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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Authors: Briamont, Thomas; Collineau, Estelle; Leysten, Benoît; Duarte Cândido, Manuelina Maria;

    En avril 2019, les étudiants du master en muséologie de l’Université de Liège (Belgique) ont eu la chance de visiter Mértola. Située dans le sud du Portugal, cette petite ville est l’héritière d’un riche patrimoine valorisé depuis 1978 par le « Campo Arqueológico de Mértola ». Reposant sur les observations réalisées au cours de ce voyage, cet article analyse les aspects innovants et les défis de cette expérience singulière de muséalisation de l'archéologie. Un premier axe d’analyse s’intéresse au concept de « développement durable » qui est au centre du projet développé à Mértola. En effet, ce projet est articulé autour d’une forme alternative de développement reposant sur la richesse du patrimoine local, alors que la région est menacée par la dépopulation. Aussi, face aux dangers inhérents au tourisme de masse, Mértola propose comme alternative un tourisme culturel et rural qui rend à la communauté locale le bénéfice de ses efforts dans la préservation du patrimoine. Un deuxième aspect développé dans cette contribution est l’intégration des espaces archéologiques muséalisés dans le quotidien de la population locale. Véritable ville-musée, Mértola propose une conception particulière de l’archéologie qui, en tant que science ouverte, ne doit pas uniquement s’adresser aux spécialistes, mais également se mettre au service de la société. Au final, l’expérience singulière et innovante proposée à Mértola conduit à s’interroger sur notre conception du musée et sur son rôle dans notre société. In April 2019, the students of the Master in Museology at the University of Liège (Belgium) had the opportunity to visit Mértola. Located in southern Portugal, this small town is characterized by a rich heritage valued thanks to the "Mértola’s Archaeological Field" since 1978. Based on the observations made during this trip, this article analyses the innovative aspects and the challenges of this singular experience of archaeological musealization. The first axis of analysis focuses on the concept of "sustainable development" that is at the heart of the project conducted in Mértola. As a matter of fact, this project is articulated around an alternative form of development based on the richness of local heritage, while the region is suffering depopulation. Furthermore, facing the risks related with to mass tourism, Mértola proposes a cultural and rural tourism as an alternative, giving back to the local community the benefit of their efforts in preserving the heritage. A second aspect developed in this contribution is the integration of the archaeological museum spaces into the daily life of the local population. As a true museum-town, Mértola proposes a particular conception of Archaeology which, as an open science, should not only be a prerogative for specialists, but should also put itself at the service of society. In conclusion, the singular and innovative experience proposed in Mértola leads us to question our conception of museum and its role in our society. Em abril de 2019, os estudantes do Mestrado em Museologia da Universidade de Liège (Bélgica) tiveram a oportunidade de visitar Mértola. Situada no sul de Portugal, esta pequena cidade é herdeira de um rico patrimônio valorizado desde 1978 pelo "Campo Arqueológico de Mértola". Com base nas observações feitas durante esta viagem, este artigo analisa os aspectos inovadores e os desafios desta singular experiência de musealização arqueológica. O primeiro eixo de análise centra-se no conceito de "desenvolvimento sustentável" que está no cerne do projeto desenvolvido em Mértola. De fato, este projeto se articula em torno de uma forma alternativa de desenvolvimento baseada na riqueza do patrimônio local, enquanto que a região está ameaçada pelo despovoamento. Além disso, face aos perigos inerentes ao turismo de massas, Mértola propõe como alternativa um turismo cultural e rural que devolve à comunidade local o benefício dos seus esforços na preservação do patrimônio. Um segundo aspecto desenvolvido nesta contribuição é a integração dos espaços dos museus arqueológicos na vida quotidiana da população local. Como uma verdadeira cidade-museu, Mértola propõe uma concepção particular da Arqueologia que, como ciência aberta, não deve ser somente prerrogativa de especialistas, mas também colocar-se ao serviço da sociedade. Finalmente, a experiência singular e inovadora proposta em Mértola leva-nos a questionar a nossa concepção do museu e o seu papel na nossa sociedade. Les muséologies insurgées: échanges transnationaux Les sens, les temps et les destins des choses

