid. Lisaks on eestikeelsed andmekogud tihti väiksemad kui analoogilised ingliskeelsed korpused. Uurin, kuidas kanda tarkust üle suurtest ingliskeelsetest andmekogudest, et eesti keeletehnoloogia rakenduste tulemusi parandada. Treenin uudse neurovõrkudel põhineva tõlkesüsteemi ingliskeelsete lausete tõlkimiseks eesti keelde. Näitan, et analoogilise mudeliga saab tõlkida ka pilte tekstiks. Töö käigus valmib esimene mudel, mis on edukalt võimeline pilte loomulikus eesti keeles kirjeldama.

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    Authors: Remmel, Atko;

    Largely based on archival documents, this study describes the functioning of the institutions involved in anti-religion campaigns and their institutional development in Soviet Estonia in 1957-1990. The calming that followed the period of Stalin’s rule brought along a certain „religious renaissance“ that alarmed some of the higher Party functionaries. This and the utopic plan to reach the Communist state in a couple of decades – the main obstacles to which were thought to be the „vestiges of bourgeoisie“, including religion – led to an anti-religion campaign in 1958, which lasted until 1964. During this campaign the laws governing religion were hardened and several new units of anti-religion work were formed; these were involved in the control over religious legislation and atheistic propaganda both at the local and republic levels. Propagandists of atheism were trained in People’s Universities and the educational system of the Party. After the changes that occurred in the country’s administration in 1964 the national religion policy softened to a certain extent, although a negative stand towards religion persisted until the end of the Soviet period; changes in this attitude were not noticeable before 1988. The modified religion policy did not lead to dispersing the units established during the campaign; instead, it was attempted to employ them more effectively and also in a more concealed manner. This was, however, unsuccessful, as archived documents reveal that atheistic propaganda was an utterly insignificant matter for most national institutions and Party units. In view of the inadequate or inexistent coordination and obscure chains of command it can be said that the system of anti-religion fight was relatively ineffective and in reality it relied mostly on the activity of individual atheism enthusiasts working for different institutions. This thesis covers the system of propaganda and education of the Party, the apparatus of the commissioner of the Council for Religious Affairs and its subsidiary commissions of assistance for observance of the legislation on religion, the „Science“ Society, and the system of People’s Universities, as well as their mutual connections, development and activities. Peamiselt arhiiviallikatel baseeruv uurimus kirjeldab religioonivastasesse võitlusse kaasatud olulisemate ametkondade tegevust ja institutsionaalset arengut Nõukogude Eestis aastail 1957-1990. Stalini valitsemise perioodile järgnenud pingelangus tõi endaga kaasa teatava „religioosse renessanssi“, mis alarmeeris mõningaid kõrgemaid parteitegelasi. See ja utoopiline plaan jõuda paarikümne aastaga kommunistliku riigini – mille ühe peamise takistusena nähti „kodanlikke igandeid“, mille hulka kuulus ka religioon – vallandasid 1958. aastal religioonivastase kampaania, mis kestis kuni 1964. aastani. Kampaania käigus karmistati religioonialast seadusandlust ja kutsuti ellu mitmeid uusi religioonivastase võitluse üksusi, mis tegutsesid religioonialaste seaduste kontrollimise ja ateistliku propaganda valdkonnas – seda nii piirkondlikul kui ka ülevabariigilisel tasandil; ateismipropagandiste hakati ette valmistama nii rahvaülikoolides kui parteiharidussüsteemis. Pärast 1964. aastal toimunud muudatusi riigi juhtkonnas leidis riiklikus religioonipoliitikas aset teatud leevenemine, kuid negatiivne suhtumine religiooni jäi kestma nõukogude perioodi lõpuni – muutused selles suhtumises on märgatavad alles aastast 1988. Uuenenud religioonipoliitika ei toonud endaga kaasa mitte kampaania käigus loodud üksuste likvideerimist, vaid hoopis katseid neid nii efektiivsemalt kui ka varjatumalt tööle rakendada. Tõsi küll, edutult, sest arhiiviallikate põhjal ilmneb, et enamike riiklike organite ja asutuste ning ka parteiüksuste jaoks oli ateistlik võitlus täiesti ebaolulisel kohal. Võttes arvesse tegevuse olematut või puudulikku koordineerimist ning segaseid käsuliine, võib väita, et religioonivastase võitluse süsteem oli võrdlemisi ebaefektiivne ning taandus lõppkokkuvõttes ainult erinevate institutsioonidega seotud ateismientusiastide tegevusele. Uurimuses leiavad käsitlemist partei propaganda- ja haridussüsteem, usuasjade voliniku aparaat ühes talle allunud ususeadusandluse kontrollkomisjonidega, ühing „Teadus“ ja rahvaülikoolide süsteem – nende omavahelised sidemed, areng ja tegevus.

