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194 Research products, page 1 of 20

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lerchi, A.; Krap, T.; Eppenberger, P.; Pedergnana, A.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Residue analysis is an established area of expertise focused on detecting traces of substances found on the surface of objects. It is routinely employed in forensic casework and increasingly incorporated into archaeological investigations.In archaeology, sampling and data interpretation sometimes lacked strict standards, resulting in incorrect residue classifications. In particular, molecular signals of salts of fatty acids identified by FTIR have been, at times, interpreted as evidence for adipocere, a substance formed as a consequence of adipose tissues' degradation.This article reviews and discusses the possibilities and limitations of the analytical protocols used in residue analysis in archaeology. The focus is on three main points: (1) reviewing the decomposition processes and the chemical components of adipocere; (2) highlighting potential misidentifications of adipocere while, at the same time, addressing issues related to residue preservation and contamination; and (3) proposing new research avenues to identify adipocere on archaeological objects.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rulkens, C.C.S.; Van Eyghen, Hans; Pear, Rachel; Peels, R.; Bouter, Lex; Stols-Witlox, Maartje; van den Brink, Gijsbert; Meloni, Sabrina; Buijsen, Edwin; van Woudenberg, René;
    Publisher: Center for Open Sciences
    Country: Netherlands

    At the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, we have set out to explore the strengths and limitations of replication studies in the humanities in practice. We are doing so by replicating two original studies: one in the field of art history, the other in the field of history of science and religion. In this blog, we outline the design, purposes, and aims of these projects and explore some of the challenges.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coussement, Alexia; van Berckel Smit, Floris;
    Publisher: ECHER Blog
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parrini, I.; Luca, F.; Rao, C.M.; Parise, G.; Micali, L.R.; Musumeci, G.; La Meir, M.; Colivicchi, F.; Gulizia, M.M.; Gelsomino, S.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Background and aim. Cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF) may be associated, and anticoagulation, either with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), is necessary to prevent thromboembolic events by reducing the risk of bleeding. The log incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval were used as index statistics. Higgin's I-2 test was adopted to assess statistical inconsistencies by considering interstudy variations, defined by values ranging from 0 to 100%. I-2 values of less than 40% are associated with very low heterogeneity among the studies; values between 40% and 75% indicate moderate heterogeneity, and those greater than 75% suggest severe heterogeneity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of VKAs and DOACs in oncologic patients with AF. Methods. A meta-analysis was conducted comparing VKAs to DOACs in terms of thromboembolic events and bleeding. A meta-regression was conducted to investigate the differences in efficacy and safety between four different DOACs. Moreover, a sub-analysis on active-cancer-only patients was conducted. Results. A total of eight papers were included. The log incidence rate ratio (IRR) for thromboembolic events between the two groups was -0.69 (p 0.9). The Log IRR was -0.38 (p = 0.008) for ischemic stroke, -0.43 (p = 0.02) for myocardial infarction, -0.39 (p = 0.45) for arterial embolism, and -1.04 (p = 0.003) for venous thromboembolism. The log IRR for bleeding events was -0.43 (p < 0.005), and the meta-regression revealed no statistical difference (p = 0.7). The log IRR of hemorrhagic stroke, major bleeding, and clinically relevant non-major bleeding between the VKA and DOAC groups was -0.51 (p < 0.0001), -0.45 (p = 0.03), and 0.0045 (p = 0.97), respectively. Similar results were found in active-cancer patients for all the endpoints except for clinically-relevant non-major bleedings. Conclusions. DOACs showed better efficacy and safety outcomes than VKAs. No difference was found between types of DOACs.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kelder, J.M.;
    Country: Netherlands

    From an Ancient Egyptian plague to the Black Death and Spanish flu, epidemics have often spurred societal transformations. Understanding why can help us create a better world after covid-19

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evans, Antony M.; Rosenbusch, Hannes; Zeelenberg, Marcel;
    Country: Netherlands

    Prosociality (measured with economic games) is correlated with individual differences in psychological constructs (measured with self-report scales). We review how methods from natural language processing, a subfield of computer science focused on processing natural text, can be applied to understand the semantic content of scales measuring psychological constructs correlated with prosociality. Methods for clustering language and assessing similarity between text documents can be used to assess the novelty (or redundancy) of new scales, to understand the overlap among different psychological constructs, and to compare different measures of the same construct. These examples illustrate how natural language processing methods can augment traditional survey- and game-based approaches to studying individual differences in prosociality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarti, Gabriele; Nissim, Malvina;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Netherlands