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    Authors: Barcelo, Ewan; Chantraine, Renaud; Coutant, Julien; Dassié, Véronique; +11 Authors
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    This resource defines the Hierarchical Event Descriptor (HED) specification, including the core specification with detailed rules about the handling of the vocabulary, tool behavior, and errors. This specification lays out the rules that HED-compliant tools must follow to correctly handle HED annotations. It is meant for tool developers and for users who need to understand the details of the behavior. If you are new to HED, please visit the HED homepage or the HED resources site. This release is the first formal release of the HED specification document. The specification is new with the introduction of HED-3G, hence the version starts with 3.0.0. The current, officially released specification can also be browsed in HTML format. The HED specification is maintained in the GitHub hed-specification repository which is part of the GitHub HED Standard organization. HED is the annotation standard for events and other tabular metadata in the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) standard.

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  • Authors: Angelopoulou, Anastasia; Kapetanios, Epaminondas; Smith, David Harris; Steuber, Volker; +2 Authors

    © 2022 Angelopoulou, Kapetanios, Smith, Steuber, Woll and Zeller. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Peer reviewed

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  • Authors: Kyriakou, Dimitris;
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    Authors: Mladý, Jakub;

    Aktivní učení je přístup k trénování modelů umělé inteligence v rámci učení s učite- lem. Motivací k jeho zavedení je šetření času a finančních prostředků při pořizování anotací trénovacích dat, jež jsou v mnoha úlohách strojového učení potřebné. Jeho paradigma je jednoduché: předpoklady jsou datová sada s několika málo označenými daty, model a anotátor. Následně do splnění vhodně zvolené ukončovací podmínky probíhá následující cyklus - naučit model na označené podmnožině, vybrat několik neoznačených vzorků a dotázat se anotátora na označení vybraných vzorků. Kri- tickou částí systému je pak výběr vzorků. Při použití vhodné strategie je možné vybrat takové prvky, jejichž naučením se model zlepší nejvíce. Právě tyto strategie jsou hlavním předmětem výzkumu aktivního učení. Tato práce nabízí průzkum již existujících strategií a poskytuje hodnocení přínosu některých strategií a aktivního učení jako celku z výsledků navržených experimentů. Obhájeno Active learning is an approach to training artificial intelligence models within super- vised learning. The motivation for its introduction comes from the need to spare time and financial resources in obtaining labels for the training data, which are fundamental for many machine learning tasks. Its paradigm is simple: the precon- ditions are a training dataset with a few data labeled, the model and an annotator. Then, the following cycle is repeated until some suitable terminal condition is met - train the model on labeled data, query for more unlabeled data and let the annotator provide the labels for the queried instances. The critical part of such a system lies in the startegy of querying for new data samples. With a desirable strategy, such data labels could be obtained, that imporve the model the most. These query strategies are the main subject of ongoing research in active learning. This work offers a sur- vey of existing strategies and provides evaluation of contribution of some chosen strategies and active learning as a whole from the results of proposed experiments.

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    Authors: Abedi, Vida; Kawamura, Yuki; Li, Jiang; Phan, Thanh G; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Šrámek, Pavel;