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    Authors: Polli, Kadi;

    This PhD thesis examines the Baltic art field during the Enlightenment, focusing on the amateur pictorial legacy. By turning our attention from the professional-institutional art world, which was still quite limited in the 18th century, to the broader circle of dilettanti, and from artistically high-quality pictures to everyday drawing practices (travel and scientific drawings, cartographical records, pictures related to local history and archaeology, journal vignettes, etc), the sudden increase of art appreciation and drawing skills among the Baltic nobility and educated class in the second half of the 18th century has been traced, along with the noteworthy role played by pictorial media during the Baltic Enlightenment. In the thesis, this change of perspective and a certain re-evaluation of the descriptive patterns related to the local art field help to highlight the special features of Baltic art, by allowing the limited aesthetic quality and the modest creative flight of the early local pictorial legacy to be treated without an inferiority complex and for its inherently Enlightenment-based pragmatic attitude and applied nature to be viewed as one of the main features of Baltic German art culture. Along with the mapping of the local art lovers’ pictorial experiences and prototypes, the topographies of Baltic sights and landscapes that were the most important and most characteristic pictorial genre of the Baltic Enlightenment, and which created the local visual identity, are examined. Various articles explore the aspect of female dilettanti, the theme of art collections and the art market, and provide a view based on the history of mentality as it relates to the various functions and art/artist positions in Baltic society. Attention is separately paid to distinguishing between an artist’s hobby and artist’s profession and the awareness thereof in the Baltic mentality; and to several, cultural self-determinations that developed locally during the Enlightenment, and which continued to feed the amateur, Enlightenment-based and pragmatic attitude toward artistic creation during the 19th century. Doktoritöö võtab vaatluse alla Balti valgustusaegse kunstivälja, keskendudes harrastuslikule pildipärandile. Pöörates fookuse 18.sajandi veel tagasihoidlikult professionaalselt-institutsionaalselt kunstielult laiemale harrastajate ringile ja kunstiliselt kõrgetasemelistelt piltidelt harrastuslikele, argistele, rakenduslikele joonistuspraktikatele (reisi- ja teadusjoonistused, kartograafilised ülestähendused, koduloolised ja muinasteaduslikud pildid, päevikuvinjetid jpm) on jälgitud kunstitundmise ja joonistusoskuse hüppelist kasvu Balti aadli- ja haritlaskonna seas 18.sajandi teisel poolel – ja veel enam, pildimeedia märkimisväärset rolli Balti valgustuses. Selline vaatenurga muutmine ja seniste kohalikku kunstivälja kirjeldavate mustrite teatav ümbermängimine on töös abiks balti kunsti erijoonte esiletoomisel, lubades alaväärsuskompleksita käsitleda siinse varase pildipärandi vähest esteetilist kvaliteeti ja madalat loomelendu ning hinnata sellele omast valgustuslik-pragmaatilist suhtumist ja rakenduslikku-harrastuslikku iseloomu kui baltisaksa kunstikultuuri ühte põhijoont. Koos siinsete harrastajate pildikogemuse ja -eeskujude kaardistamisega võetakse fookusesse Balti valgustuskunsti kõige tähtsam ja iseloomulikum, kohalikku visuaalset identiteeti loov pildižanr – muististe ja vaatamisväärsuste pildilised topograafiad ning maastikujoonistused. Erinevates artiklites lisandub naisuurimuse aspekt, kunstikogude ja –turu teema ning mentaliteediajaloost lähtuv pilk joonistamise erinevatele funktsioonidele ja kunsti/kunstniku positsioonile Balti ühiskonnas. Omaette tähelepanu saavad kunstiharrastuse ja kunstnikuprofessiooni eristamine ja teadvustamine balti mentaliteedis ning mitmed just valgustusajas siinmail väljakujunenud kultuurilised enesedeterminatsioonid, mis jäävad harrastuslikku, valgustuslik-pragmaatilist suhtumist kunstiloomesse toitma ka 19. sajandi edenedes. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5249289~S1