    The T5 model and its unified text-to-text paradigm contributed in advancing the state-of-the-art for many natural language processing tasks. While some multilingual variants of the T5 model have recently been introduced, their performances were found to provide suboptimal performances for languages other than English if compared to monolingual variants. We are motivated by these findings to introduce IT5, the first family of encoder-decoder transformer models pretrained specifically on Italian. We perform a thorough cleaning of a web-crawled Italian corpus including more than 40 billion words and use it to pretrain three IT5 models of different sizes. The performance of IT5 models and their multilingual counterparts is then evaluated on a broad range of natural language understanding and generation benchmarks for Italian. We find the monolingual IT5 models to provide the best scale-to-performance ratio across tested models, consistently outperforming their multilingual counterparts and setting a new state-of-the-art for most Italian conditional language generation tasks.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollander, Hella; Wright, Holly; Geser, Guntram; Ronzino, Paola; Bassett, Sheena; Massara, Flavia; Doorn, P.K.;
    Publisher: ARIADNEplus
    Country: Netherlands

    This interim report, “Policies and Good Practices for FAIR Data Management” describes the activities carried out by the different partners during the first 2 and a half years of the ARIADNEplus project, as well as the results achieved through the work package on the following topics: • Support the creation of FAIR data in the archaeological sector • Define and spread guidelines to good practices in archaeological data management • Adapt standard quality criteria for datasets and data to the archaeological case, and support their implementation among users.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Quik, Cindy; Walstra, Sanne; van Beek, Roy; van der Velde, Ype; Candel, Jasper; Van der Linden, Marjolein; Kubiak-Martens, Lucy; Swindles, Greame; Makaske, Bart; Koudijs, Romy; +1 more
    Publisher: Wageningen University & Research
    Country: Netherlands

    Attributing the start of peat growth to an absolute timescale requires dating the bottom of peat deposits overlying mineral sediment, often called the basal peat. Peat initiation is reflected in the stratigraphy as a gradual transition from mineral sediment to increasingly organic material, up to where it is called peat. So far, varying criteria have been used to define basal peat, resulting in divergent approaches to date peat initiation. The lack of a universally applicable and quantitative definition, combined with multiple concerns that have been raised previously regarding the radiocarbon dating of peat, may result in apparent ages that are either too old or too young for the timing of peat initiation. Here, we aim to formulate updated recommendations for dating peat initiation. We provide a conceptual framework that supports the use of the organic matter (OM) gradient for a quantitative and reproducible definition of the mineral-to-peat transition (i.e., the stratigraphical range reflecting the timespan of the peat initiation process) and the layer defined as basal peat (i.e., the stratigraphical layer that is defined as the bottom of a peat deposit). Selection of dating samples is often challenging due to poor preservation of plant macrofossils in basal peat, and the representativity of humic and humin dates for the age of basal peat is uncertain. We therefore analyse the mineral-to-peat transition based on three highly detailed sequences of radiocarbon dates, including dates of plant macrofossils and the humic and humin fractions obtained from bulk samples. Our case study peatland in the Netherlands currently harbours a bog vegetation, but biostratigraphical analyses show that during peat initiation the vegetation was mesotrophic. Results show that plant macrofossils provide the most accurate age in the mineral-to-peat transition and are therefore recommendable to use for 14C dating basal peat. If these are unattainable, the humic fraction provides the best alternative and is interpreted as a terminus-ante-quem for peat initiation. The potential large age difference between dates of plant macrofossils and humic or humin dates (up to ~1700 years between macrofossil and humic ages, and with even larger differences for humins) suggests that studies reusing existing bulk dates of basal peat should take great care in data interpretation. The potentially long timespan of the peat initiation process (with medians of ~1000, ~1300 and ~1500 years within our case study peatland) demonstrates that choices regarding sampling size and resolution need to be well substantiated. We summarise our findings as a set of recommendations for dating basal peats, and advocate the widespread use of OM determination to obtain a low-cost, quantitative and reproducible definition of basal peat that eases intercomparison of studies.