    Téma této diplomové práce jsem si zvolil hned z několika důvodů. Jedním ze stěžejních důvodů byla skutečnost, že jsem disponentem a investorem mnoha druhů kryptoměn. Jedná se doslova o můj životní styl, když tyto využívám každý den, a to zejména pro placení a spoření. Z tohoto důvodu jsem nucen sledovat jejich cenový vývoj, současně je velmi přínosné vyhledávat nové informace a technologie, které se daného tématu týkají. Nezanedbatelným motivem byl i můj zájem ve vztahu k právní regulaci kryptoměn, a to jak v České republice, tak v zahraničí, respektive jednotlivým dílčím rozdílům v pojetí této problematiky. Současně mne zajímalo, jakým způsobem a v jaké formě jsou daněny zisky z těžby a obchodování s kryptoměnami, neboť kryptoměnám jsem se začal věnovat od roku 2009 s tím, že na samém počátku se jednalo o určitou formu záliby, přičemž tato záliba postupně přešla v životní styl, když v současné době disponuji značným portfoliem obsahujícím 22 kryptoměn, jež tvoří značnou část mých úspor. V nadsázce lze říci, že po vypracování této diplomové práce vím, jak efektivně optimalizovat zisky z mého kryptoměnového portfolia. Skutečnost, že mohu využít tyto znalosti v mém životě i do budoucna hodnotím jako vysoce pozitivní. Diplomová práce si klade za cíl zodpovězení významných otázek, zejména to, zda je kryptoměna měnou, zda je v současné době legálním platidlem či zda lze danit zisk z kryptoměn v ČR? V souvislosti s výše uvedeným je tak diplomová práce členěna do čtyř kapitol, když v úvod je věnován interpretaci základních pojmů, stručnému historickém exkurzu v oblasti měn v obecné rovině, taktéž jsou vysvětleny pojmy směnného obchodu či platidel. Následuje podkapitola zabývající se zlatým standardem a zodpovězení několika otázek ve vztahu ke zlatu, jakožto měně, jež si uchovává svou hodnotu již několik staletí. Za zmínku rovněž stojí moderní pojetí z pohledu Evropského měnového systému, respektive vliv a význam Evropské centrální banky. Následně se diplomová práce zabývá zevrubným pojetím tématu kryptoměn se zaměřením na vysvětlení základních pojmů, jejich vznik a vývoj a popis technologických základů tak, aby tyto pochopil i čtenář, jenž je laikem z hlediska této problematiky. Nelze nezmínit i analýzu a jednotlivé detaily a následné rozdíly mezi určitými konkrétními zástupci kryptoměn. Taktéž čtenáři přiblížím mé osobní zkušenosti s kryptoměnami, které mi navíc pomohly zodpovědět některé klíčové otázky a současně významným způsobem dopomohly ke zpracování této diplomové práce. Třetí část diplomové práce reflektuje na různorodost a komparaci legislativy dvou největších producentů kryptoměn, jakož i na postoj Evropské unie a České republiky v totožné problematice. Zodpovězeny jsou i zásadní otázky ve smyslu vnímání kryptoměn českou legislativou a zda kryptoměny lze v České republice považovat za legální měnu. Závěrem je zohledněno zdanění zisku z kryptoměn v rámci České republiky, kdy dle dostupných informací investovalo do kryptoměn již 9 % Čechů. Tyto i další zajímavé informace vyplývají ostatně z výzkumu agentur STEM/MARK probíhajícího v únoru a březnu roku 2022. Z výzkumu mimo jiné vyplývá, že investici do kryptoměn již učinila nebo o ní přemýšlí více než třetina mladých lidí do 29 let, přičemž je třeba konstatovat, že zájem o investice trvá i přes zvyšující se inflaci. Vyjma výše uvedeného má diplomová práce pomoci s orientací širší, zejména laické veřejnosti, ale i odborníkům, a to z hlediska současné legislativy kryptoměn v České republice, a současně má poukázat na její potenciální vývoj nejen u nás, ale i v zahraničí. Obhájeno I chose the topic of this thesis for several reasons. One of the main reasons was the fact that I am a dispositor and investor of many types of cryptocurrencies. This is literally my lifestyle as I use these on a daily basis, especially for payments and savings. For this reason, I follow their price development, while at the same time it is very beneficial to seek out new information and technologies that are relevant to the topic. A not insignificant motive was also my interest in relation to the legal regulation of cryptocurrencies, both in the Czech Republic and abroad, or individual partial differences in the concept of this issue. At the same time, I was interested in how and in what form the profits from mining and trading in cryptocurrencies are taxed, as I started to deal with cryptocurrencies in 2009, with the fact that at the very beginning it was a form of hobby, and this hobby gradually turned into a lifestyle, as I currently have a considerable portfolio containing 22 cryptocurrencies, which make up a significant part of my savings. It is an exaggeration to say that after completing this thesis, I know how to effectively optimize the profits from my cryptocurrency portfolio. The fact that I can use this knowledge in my life and in the future I rate as highly positive. The thesis aims to answer important questions, in particular whether cryptocurrency is a currency, whether it is currently legal tender or whether cryptocurrency profits can be taxed in the Czech Republic? In the context of the above, the thesis is thus divided into four chapters, where the introduction is devoted to the interpretation of basic concepts, a brief historical excursion in the field of currencies in general, and the concepts of barter or payments are also explained. This is followed by a subsection dealing with the gold standard and answering several questions in relation to gold as a currency that has retained its value for several centuries. It is also worth mentioning the modern concept from the perspective of the European Monetary System, or the influence and importance of the European Central Bank. Subsequently, the dissertation deals with a thorough treatment of the topic of cryptocurrencies, focusing on the explanation of the basic concepts, their origin and development, and a description of the technological foundations so that these can be understood even by the reader who is a layman in terms of this issue. The analysis and individual details and subsequent differences between certain specific representatives of cryptocurrencies cannot be omitted. I will also bring the reader closer to my personal experience with cryptocurrencies, which additionally helped me to answer some key questions and at the same time contributed significantly to the development of this thesis. The third part of the thesis reflects on the diversity and comparison of the legislation of the two largest producers of cryptocurrencies, as well as the position of the European Union and the Czech Republic on the identical issue. It also answers fundamental questions in terms of the perception of cryptocurrencies by the Czech legislation and whether cryptocurrencies can be considered a legal currency in the Czech Republic. Finally, the taxation of profits from cryptocurrencies in the Czech Republic is taken into account, where, according to available information, 9% of Czechs have already invested in cryptocurrencies. This and other interesting information is based on the STEM/MARK survey carried out in February and March 2022, which shows, among other things, that more than a third of young people under 29 have already invested in cryptocurrencies or are thinking about it, and it should be noted that the interest in investing continues despite rising inflation. Apart from the above, the thesis is intended to help orient the broader public, especially the general public, but also experts, in terms of the current cryptocurrency