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    Authors: Vanamölder, Kaarel;

    The thesis deals with Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung, a newspaper printed periodically in Tallinn during the end of the Swedish reign (approx. 1689–1710). So far the newspaper has been examined as a separate institution in the historiography, but in the thesis the conception of the approach has been changed by viewing it in the broader context of early modern Swedish Empire and the European press history. The papers constituting the thesis review different aspects of the study object. The periodically issued (Tallinn) newspaper is at first reviewed together with other early modern information vehicles (pamphlets, etc) as a possible source of publicism and historiography of that time. Thereafter the thesis focuses on the person of the typographer of Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung and his other everyday activities. Newspaper publishing wasn’t an activity per se or a separate task for the typographer but one aspect of information communication and reproduction of news vehicles. Commercial and other announcements published in the newspaper are dealt with separately. As a methodological innovation Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung was for the first time reviewed in parallel with newspapers published in the Livonian Province – Montags (Donnertstags) Ordinari Post Zeitung (1690–1681), Rigische Novellen (1681–1710), and other German newspapers, for example those published in Königsberg and Hamburg. As a result of the comparison it became clear thet Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung was a abbreviated reedition of the newspaper printed in Riga. This knowledge compels us to revise the current outlook on the Baltic early modern press history. The publishing of the newspapers in Estonian and Livonian Province centres should be viewed as an integral process initiated by the volition of the central government to control the ways and channels of the information communication aimed at the public. Väitekirjas käsitletakse Rootsi aja lõpul (u 1689–1710) Tallinnas perioodiliselt ilmunud trükitud ajalehte Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung. Senises historiograafias on lehte vaadeldud omaette institutsioonina, kuid väitekirjas muudeti ainesele lähenemisel kontseptsiooni, käsitledes seda laiemalt varauusaegse Rootsi suurriigi ja Euroopa pressiajaloo kontekstis. Väitekirjaks koondatud artiklid avavad uurimisobjekti erinevaid tahke. Perioodiliselt ilmunud (Tallinna) ajalehte vaadeldakse esmalt koos teiste varauusaegsete infokandjatega (lendlehtede jms) kui tollase publitsistika ning ajalookirjutuse üht võimalikku allikat. Seejärel keskendutakse Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungi trükkali isikule ja tema muudele igapäevastele tegevustele. Ajalehe väljaandmine polnud trükkalile asi iseeneses või eraldi ülesanne, vaid üks tahk informatsiooni edastamises ja uudiskandjate reprodutseerimises. Eraldi käsitletakse ajalehes avaldatud reklaam- ning muid teateid. Metodoloogilise uuendusena vaadeldi Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungit esmakordselt paralleelselt Liivimaa kindralkubermangus välja antud ajalehtedega Montags (Donnertstags) Ordinari Post Zeitung (1690–1681), Rigische Novellen (1681–1710) ning teiste Saksa ajalehtedega, näiteks Königsbergis ja Hamburgis ilmunutega. Võrdluse tulemusena selgus, et Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungi näol on tegemist Riias ilmunud ajalehe lühendatud ümbertrükiga. See teadmine sunnib revideerima Balti varauusaegse pressi ajaloo seniseid seisukohti. Eesti- ja Liivimaa kubermangukeskuste ajalehtede väljaandmist tuleb vaadelda ühtse protsessina, mida initsieeris keskvõimu tahe kontrollida avalikkusele suunatud info edastamise viise ja kanaleid. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone.