  • Restricted Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Dierikx, M.L.J.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Overview of the activities of the Aviation Laboratory under German rule between 1940 and 1945. Although officially driven by scientific motivation only, the laboratory worked closely with German aviation research and contributed to the German war effort.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
194 Research products, page 1 of 20
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lerchi, A.; Krap, T.; Eppenberger, P.; Pedergnana, A.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Residue analysis is an established area of expertise focused on detecting traces of substances found on the surface of objects. It is routinely employed in forensic casework and increasingly incorporated into archaeological investigations.In archaeology, sampling and data interpretation sometimes lacked strict standards, resulting in incorrect residue classifications. In particular, molecular signals of salts of fatty acids identified by FTIR have been, at times, interpreted as evidence for adipocere, a substance formed as a consequence of adipose tissues' degradation.This article reviews and discusses the possibilities and limitations of the analytical protocols used in residue analysis in archaeology. The focus is on three main points: (1) reviewing the decomposition processes and the chemical components of adipocere; (2) highlighting potential misidentifications of adipocere while, at the same time, addressing issues related to residue preservation and contamination; and (3) proposing new research avenues to identify adipocere on archaeological objects.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rulkens, C.C.S.; Van Eyghen, Hans; Pear, Rachel; Peels, R.; Bouter, Lex; Stols-Witlox, Maartje; van den Brink, Gijsbert; Meloni, Sabrina; Buijsen, Edwin; van Woudenberg, René;
    Publisher: Center for Open Sciences
    Country: Netherlands

    At the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, we have set out to explore the strengths and limitations of replication studies in the humanities in practice. We are doing so by replicating two original studies: one in the field of art history, the other in the field of history of science and religion. In this blog, we outline the design, purposes, and aims of these projects and explore some of the challenges.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coussement, Alexia; van Berckel Smit, Floris;
    Publisher: ECHER Blog
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parrini, I.; Luca, F.; Rao, C.M.; Parise, G.; Micali, L.R.; Musumeci, G.; La Meir, M.; Colivicchi, F.; Gulizia, M.M.; Gelsomino, S.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Background and aim. Cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF) may be associated, and anticoagulation, either with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), is necessary to prevent thromboembolic events by reducing the risk of bleeding. The log incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval were used as index statistics. Higgin's I-2 test was adopted to assess statistical inconsistencies by considering interstudy variations, defined by values ranging from 0 to 100%. I-2 values of less than 40% are associated with very low heterogeneity among the studies; values between 40% and 75% indicate moderate heterogeneity, and those greater than 75% suggest severe heterogeneity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of VKAs and DOACs in oncologic patients with AF. Methods. A meta-analysis was conducted comparing VKAs to DOACs in terms of thromboembolic events and bleeding. A meta-regression was conducted to investigate the differences in efficacy and safety between four different DOACs. Moreover, a sub-analysis on active-cancer-only patients was conducted. Results. A total of eight papers were included. The log incidence rate ratio (IRR) for thromboembolic events between the two groups was -0.69 (p 0.9). The Log IRR was -0.38 (p = 0.008) for ischemic stroke, -0.43 (p = 0.02) for myocardial infarction, -0.39 (p = 0.45) for arterial embolism, and -1.04 (p = 0.003) for venous thromboembolism. The log IRR for bleeding events was -0.43 (p < 0.005), and the meta-regression revealed no statistical difference (p = 0.7). The log IRR of hemorrhagic stroke, major bleeding, and clinically relevant non-major bleeding between the VKA and DOAC groups was -0.51 (p < 0.0001), -0.45 (p = 0.03), and 0.0045 (p = 0.97), respectively. Similar results were found in active-cancer patients for all the endpoints except for clinically-relevant non-major bleedings. Conclusions. DOACs showed better efficacy and safety outcomes than VKAs. No difference was found between types of DOACs.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kelder, J.M.;
    Country: Netherlands

    From an Ancient Egyptian plague to the Black Death and Spanish flu, epidemics have often spurred societal transformations. Understanding why can help us create a better world after covid-19

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evans, Antony M.; Rosenbusch, Hannes; Zeelenberg, Marcel;
    Country: Netherlands

    Prosociality (measured with economic games) is correlated with individual differences in psychological constructs (measured with self-report scales). We review how methods from natural language processing, a subfield of computer science focused on processing natural text, can be applied to understand the semantic content of scales measuring psychological constructs correlated with prosociality. Methods for clustering language and assessing similarity between text documents can be used to assess the novelty (or redundancy) of new scales, to understand the overlap among different psychological constructs, and to compare different measures of the same construct. These examples illustrate how natural language processing methods can augment traditional survey- and game-based approaches to studying individual differences in prosociality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarti, Gabriele; Nissim, Malvina;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Netherlands