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    Authors: Veselá, Kateřina;

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje teoretickou část obsahující několik kapitol zabývající se vizuální percepcí, významem pohledu a očí v komunikaci, dále vysvětlením pojmu interpretace a současného umění. Další rozsáhlou kapitolou je zobrazování očí ve vizuální kultuře a jejich význam, dále interpretace pohledu kde jsou nastíněny základní filozofické teorie, které ovlivnili nejen současné umění - feminismus a animismus. Praktická část se zabývá vytvořením uměleckých děl tří plastických maleb tvořených z rámu s pletivem protkaným přízí do tvaru očí. Díla vycházejí z animistické teorie pohledu. Poslední didaktická část práce je zaměřena na výtvarný úkol, který uplatňuje interpretaci, animismus a zobrazování očí. Obhájeno The bachelor thesis contains a theoretical part containing several chapters dealing with visual perception, the importance of gaze and eyes in communication, as well as an explanation of the concept of interpretation and contemporary art. Another extensive chapter deals with the representation of the eyes in visual culture and their significance, as well as the interpretation of the gaze where the basic philosophical theories that have influenced not only contemporary art - feminism and animism - are outlined. The practical part deals with the creation of artworks of three spatial paintings made up of a frame with a metal wire mesh woven with yarn in the shape of eyes. The works are based on the animist theory of gaze. The last didactic part of the work focuses on an art task that applies interpretation, animism and eye imagery.