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    Authors: Laidla, Janet;

    For a historian the early modern chronicle is most commonly a historical source – good or bad, reliable or untrustworthy. Based on this information the historian decides how much he or she can use the events recorded and historical figures described in the chronicle to reconstruct the past. For those researchers who study the history of historiography, the chronicle represents the reflections of the historical knowledge and the idea of history of the period in question. He or she is interested in the author, his or her motives, circumstances concerning the creation of the work, author’s sources and the reception of the work by its peers and followers. Historians and historians of historiography have studied the early modern chronicles written in Estland, Livland and Courland and agreed upon their trustworthiness, however, equal attention has not been given to the chronicles as reflectors of the historical knowledge of the period and to how the chronicles received new developments in Western European historiography. This dissertation contains seven articles on the early modern historiography which look at the influence of social factors (such as power, wars, spreading of printing presses), Western European ideas (idea of history, antiquarianism, Gothicism) and author’s personal choice of sources on historiography in Estland, Livland and Courland. In summary it can be said that historians received different ideas from Western Europe, however, none of them rose to the level of fame as some of their contemporaries in Europe. In the dialogue with the cultural centre, they were at the receiving end and not an equal partner. Concerning the societal factors, there is usually a combination of aspects influencing the writing of history at any given time. Thus, we cannot say that warfare or the establishment pf printing shops definitely encouraged or discouraged the writing of history, printing and distribution of historical works. When in 16th century the authors were more concerned with descriptions of contemporary events for future generations then in 17th century some authors aspired to write a more comprehensive overview on local history from the earliest times. Ajaloolasele on varauusaegne kroonika enamasti allikas – hea või halb, usaldusväärne või ebausaldusväärne – ning sellest lähtuvalt otsustab ajaloolane kui palju saab ta kasutada kroonikas kirjeldatud sündmusi ja inimeste tegusid selleks, et minevikku rekonstrueerida. Ajalookirjanduse ajaloo uurijale on kroonika oma ajastu ajaloo teadmiste ja ajaloo idee peegeldus. Teda huvitab autori isik, tema motiivid, kroonika valmimisega seotud asjaolud, krooniku allikad ja selle edasine saatus ajaloomaastikul. Mis puudutab kroonika allikalist väärtust, siis selles osas on ajalookirjutuse ajaloo uurijad ja ajaloolased varauusaegsete kroonikaid uurinud ning neile hinnangu andnud. Vähem on uuritud kroonikaid kui oma ajastu ajalookirjutuse peegleid ning seda, kuidas võtsid need vastu Lääne-Euroopas levinud ajalooteaduse arenguid või kuidas ühiskondlikud tegurid ajalookirjutust mõjutada võisid. Käesolev doktoriväitekiri sisaldab seitset sissevaadet varauusaegsesse ajalookirjutusse uurides ühiskondlike tegurite (võim, sõda, trükikunsti levik), Lääne-Euroopast tulnud ideede (ajaloo idee, antikvaarne liikumine, gootitsism) ning autori individuaalse allikavaliku mõju ajalookirjutusele Eestimaal, Liivimaal ja Kuramaal. Kokkuvõttes võib tõdeda, et Eestimaa, Liivimaa ja Kuramaa ajalookirjutajad võtsid vastu erinevaid Lääne-Euroopas levinud ideid ning lugesid uuemat kirjandust, kuid nende endi keskelt ei kerkinud esile ajaloolast, kes oleks olnud üle Euroopa tuntud. Dialoogis Euroopa kultuuri keskusega jäädi pigem vastuvõtjaks kui võrdseks partneriks. Ühiskondlike tegurite mõju avaldus enamasti paljude tegurite kombinatsioonis kui selgelt üheselt. Näiteks ei saa väita, et sõjategevus või trükikodade asutamine Eesti-, Liivi- ja Kuramaale alati julgustas või vastupidi pärssis ajalooteoste sündi, trükkimist või levikut. Kui 16. sajandil oli ajalookirjutajate jaoks esiplaanil oma eluajal toimunud sündmuste kirjeldamine järeltulevate põlvede jaoks, siis 17. sajandil asusid mitmed autorid koostama terviklikumat käsitlust kohalikust ajaloost. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone

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    Authors: Tartu Ülikool;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1025951~S1*est

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    Authors: Pärnamaa, Tanel;