    The T5 model and its unified text-to-text paradigm contributed in advancing the state-of-the-art for many natural language processing tasks. While some multilingual variants of the T5 model have recently been introduced, their performances were found to provide suboptimal performances for languages other than English if compared to monolingual variants. We are motivated by these findings to introduce IT5, the first family of encoder-decoder transformer models pretrained specifically on Italian. We perform a thorough cleaning of a web-crawled Italian corpus including more than 40 billion words and use it to pretrain three IT5 models of different sizes. The performance of IT5 models and their multilingual counterparts is then evaluated on a broad range of natural language understanding and generation benchmarks for Italian. We find the monolingual IT5 models to provide the best scale-to-performance ratio across tested models, consistently outperforming their multilingual counterparts and setting a new state-of-the-art for most Italian conditional language generation tasks.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollander, Hella; Wright, Holly; Geser, Guntram; Ronzino, Paola; Bassett, Sheena; Massara, Flavia; Doorn, P.K.;
    Publisher: ARIADNEplus
    Country: Netherlands

    This interim report, “Policies and Good Practices for FAIR Data Management” describes the activities carried out by the different partners during the first 2 and a half years of the ARIADNEplus project, as well as the results achieved through the work package on the following topics: • Support the creation of FAIR data in the archaeological sector • Define and spread guidelines to good practices in archaeological data management • Adapt standard quality criteria for datasets and data to the archaeological case, and support their implementation among users.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Quik, Cindy; Walstra, Sanne; van Beek, Roy; van der Velde, Ype; Candel, Jasper; Van der Linden, Marjolein; Kubiak-Martens, Lucy; Swindles, Greame; Makaske, Bart; Koudijs, Romy; +1 more
    Publisher: Wageningen University & Research
    Country: Netherlands

    Attributing the start of peat growth to an absolute timescale requires dating the bottom of peat deposits overlying mineral sediment, often called the basal peat. Peat initiation is reflected in the stratigraphy as a gradual transition from mineral sediment to increasingly organic material, up to where it is called peat. So far, varying criteria have been used to define basal peat, resulting in divergent approaches to date peat initiation. The lack of a universally applicable and quantitative definition, combined with multiple concerns that have been raised previously regarding the radiocarbon dating of peat, may result in apparent ages that are either too old or too young for the timing of peat initiation. Here, we aim to formulate updated recommendations for dating peat initiation. We provide a conceptual framework that supports the use of the organic matter (OM) gradient for a quantitative and reproducible definition of the mineral-to-peat transition (i.e., the stratigraphical range reflecting the timespan of the peat initiation process) and the layer defined as basal peat (i.e., the stratigraphical layer that is defined as the bottom of a peat deposit). Selection of dating samples is often challenging due to poor preservation of plant macrofossils in basal peat, and the representativity of humic and humin dates for the age of basal peat is uncertain. We therefore analyse the mineral-to-peat transition based on three highly detailed sequences of radiocarbon dates, including dates of plant macrofossils and the humic and humin fractions obtained from bulk samples. Our case study peatland in the Netherlands currently harbours a bog vegetation, but biostratigraphical analyses show that during peat initiation the vegetation was mesotrophic. Results show that plant macrofossils provide the most accurate age in the mineral-to-peat transition and are therefore recommendable to use for 14C dating basal peat. If these are unattainable, the humic fraction provides the best alternative and is interpreted as a terminus-ante-quem for peat initiation. The potential large age difference between dates of plant macrofossils and humic or humin dates (up to ~1700 years between macrofossil and humic ages, and with even larger differences for humins) suggests that studies reusing existing bulk dates of basal peat should take great care in data interpretation. The potentially long timespan of the peat initiation process (with medians of ~1000, ~1300 and ~1500 years within our case study peatland) demonstrates that choices regarding sampling size and resolution need to be well substantiated. We summarise our findings as a set of recommendations for dating basal peats, and advocate the widespread use of OM determination to obtain a low-cost, quantitative and reproducible definition of basal peat that eases intercomparison of studies.

  • Restricted Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Dierikx, M.L.J.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Overview of the activities of the Aviation Laboratory under German rule between 1940 and 1945. Although officially driven by scientific motivation only, the laboratory worked closely with German aviation research and contributed to the German war effort.