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    Authors: Erchova, Elizabeth;

    O tempo passado online está se tornando cada vez mais importante, incentivando empresas e indústrias a seguirem os consumidores no espaço digital, junto com isso estão surgindo tecnologias, sistemas de valores e modelos de negócio. A dissertação tem como objetivo estudar os vetores de desenvolvimento do mercado de Arte Digital Rara, e responder a perguntas sobre quais processos e personagens moldarão este ramo emergente da indústria da arte. Este trabalho apresenta um modelo alternativo de Cadeia de Valor adaptado aos projetos de arte Crypto, e conclui que o ciclo do projeto se tornará mais rápido à medida que mais atividades migrarão total ou parcialmente para online. Nossa pesquisa sugere que o raro mercado de arte criptográfica herdará as capacidades tecnológicas de um Mercado financeiro descentralizado, mantendo a criatividade e a estética da indústria da arte. Concluímos que as atividades de validação e os personagens ganharão uma posição ainda mais forte nesse mercado emergente, enquanto as áreas gerenciais enfraquecer-se-ão. A Arte Digital levará a indústria de arte para aplicativos inovadores de Blockchain e casos de uso sofisticados de DRM. The time being spent online is becoming more important, encouraging companies and industries to follow consumers into the digital space. Along with that, technologies, systems of values, and business models are adopting. The dissertation aims to study the vectors of the Rare Digital Art market development and answer questions about what processes and players will shape this emerging branch of the art industry. This work presents an alternative Value Chain model tailored to Crypto art projects, and concludes that the project cycle will become faster and more activities will fully or partially migrate online. Our research suggests that the rare crypto art market will inherit the technological capabilities of a DeFi market, while maintaining creativity and aesthetics of the art industry. We conclude that validation activities and players will gain an even stronger position in this emerging market, while managerial positions will weaken. Digital Art will move the art industry towards innovative blockchain applications and sophisticated DRM use cases.

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  • Authors: Briamont, Thomas; Collineau, Estelle; Leysten, Benoît; Duarte Cândido, Manuelina Maria;

    En avril 2019, les étudiants du master en muséologie de l’Université de Liège (Belgique) ont eu la chance de visiter Mértola. Située dans le sud du Portugal, cette petite ville est l’héritière d’un riche patrimoine valorisé depuis 1978 par le « Campo Arqueológico de Mértola ». Reposant sur les observations réalisées au cours de ce voyage, cet article analyse les aspects innovants et les défis de cette expérience singulière de muséalisation de l'archéologie. Un premier axe d’analyse s’intéresse au concept de « développement durable » qui est au centre du projet développé à Mértola. En effet, ce projet est articulé autour d’une forme alternative de développement reposant sur la richesse du patrimoine local, alors que la région est menacée par la dépopulation. Aussi, face aux dangers inhérents au tourisme de masse, Mértola propose comme alternative un tourisme culturel et rural qui rend à la communauté locale le bénéfice de ses efforts dans la préservation du patrimoine. Un deuxième aspect développé dans cette contribution est l’intégration des espaces archéologiques muséalisés dans le quotidien de la population locale. Véritable ville-musée, Mértola propose une conception particulière de l’archéologie qui, en tant que science ouverte, ne doit pas uniquement s’adresser aux spécialistes, mais également se mettre au service de la société. Au final, l’expérience singulière et innovante proposée à Mértola conduit à s’interroger sur notre conception du musée et sur son rôle dans notre société. In April 2019, the students of the Master in Museology at the University of Liège (Belgium) had the opportunity to visit Mértola. Located in southern Portugal, this small town is characterized by a rich heritage valued thanks to the "Mértola’s Archaeological Field" since 1978. Based on the observations made during this trip, this article analyses the innovative aspects and the challenges of this singular experience of archaeological musealization. The first axis of analysis focuses on the concept of "sustainable development" that is at the heart of the project conducted in Mértola. As a matter of fact, this project is articulated around an alternative form of development based on the richness of local heritage, while the region is suffering depopulation. Furthermore, facing the risks related with to mass tourism, Mértola proposes a cultural and rural tourism as an alternative, giving back to the local community the benefit of their efforts in preserving the heritage. A second aspect developed in this contribution is the integration of the archaeological museum spaces into the daily life of the local population. As a true museum-town, Mértola proposes a particular conception of Archaeology which, as an open science, should not only be a prerogative for specialists, but should also put itself at the service of society. In conclusion, the singular and innovative experience proposed in Mértola leads us to question our conception of museum and its role in our society. Em abril de 2019, os estudantes do Mestrado em Museologia da Universidade de Liège (Bélgica) tiveram a oportunidade de visitar Mértola. Situada no sul de Portugal, esta pequena cidade é herdeira de um rico patrimônio valorizado desde 1978 pelo "Campo Arqueológico de Mértola". Com base nas observações feitas durante esta viagem, este artigo analisa os aspectos inovadores e os desafios desta singular experiência de musealização arqueológica. O primeiro eixo de análise centra-se no conceito de "desenvolvimento sustentável" que está no cerne do projeto desenvolvido em Mértola. De fato, este projeto se articula em torno de uma forma alternativa de desenvolvimento baseada na riqueza do patrimônio local, enquanto que a região está ameaçada pelo despovoamento. Além disso, face aos perigos inerentes ao turismo de massas, Mértola propõe como alternativa um turismo cultural e rural que devolve à comunidade local o benefício dos seus esforços na preservação do patrimônio. Um segundo aspecto desenvolvido nesta contribuição é a integração dos espaços dos museus arqueológicos na vida quotidiana da população local. Como uma verdadeira cidade-museu, Mértola propõe uma concepção particular da Arqueologia que, como ciência aberta, não deve ser somente prerrogativa de especialistas, mas também colocar-se ao serviço da sociedade. Finalmente, a experiência singular e inovadora proposta em Mértola leva-nos a questionar a nossa concepção do museu e o seu papel na nossa sociedade. Les muséologies insurgées: échanges transnationaux Les sens, les temps et les destins des choses