    Selle töö eesmärgiks on treenida statistiline masin ehk algoritm, mis on võimeline pilte eesti keeles kirjeldama. Vastav mudel oleks kasulik nii pildiotsingul kui ka nägemisvaegustega inimestele navigeerimisel. Eesti keel on morfoloogiliselt rikas (palju käändeid ja pöördeid), mis teeb selle modelleerimise keeruliseks. Enne kui on võimalik genereerida grammatiliselt korrektset kirjeldust, tuleb osata lauseid ja sõnu informatiivselt esitada. Selleks uurin neurovõrkudel põhinevaid meetodeid. Lisaks on eestikeelsed andmekogud tihti väiksemad kui analoogilised ingliskeelsed korpused. Uurin, kuidas kanda tarkust üle suurtest ingliskeelsetest andmekogudest, et eesti keeletehnoloogia rakenduste tulemusi parandada. Treenin uudse neurovõrkudel põhineva tõlkesüsteemi ingliskeelsete lausete tõlkimiseks eesti keelde. Näitan, et analoogilise mudeliga saab tõlkida ka pilte tekstiks. Töö käigus valmib esimene mudel, mis on edukalt võimeline pilte loomulikus eesti keeles kirjeldama.

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    Authors: Remmel, Atko;

    Largely based on archival documents, this study describes the functioning of the institutions involved in anti-religion campaigns and their institutional development in Soviet Estonia in 1957-1990. The calming that followed the period of Stalin’s rule brought along a certain „religious renaissance“ that alarmed some of the higher Party functionaries. This and the utopic plan to reach the Communist state in a couple of decades – the main obstacles to which were thought to be the „vestiges of bourgeoisie“, including religion – led to an anti-religion campaign in 1958, which lasted until 1964. During this campaign the laws governing religion were hardened and several new units of anti-religion work were formed; these were involved in the control over religious legislation and atheistic propaganda both at the local and republic levels. Propagandists of atheism were trained in People’s Universities and the educational system of the Party. After the changes that occurred in the country’s administration in 1964 the national religion policy softened to a certain extent, although a negative stand towards religion persisted until the end of the Soviet period; changes in this attitude were not noticeable before 1988. The modified religion policy did not lead to dispersing the units established during the campaign; instead, it was attempted to employ them more effectively and also in a more concealed manner. This was, however, unsuccessful, as archived documents reveal that atheistic propaganda was an utterly insignificant matter for most national institutions and Party units. In view of the inadequate or inexistent coordination and obscure chains of command it can be said that the system of anti-religion fight was relatively ineffective and in reality it relied mostly on the activity of individual atheism enthusiasts working for different institutions. This thesis covers the system of propaganda and education of the Party, the apparatus of the commissioner of the Council for Religious Affairs and its subsidiary commissions of assistance for observance of the legislation on religion, the „Science“ Society, and the system of People’s Universities, as well as their mutual connections, development and activities. Peamiselt arhiiviallikatel baseeruv uurimus kirjeldab religioonivastasesse võitlusse kaasatud olulisemate ametkondade tegevust ja institutsionaalset arengut Nõukogude Eestis aastail 1957-1990. Stalini valitsemise perioodile järgnenud pingelangus tõi endaga kaasa teatava „religioosse renessanssi“, mis alarmeeris mõningaid kõrgemaid parteitegelasi. See ja utoopiline plaan jõuda paarikümne aastaga kommunistliku riigini – mille ühe peamise takistusena nähti „kodanlikke igandeid“, mille hulka kuulus ka religioon – vallandasid 1958. aastal religioonivastase kampaania, mis kestis kuni 1964. aastani. Kampaania käigus karmistati religioonialast seadusandlust ja kutsuti ellu mitmeid uusi religioonivastase võitluse üksusi, mis tegutsesid religioonialaste seaduste kontrollimise ja ateistliku propaganda valdkonnas – seda nii piirkondlikul kui ka ülevabariigilisel tasandil; ateismipropagandiste hakati ette valmistama nii rahvaülikoolides kui parteiharidussüsteemis. Pärast 1964. aastal toimunud muudatusi riigi juhtkonnas leidis riiklikus religioonipoliitikas aset teatud leevenemine, kuid negatiivne suhtumine religiooni jäi kestma nõukogude perioodi lõpuni – muutused selles suhtumises on märgatavad alles aastast 1988. Uuenenud religioonipoliitika ei toonud endaga kaasa mitte kampaania käigus loodud üksuste likvideerimist, vaid hoopis katseid neid nii efektiivsemalt kui ka varjatumalt tööle rakendada. Tõsi küll, edutult, sest arhiiviallikate põhjal ilmneb, et enamike riiklike organite ja asutuste ning ka parteiüksuste jaoks oli ateistlik võitlus täiesti ebaolulisel kohal. Võttes arvesse tegevuse olematut või puudulikku koordineerimist ning segaseid käsuliine, võib väita, et religioonivastase võitluse süsteem oli võrdlemisi ebaefektiivne ning taandus lõppkokkuvõttes ainult erinevate institutsioonidega seotud ateismientusiastide tegevusele. Uurimuses leiavad käsitlemist partei propaganda- ja haridussüsteem, usuasjade voliniku aparaat ühes talle allunud ususeadusandluse kontrollkomisjonidega, ühing „Teadus“ ja rahvaülikoolide süsteem – nende omavahelised sidemed, areng ja tegevus.

