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234 Research products, page 1 of 24

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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coussement, Alexia; van Berckel Smit, Floris;
    Publisher: ECHER Blog
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Economisch publiek recht; RENFORCE / Regulering en handhaving;
    Publisher: SSRN

    Agencification phenomenon in the EU has led to concerns about controls over EU agencies’ actions. As the quantity and ‘quality’, i.e., strength of de jure powers, of EU agencies have grown in the last decades, so does the system of control over agencies show its development. The controls over all EU agencies with the de jure decision-making powers as well as the European Central Bank within the Single Supervisory Mechanism have been supported with the establishment of Boards of Appeal, which count 9 entities. Like with the agencification phenomenon however, the establishment and characteristics of the Boards vary greatly from agency to agency without clear indications as to why the differences (should) exist and what exact role and how much discretion (should) be given to the Boards. As this unclarities put the legitimacy of the system of controls of EU agencies under pressure, an attempt to build a common system of review of agency action by the Boards seems desirable. To contribute to this ultimate goal of our study, this chapter offers a historical overview of agencification and review of agency action in the EU, rationales behind the creation of agencies’ appeal bodies and an attempt of classification of different boards to enhance comprehension and development of a common system of review of agency action. For learning purposes, we look at the system of administrative review in the US. We base our analysis on relevant secondary legislation, such as agencies’ founding acts, rules of procedure, case-law in the EU and in the US and relevant academic literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Quik, Cindy; Palstra, Sanne W.L.; van Beek, Roy; van der Velde, Ype; Candel, Jasper H.J.; van der Linden, Marjolein; Kubiak-Martens, Lucy; Swindles, Greame T.; Makaske, Bart; Koudijs, Romy; +1 more
    Publisher: 4TU.ResearchData
    Country: Netherlands

    Attributing the start of peat growth to an absolute timescale requires dating the bottom of peat deposits overlying mineral sediment, often called the basal peat. Peat initiation is reflected in the stratigraphy as a gradual transition from mineral sediment to increasingly organic material, up to where it is called peat. So far, varying criteria have been used to define basal peat, resulting in divergent approaches to date peat initiation. The lack of a universally applicable and quantitative definition, combined with multiple concerns that have been raised previously regarding the radiocarbon dating of peat, may result in apparent ages that are either too old or too young for the timing of peat initiation. Here, we aim to formulate updated recommendations for dating peat initiation. We provide a conceptual framework that supports the use of the organic matter (OM) gradient for a quantitative and reproducible definition of the mineral-to-peat transition (i.e., the stratigraphical range reflecting the timespan of the peat initiation process) and the layer defined as basal peat (i.e., the stratigraphical layer that is defined as the bottom of a peat deposit). Selection of dating samples is often challenging due to poor preservation of plant macrofossils in basal peat, and the representativity of humic and humin dates for the age of basal peat is uncertain. We therefore analyse the mineral-to-peat transition based on three highly detailed sequences of radiocarbon dates, including dates of plant macrofossils and the humic and humin fractions obtained from bulk samples. Our case study peatland in the Netherlands currently harbours a bog vegetation, but biostratigraphical analyses show that during peat initiation the vegetation was mesotrophic. Results show that plant macrofossils provide the most accurate age in the mineral-to-peat transition and are therefore recommendable to use for 14C dating basal peat. If these are unattainable, the humic fraction provides the best alternative and is interpreted as a terminus-ante-quem for peat initiation. The potential large age difference between dates of plant macrofossils and humic or humin dates (up to ~1700 years between macrofossil and humic ages, and with even larger differences for humins) suggests that studies reusing existing bulk dates of basal peat should take great care in data interpretation. The potentially long timespan of the peat initiation process (with medians of ~1000, ~1300 and ~1500 years within our case study peatland) demonstrates that choices regarding sampling size and resolution need to be well substantiated. We summarise our findings as a set of recommendations for dating basal peats, and advocate the widespread use of OM determination to obtain a low-cost, quantitative and reproducible definition of basal peat that eases intercomparison of studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evans, Antony M.; Rosenbusch, Hannes; Zeelenberg, Marcel;

    Prosociality (measured with economic games) is correlated with individual differences in psychological constructs (measured with self-report scales). We review how methods from natural language processing, a subfield of computer science focused on processing natural text, can be applied to understand the semantic content of scales measuring psychological constructs correlated with prosociality. Methods for clustering language and assessing similarity between text documents can be used to assess the novelty (or redundancy) of new scales, to understand the overlap among different psychological constructs, and to compare different measures of the same construct. These examples illustrate how natural language processing methods can augment traditional survey- and game-based approaches to studying individual differences in prosociality.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollander, Hella; Wright, Holly; Geser, Guntram; Ronzino, Paola; Bassett, Sheena; Massara, Flavia; Doorn, P.K.;
    Publisher: ARIADNEplus

    This interim report, “Policies and Good Practices for FAIR Data Management” describes the activities carried out by the different partners during the first 2 and a half years of the ARIADNEplus project, as well as the results achieved through the work package on the following topics: • Support the creation of FAIR data in the archaeological sector • Define and spread guidelines to good practices in archaeological data management • Adapt standard quality criteria for datasets and data to the archaeological case, and support their implementation among users.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schalk, R; Zijdeman, R.L.; Rijpma, A; Dijk, I.K. van; Mourits, R.J.;
    Publisher: IISG dataverse
    Country: Netherlands

    The HSNDB index for occupational exposure to infectious disease shows for all HISCO unit groups, also known as three-digit HISCO codes, occupational exposure to infectious disease on two dimensions: 1. Working in an indoor environment (no/yes) 2. Regular social interaction (no/yes) (2022-07-18)