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    Authors: Barcelo, Ewan; Chantraine, Renaud; Coutant, Julien; Dassié, Véronique; +11 Authors
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    This resource defines the Hierarchical Event Descriptor (HED) specification, including the core specification with detailed rules about the handling of the vocabulary, tool behavior, and errors. This specification lays out the rules that HED-compliant tools must follow to correctly handle HED annotations. It is meant for tool developers and for users who need to understand the details of the behavior. If you are new to HED, please visit the HED homepage or the HED resources site. This release is the first formal release of the HED specification document. The specification is new with the introduction of HED-3G, hence the version starts with 3.0.0. The current, officially released specification can also be browsed in HTML format. The HED specification is maintained in the GitHub hed-specification repository which is part of the GitHub HED Standard organization. HED is the annotation standard for events and other tabular metadata in the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) standard.

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  • Authors: Angelopoulou, Anastasia; Kapetanios, Epaminondas; Smith, David Harris; Steuber, Volker; +2 Authors

    © 2022 Angelopoulou, Kapetanios, Smith, Steuber, Woll and Zeller. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Mladý, Jakub;

    Aktivní učení je přístup k trénování modelů umělé inteligence v rámci učení s učite- lem. Motivací k jeho zavedení je šetření času a finančních prostředků při pořizování anotací trénovacích dat, jež jsou v mnoha úlohách strojového učení potřebné. Jeho paradigma je jednoduché: předpoklady jsou datová sada s několika málo označenými daty, model a anotátor. Následně do splnění vhodně zvolené ukončovací podmínky probíhá následující cyklus - naučit model na označené podmnožině, vybrat několik neoznačených vzorků a dotázat se anotátora na označení vybraných vzorků. Kri- tickou částí systému je pak výběr vzorků. Při použití vhodné strategie je možné vybrat takové prvky, jejichž naučením se model zlepší nejvíce. Právě tyto strategie jsou hlavním předmětem výzkumu aktivního učení. Tato práce nabízí průzkum již existujících strategií a poskytuje hodnocení přínosu některých strategií a aktivního učení jako celku z výsledků navržených experimentů. Obhájeno Active learning is an approach to training artificial intelligence models within super- vised learning. The motivation for its introduction comes from the need to spare time and financial resources in obtaining labels for the training data, which are fundamental for many machine learning tasks. Its paradigm is simple: the precon- ditions are a training dataset with a few data labeled, the model and an annotator. Then, the following cycle is repeated until some suitable terminal condition is met - train the model on labeled data, query for more unlabeled data and let the annotator provide the labels for the queried instances. The critical part of such a system lies in the startegy of querying for new data samples. With a desirable strategy, such data labels could be obtained, that imporve the model the most. These query strategies are the main subject of ongoing research in active learning. This work offers a sur- vey of existing strategies and provides evaluation of contribution of some chosen strategies and active learning as a whole from the results of proposed experiments.