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    Authors: Polli, Kadi;

    This PhD thesis examines the Baltic art field during the Enlightenment, focusing on the amateur pictorial legacy. By turning our attention from the professional-institutional art world, which was still quite limited in the 18th century, to the broader circle of dilettanti, and from artistically high-quality pictures to everyday drawing practices (travel and scientific drawings, cartographical records, pictures related to local history and archaeology, journal vignettes, etc), the sudden increase of art appreciation and drawing skills among the Baltic nobility and educated class in the second half of the 18th century has been traced, along with the noteworthy role played by pictorial media during the Baltic Enlightenment. In the thesis, this change of perspective and a certain re-evaluation of the descriptive patterns related to the local art field help to highlight the special features of Baltic art, by allowing the limited aesthetic quality and the modest creative flight of the early local pictorial legacy to be treated without an inferiority complex and for its inherently Enlightenment-based pragmatic attitude and applied nature to be viewed as one of the main features of Baltic German art culture. Along with the mapping of the local art lovers’ pictorial experiences and prototypes, the topographies of Baltic sights and landscapes that were the most important and most characteristic pictorial genre of the Baltic Enlightenment, and which created the local visual identity, are examined. Various articles explore the aspect of female dilettanti, the theme of art collections and the art market, and provide a view based on the history of mentality as it relates to the various functions and art/artist positions in Baltic society. Attention is separately paid to distinguishing between an artist’s hobby and artist’s profession and the awareness thereof in the Baltic mentality; and to several, cultural self-determinations that developed locally during the Enlightenment, and which continued to feed the amateur, Enlightenment-based and pragmatic attitude toward artistic creation during the 19th century. Doktoritöö võtab vaatluse alla Balti valgustusaegse kunstivälja, keskendudes harrastuslikule pildipärandile. Pöörates fookuse 18.sajandi veel tagasihoidlikult professionaalselt-institutsionaalselt kunstielult laiemale harrastajate ringile ja kunstiliselt kõrgetasemelistelt piltidelt harrastuslikele, argistele, rakenduslikele joonistuspraktikatele (reisi- ja teadusjoonistused, kartograafilised ülestähendused, koduloolised ja muinasteaduslikud pildid, päevikuvinjetid jpm) on jälgitud kunstitundmise ja joonistusoskuse hüppelist kasvu Balti aadli- ja haritlaskonna seas 18.sajandi teisel poolel – ja veel enam, pildimeedia märkimisväärset rolli Balti valgustuses. Selline vaatenurga muutmine ja seniste kohalikku kunstivälja kirjeldavate mustrite teatav ümbermängimine on töös abiks balti kunsti erijoonte esiletoomisel, lubades alaväärsuskompleksita käsitleda siinse varase pildipärandi vähest esteetilist kvaliteeti ja madalat loomelendu ning hinnata sellele omast valgustuslik-pragmaatilist suhtumist ja rakenduslikku-harrastuslikku iseloomu kui baltisaksa kunstikultuuri ühte põhijoont. Koos siinsete harrastajate pildikogemuse ja -eeskujude kaardistamisega võetakse fookusesse Balti valgustuskunsti kõige tähtsam ja iseloomulikum, kohalikku visuaalset identiteeti loov pildižanr – muististe ja vaatamisväärsuste pildilised topograafiad ning maastikujoonistused. Erinevates artiklites lisandub naisuurimuse aspekt, kunstikogude ja –turu teema ning mentaliteediajaloost lähtuv pilk joonistamise erinevatele funktsioonidele ja kunsti/kunstniku positsioonile Balti ühiskonnas. Omaette tähelepanu saavad kunstiharrastuse ja kunstnikuprofessiooni eristamine ja teadvustamine balti mentaliteedis ning mitmed just valgustusajas siinmail väljakujunenud kultuurilised enesedeterminatsioonid, mis jäävad harrastuslikku, valgustuslik-pragmaatilist suhtumist kunstiloomesse toitma ka 19. sajandi edenedes. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5249289~S1