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Quik, Cindy; Walstra, Sanne; van Beek, Roy; van der Velde, Ype; Candel, Jasper; Van der Linden, Marjolein; Kubiak-Martens, Lucy; Swindles, Greame; Makaske, Bart; Koudijs, Romy; +1 more
    Publisher: Wageningen University & Research

    Attributing the start of peat growth to an absolute timescale requires dating the bottom of peat deposits overlying mineral sediment, often called the basal peat. Peat initiation is reflected in the stratigraphy as a gradual transition from mineral sediment to increasingly organic material, up to where it is called peat. So far, varying criteria have been used to define basal peat, resulting in divergent approaches to date peat initiation. The lack of a universally applicable and quantitative definition, combined with multiple concerns that have been raised previously regarding the radiocarbon dating of peat, may result in apparent ages that are either too old or too young for the timing of peat initiation. Here, we aim to formulate updated recommendations for dating peat initiation. We provide a conceptual framework that supports the use of the organic matter (OM) gradient for a quantitative and reproducible definition of the mineral-to-peat transition (i.e., the stratigraphical range reflecting the timespan of the peat initiation process) and the layer defined as basal peat (i.e., the stratigraphical layer that is defined as the bottom of a peat deposit). Selection of dating samples is often challenging due to poor preservation of plant macrofossils in basal peat, and the representativity of humic and humin dates for the age of basal peat is uncertain. We therefore analyse the mineral-to-peat transition based on three highly detailed sequences of radiocarbon dates, including dates of plant macrofossils and the humic and humin fractions obtained from bulk samples. Our case study peatland in the Netherlands currently harbours a bog vegetation, but biostratigraphical analyses show that during peat initiation the vegetation was mesotrophic. Results show that plant macrofossils provide the most accurate age in the mineral-to-peat transition and are therefore recommendable to use for 14C dating basal peat. If these are unattainable, the humic fraction provides the best alternative and is interpreted as a terminus-ante-quem for peat initiation. The potential large age difference between dates of plant macrofossils and humic or humin dates (up to ~1700 years between macrofossil and humic ages, and with even larger differences for humins) suggests that studies reusing existing bulk dates of basal peat should take great care in data interpretation. The potentially long timespan of the peat initiation process (with medians of ~1000, ~1300 and ~1500 years within our case study peatland) demonstrates that choices regarding sampling size and resolution need to be well substantiated. We summarise our findings as a set of recommendations for dating basal peats, and advocate the widespread use of OM determination to obtain a low-cost, quantitative and reproducible definition of basal peat that eases intercomparison of studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    de Zwart, Pim; Lucassen, Jan;
    Publisher: ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
    Country: Netherlands

    These files contain all the data used in the publication "Poverty or Prosperity in Northern India? New Evidence on Real Wages, 1590s-1870s". This paper introduces a new dataset on wages in northern India (from Gujarat in the West to Bengal in the East) from the 1590s to the 1870s. It follows Allen’s subsistence basket methodology to compute internationally comparable real wages to shed light on developments in Indian living standards over time, as well as to test some of the assumptions underlying the comparative real wage methodology. It adjusts the comparative cost of living indices to take into account differences in caloric intake due to variances in heights. Furthermore, the paper discusses the male/female wage gap in northern India. We demonstrate that the Great Divergence started somewhere in the late seventeenth century. This gap widens further after the 1720s and especially after the 1800s. It is subsequently primarily England’s spurt and India’s stagnation in the first half of the nineteenth century which brought about most serious differences in the standard of living in Eurasia. If the British colonial state is to blame – as often happens in the literature on India’s persistent poverty – it is in their failure to improve the already deteriorated situation after they had become the near-undisputed masters of India since 1820.Note on v2There are two main changes compared with Version 1:1. In the sheet “PricesNEI” from the Excel file “prices_north_india.xlsx”, a faulty comma in the formula of column P, caused the average price of ghi to be calculated over 4 rather than 3 columns. This was corrected and the newly calculated series of ghi were also included in the “BasketNEI” sheet of that same file and the improved CPI was used in the calculations of the real wages. As a consequence of this change, the prices of the overall basket are increased somewhat, causing a slight downward adjustment of real wages. 2. In the sheet “PriceNOI”, for the years 1861-1930, the average price of millet (Column J) was accidentally calculated over columns F-I, rather than just column I. This has been corrected in this file and the newly computed CPI entered in the comparisons and real wages calculations. It has no observable consequences for the results. We thank Joseph Enguehard (l’École normale supérieure de Lyon) for pointing us towards these issues. Note on v3There are two changes compared with v2:1. In the file “7.global_comparisons”, sheet “cpi”, in the calculation of the 10-year averages for Beijing, London, Leipzig and Valencia, the range of years in the formula did not match with the decade in column A. This has been corrected. 2. In that same file, sheets “skilled” and “unskilled”, in the calculation of the 10-year averages, the formula for the 1680s accidently ranged from 1678-1689 instead of 1680-1689. This has been corrected. We thank Tamer Güven (Utrecht University) for pointing us towards these issues.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Daalen, Sjoerd; van der Beek, Jelle; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Jansma, Esther;
    Publisher: DataverseNL

    Dendrochronological Research Project

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mennen, K.M.; Heuvel, H. Van Den;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | PmNC (832350)

    The dataset contains the processed and analysed research data from the research project 'Policy-making of early nature conservation. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom compared, 1930-1960', funded by the European Union���s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sk��odowska-Curie grant agreement No 832350. The dataset contains the Data Management Plan, the researcher's notes on literature and archival sources, and export files for his full literature reference system (also including notes, summaries etc.). For further details about contents and hints for usage, please see the readme.txt file.