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    Authors: Abedi, Vida; Kawamura, Yuki; Li, Jiang; Phan, Thanh G; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Šrámek, Pavel;

    Téma této diplomové práce jsem si zvolil hned z několika důvodů. Jedním ze stěžejních důvodů byla skutečnost, že jsem disponentem a investorem mnoha druhů kryptoměn. Jedná se doslova o můj životní styl, když tyto využívám každý den, a to zejména pro placení a spoření. Z tohoto důvodu jsem nucen sledovat jejich cenový vývoj, současně je velmi přínosné vyhledávat nové informace a technologie, které se daného tématu týkají. Nezanedbatelným motivem byl i můj zájem ve vztahu k právní regulaci kryptoměn, a to jak v České republice, tak v zahraničí, respektive jednotlivým dílčím rozdílům v pojetí této problematiky. Současně mne zajímalo, jakým způsobem a v jaké formě jsou daněny zisky z těžby a obchodování s kryptoměnami, neboť kryptoměnám jsem se začal věnovat od roku 2009 s tím, že na samém počátku se jednalo o určitou formu záliby, přičemž tato záliba postupně přešla v životní styl, když v současné době disponuji značným portfoliem obsahujícím 22 kryptoměn, jež tvoří značnou část mých úspor. V nadsázce lze říci, že po vypracování této diplomové práce vím, jak efektivně optimalizovat zisky z mého kryptoměnového portfolia. Skutečnost, že mohu využít tyto znalosti v mém životě i do budoucna hodnotím jako vysoce pozitivní. Diplomová práce si klade za cíl zodpovězení významných otázek, zejména to, zda je kryptoměna měnou, zda je v současné době legálním platidlem či zda lze danit zisk z kryptoměn v ČR? V souvislosti s výše uvedeným je tak diplomová práce členěna do čtyř kapitol, když v úvod je věnován interpretaci základních pojmů, stručnému historickém exkurzu v oblasti měn v obecné rovině, taktéž jsou vysvětleny pojmy směnného obchodu či platidel. Následuje podkapitola zabývající se zlatým standardem a zodpovězení několika otázek ve vztahu ke zlatu, jakožto měně, jež si uchovává svou hodnotu již několik staletí. Za zmínku rovněž stojí moderní pojetí z pohledu Evropského měnového systému, respektive vliv a význam Evropské centrální banky. Následně se diplomová práce zabývá zevrubným pojetím tématu kryptoměn se zaměřením na vysvětlení základních pojmů, jejich vznik a vývoj a popis technologických základů tak, aby tyto pochopil i čtenář, jenž je laikem z hlediska této problematiky. Nelze nezmínit i analýzu a jednotlivé detaily a následné rozdíly mezi určitými konkrétními zástupci kryptoměn. Taktéž čtenáři přiblížím mé osobní zkušenosti s kryptoměnami, které mi navíc pomohly zodpovědět některé klíčové otázky a současně významným způsobem dopomohly ke zpracování této diplomové práce. Třetí část diplomové práce reflektuje na různorodost a komparaci legislativy dvou největších producentů kryptoměn, jakož i na postoj Evropské unie a České republiky v totožné problematice. Zodpovězeny jsou i zásadní otázky ve smyslu vnímání kryptoměn českou legislativou a zda kryptoměny lze v České republice považovat za legální měnu. Závěrem je zohledněno zdanění zisku z kryptoměn v rámci České republiky, kdy dle dostupných informací investovalo do kryptoměn již 9 % Čechů. Tyto i další zajímavé informace vyplývají ostatně z výzkumu agentur STEM/MARK probíhajícího v únoru a březnu roku 2022. Z výzkumu mimo jiné vyplývá, že investici do kryptoměn již učinila nebo o ní přemýšlí více než třetina mladých lidí do 29 let, přičemž je třeba konstatovat, že zájem o investice trvá i přes zvyšující se inflaci. Vyjma výše uvedeného má diplomová práce pomoci s orientací širší, zejména laické veřejnosti, ale i odborníkům, a to z hlediska současné legislativy kryptoměn v České republice, a současně má poukázat na její potenciální vývoj nejen u nás, ale i v zahraničí. Obhájeno I chose the topic of this thesis for several reasons. One of the main reasons was the fact that I am a dispositor