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    Authors: Vanamölder, Kaarel;

    The thesis deals with Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung, a newspaper printed periodically in Tallinn during the end of the Swedish reign (approx. 1689–1710). So far the newspaper has been examined as a separate institution in the historiography, but in the thesis the conception of the approach has been changed by viewing it in the broader context of early modern Swedish Empire and the European press history. The papers constituting the thesis review different aspects of the study object. The periodically issued (Tallinn) newspaper is at first reviewed together with other early modern information vehicles (pamphlets, etc) as a possible source of publicism and historiography of that time. Thereafter the thesis focuses on the person of the typographer of Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung and his other everyday activities. Newspaper publishing wasn’t an activity per se or a separate task for the typographer but one aspect of information communication and reproduction of news vehicles. Commercial and other announcements published in the newspaper are dealt with separately. As a methodological innovation Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung was for the first time reviewed in parallel with newspapers published in the Livonian Province – Montags (Donnertstags) Ordinari Post Zeitung (1690–1681), Rigische Novellen (1681–1710), and other German newspapers, for example those published in Königsberg and Hamburg. As a result of the comparison it became clear thet Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung was a abbreviated reedition of the newspaper printed in Riga. This knowledge compels us to revise the current outlook on the Baltic early modern press history. The publishing of the newspapers in Estonian and Livonian Province centres should be viewed as an integral process initiated by the volition of the central government to control the ways and channels of the information communication aimed at the public. Väitekirjas käsitletakse Rootsi aja lõpul (u 1689–1710) Tallinnas perioodiliselt ilmunud trükitud ajalehte Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitung. Senises historiograafias on lehte vaadeldud omaette institutsioonina, kuid väitekirjas muudeti ainesele lähenemisel kontseptsiooni, käsitledes seda laiemalt varauusaegse Rootsi suurriigi ja Euroopa pressiajaloo kontekstis. Väitekirjaks koondatud artiklid avavad uurimisobjekti erinevaid tahke. Perioodiliselt ilmunud (Tallinna) ajalehte vaadeldakse esmalt koos teiste varauusaegsete infokandjatega (lendlehtede jms) kui tollase publitsistika ning ajalookirjutuse üht võimalikku allikat. Seejärel keskendutakse Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungi trükkali isikule ja tema muudele igapäevastele tegevustele. Ajalehe väljaandmine polnud trükkalile asi iseeneses või eraldi ülesanne, vaid üks tahk informatsiooni edastamises ja uudiskandjate reprodutseerimises. Eraldi käsitletakse ajalehes avaldatud reklaam- ning muid teateid. Metodoloogilise uuendusena vaadeldi Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungit esmakordselt paralleelselt Liivimaa kindralkubermangus välja antud ajalehtedega Montags (Donnertstags) Ordinari Post Zeitung (1690–1681), Rigische Novellen (1681–1710) ning teiste Saksa ajalehtedega, näiteks Königsbergis ja Hamburgis ilmunutega. Võrdluse tulemusena selgus, et Reval(i)sche Post-Zeitungi näol on tegemist Riias ilmunud ajalehe lühendatud ümbertrükiga. See teadmine sunnib revideerima Balti varauusaegse pressi ajaloo seniseid seisukohti. Eesti- ja Liivimaa kubermangukeskuste ajalehtede väljaandmist tuleb vaadelda ühtse protsessina, mida initsieeris keskvõimu tahe kontrollida avalikkusele suunatud info edastamise viise ja kanaleid. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone.