and investor of many types of cryptocurrencies. This is literally my lifestyle as I use these on a daily basis, especially for payments and savings. For this reason, I follow their price development, while at the same time it is very beneficial to seek out new information and technologies that are relevant to the topic. A not insignificant motive was also my interest in relation to the legal regulation of cryptocurrencies, both in the Czech Republic and abroad, or individual partial differences in the concept of this issue. At the same time, I was interested in how and in what form the profits from mining and trading in cryptocurrencies are taxed, as I started to deal with cryptocurrencies in 2009, with the fact that at the very beginning it was a form of hobby, and this hobby gradually turned into a lifestyle, as I currently have a considerable portfolio containing 22 cryptocurrencies, which make up a significant part of my savings. It is an exaggeration to say that after completing this thesis, I know how to effectively optimize the profits from my cryptocurrency portfolio. The fact that I can use this knowledge in my life and in the future I rate as highly positive. The thesis aims to answer important questions, in particular whether cryptocurrency is a currency, whether it is currently legal tender or whether cryptocurrency profits can be taxed in the Czech Republic? In the context of the above, the thesis is thus divided into four chapters, where the introduction is devoted to the interpretation of basic concepts, a brief historical excursion in the field of currencies in general, and the concepts of barter or payments are also explained. This is followed by a subsection dealing with the gold standard and answering several questions in relation to gold as a currency that has retained its value for several centuries. It is also worth mentioning the modern concept from the perspective of the European Monetary System, or the influence and importance of the European Central Bank. Subsequently, the dissertation deals with a thorough treatment of the topic of cryptocurrencies, focusing on the explanation of the basic concepts, their origin and development, and a description of the technological foundations so that these can be understood even by the reader who is a layman in terms of this issue. The analysis and individual details and subsequent differences between certain specific representatives of cryptocurrencies cannot be omitted. I will also bring the reader closer to my personal experience with cryptocurrencies, which additionally helped me to answer some key questions and at the same time contributed significantly to the development of this thesis. The third part of the thesis reflects on the diversity and comparison of the legislation of the two largest producers of cryptocurrencies, as well as the position of the European Union and the Czech Republic on the identical issue. It also answers fundamental questions in terms of the perception of cryptocurrencies by the Czech legislation and whether cryptocurrencies can be considered a legal currency in the Czech Republic. Finally, the taxation of profits from cryptocurrencies in the Czech Republic is taken into account, where, according to available information, 9% of Czechs have already invested in cryptocurrencies. This and other interesting information is based on the STEM/MARK survey carried out in February and March 2022, which shows, among other things, that more than a third of young people under 29 have already invested in cryptocurrencies or are thinking about it, and it should be noted that the interest in investing continues despite rising inflation. Apart from the above, the thesis is intended to help orient the broader public, especially the general public, but also experts, in terms of the current cryptocurrency

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