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    Authors: Laidla, Janet;

    For a historian the early modern chronicle is most commonly a historical source – good or bad, reliable or untrustworthy. Based on this information the historian decides how much he or she can use the events recorded and historical figures described in the chronicle to reconstruct the past. For those researchers who study the history of historiography, the chronicle represents the reflections of the historical knowledge and the idea of history of the period in question. He or she is interested in the author, his or her motives, circumstances concerning the creation of the work, author’s sources and the reception of the work by its peers and followers. Historians and historians of historiography have studied the early modern chronicles written in Estland, Livland and Courland and agreed upon their trustworthiness, however, equal attention has not been given to the chronicles as reflectors of the historical knowledge of the period and to how the chronicles received new developments in Western European historiography. This dissertation contains seven articles on the early modern historiography which look at the influence of social factors (such as power, wars, spreading of printing presses), Western European ideas (idea of history, antiquarianism, Gothicism) and author’s personal choice of sources on historiography in Estland, Livland and Courland. In summary it can be said that historians received different ideas from Western Europe, however, none of them rose to the level of fame as some of their contemporaries in Europe. In the dialogue with the cultural centre, they were at the receiving end and not an equal partner. Concerning the societal factors, there is usually a combination of aspects influencing the writing of history at any given time. Thus, we cannot say that warfare or the establishment pf printing shops definitely encouraged or discouraged the writing of history, printing and distribution of historical works. When in 16th century the authors were more concerned with descriptions of contemporary events for future generations then in 17th century some authors aspired to write a more comprehensive overview on local history from the earliest times. Ajaloolasele on varauusaegne kroonika enamasti allikas – hea või halb, usaldusväärne või ebausaldusväärne – ning sellest lähtuvalt otsustab ajaloolane kui palju saab ta kasutada kroonikas kirjeldatud sündmusi ja inimeste tegusid selleks, et minevikku rekonstrueerida. Ajalookirjanduse ajaloo uurijale on kroonika oma ajastu ajaloo teadmiste ja ajaloo idee peegeldus. Teda huvitab autori isik, tema motiivid, kroonika valmimisega seotud asjaolud, krooniku allikad ja selle edasine saatus ajaloomaastikul. Mis puudutab kroonika allikalist väärtust, siis selles osas on ajalookirjutuse ajaloo uurijad ja ajaloolased varauusaegsete kroonikaid uurinud ning neile hinnangu andnud. Vähem on uuritud kroonikaid kui oma ajastu ajalookirjutuse peegleid ning seda, kuidas võtsid need vastu Lääne-Euroopas levinud ajalooteaduse arenguid või kuidas ühiskondlikud tegurid ajalookirjutust mõjutada võisid. Käesolev doktoriväitekiri sisaldab seitset sissevaadet varauusaegsesse ajalookirjutusse uurides ühiskondlike tegurite (võim, sõda, trükikunsti levik), Lääne-Euroopast tulnud ideede (ajaloo idee, antikvaarne liikumine, gootitsism) ning autori individuaalse allikavaliku mõju ajalookirjutusele Eestimaal, Liivimaal ja Kuramaal. Kokkuvõttes võib tõdeda, et Eestimaa, Liivimaa ja Kuramaa ajalookirjutajad võtsid vastu erinevaid Lääne-Euroopas levinud ideid ning lugesid uuemat kirjandust, kuid nende endi keskelt ei kerkinud esile ajaloolast, kes oleks olnud üle Euroopa tuntud. Dialoogis Euroopa kultuuri keskusega jäädi pigem vastuvõtjaks kui võrdseks partneriks. Ühiskondlike tegurite mõju avaldus enamasti paljude tegurite kombinatsioonis kui selgelt üheselt. Näiteks ei saa väita, et sõjategevus või trükikodade asutamine Eesti-, Liivi- ja Kuramaale alati julgustas või vastupidi pärssis ajalooteoste sündi, trükkimist või levikut. Kui 16. sajandil oli ajalookirjutajate jaoks esiplaanil oma eluajal toimunud sündmuste kirjeldamine järeltulevate põlvede jaoks, siis 17. sajandil asusid mitmed autorid koostama terviklikumat käsitlust kohalikust ajaloost. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone

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