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11 Research products

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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hodell, David A; Crowhurst, Simon J; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Margari, Vasiliki; +7 Authors

    Data consist of a continuous millennially-resolved record of oxgyen and carbon stable isotope composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifera at IODP Site U1385 and piston core MD01-2444 from the southwestern Iberian margin for the last 1.5 million years. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) are also reported from the composite section of Site U1385 and core MD01-2444. Oxygen and carbon isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera were made at an average temporal resolution of ~200 years for the last 1.45 million years. For planktic foraminifera, the surface-dwelling species Globigerina bulloides from the 250 - 350 um size fraction was used. Benthic foraminifer data consists mostly of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and occasionally other species of Cibicidoides were measured from the >212 um size fraction. In samples where specimens of Cibicidoides spp. were absent, we used d18O of Uvigerina peregrina or Globobulimina affinis. All δ18O values for each species were corrected to Uvigerina using the offsets suggested by Shackleton et al. (2000) -- i.e., +0.64 for Cibicidoides and -0.3 for G. affinis. Stable isotope measurements were made in the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate research at the University of Cambridge. Foraminifer tests were crushed and soaked in a solution of 1% hydrogen per-oxide for 30 min in individual vials. Acetone was added and the samples placed in an ultra-sonic bath for 10 s, after which the liquid was carefully decanted to remove any contaminants. The samples were dried in an oven at 50 °C overnight. Isotopic analyses of the samples were per-formed using a VG SIRA mass spectrometer with a Multicarb system for samples with a mass exceeding 80 μg. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for both δ18O and δ13C. For smaller samples (<80 μg), measurements were performed on a Thermo Finnigan MAT253 mass spectrometer fitted with a Kiel device. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for δ18O and ±0.06‰ for δ13C, respectively. All results are reported relative to VPDB. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) were obtained using an Avaatech X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner at 1-cm spatial resolution. Cores from Holes U1385A and U1385B were measured at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Holes U1385D and U1385E and MD01-2444 were measured at the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Reseach at the University of Cambridge. The core surface was carefully scraped cleaned and covered with a 4-μm thin SPEXCertiPrep Ultralene foil to avoid contamination and reduce desiccation. All XRF scanners irradiated a surface of 10-mm high by 12-mm wide every 1 cm with identical instrument settings used at both NIOZ and Cambridge. Cores were scanned at 3 voltages: 10kv (750 μamps, 10 sec count time with no filter); 30 kv (500 μamps, 10 sec count time with Pd thin filter); and 50 kv (1000 μramps, 60 sec count time with Cu vilter). Element intensities were obtained by post-processing of the XRF spectra using the Canberra WinAxil software with standard soft-ware settings and spectrum-fit models. The purpose of the analyses were to produce records of millennial-scale climate variability (MCV) during the last 1.45 million years. Questions to be addressed with the data included: How common was MCV during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? Did the nature (intensity, duration, pacing) of MCV change with orbital configuration or climate background state (ice volume, sea-level, ice sheet height)? What is the relationship between MCV and longer-term, orbitally-driven glacial-interglacial cycles – how do they interact? How did MCV change across the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when ice sheets grew larger in size and the amplitude of glacial-interglacial cycles increased? Was the thermal bipolar seesaw mechanism active during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? What role did millennial variability play in atmospheric CO2 variations or vice-versa?

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    Authors: Alison Clarke; Emma Karoune;

    This data is the results of two similar polls. The first set of results, "Reproducible Archaeology: Responses from Durham University Archaeologists" holds data from a live poll participated in during the workshop on 'Reproducible research in Archaeology' at Durham University on 15th October 2021. (See https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5615534 for a recording of the workshop.) The second poll was advertised on Twitter in November 2021, aiming to gather answers to the same questions but in a modified format for a survey rather than a live poll. The poll and reports were created using Slido: the PDF is an automatically generated report; the Excel Spreadsheet gives all poll answers. The use of Slido was funded by the Software Sustainability Institute as part of their Fellowship scheme.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thompson, Nick; Salzmann, Ulrich; López-Quirós, Adrián; Bijl, Peter K; +7 Authors

    A total of 35 samples from the late-middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene (643.73-520.88 mbsf) were analysed for their pollen and spore content. Slides were analysed using a Leica DM500 and Leica DM2000 transmitted light microscopes at 200x and 1000x magnification. Where possible, counts of 300 (excluding reworked grains) sporomorphs were made. Only samples containing 50 or more in situ sporomorphs were used for further analysis and evaluation. Sporomorph diversity was measured using both the Shannon–Wiener index and the observed number of taxa. A rarefaction method for sums of ≥50 and ≥100 grains was applied, so that the effect caused by differences in the sample size may be removed allowing the estimation of the number of sporomorph species at a constant sample size. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was performed, with downweighting of rare species by removing pollen types whose representation is <5%. Estimates for terrestrial mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), warmest month mean temperature (WMMT) and coldest month mean temperature (CMMT) were obtained using the NLR approach in conjunction with the Probability Density Function (PDF) method.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Artur Sokolovsky; Thomas Gross; Jaume Bacardit;

    Reproducibility package for "Is it feasible to detect FLOSS version release events from textual messages? A case study on Stack Overflow" paper accepted to PlosOne journal.

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    ZENODO
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Reproducibility package for "Machine learning-based detection of FLOSS version release events from Stack Overflow message data" paper.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Batenburg, Sietske J; Edgar, Kirsty M; +10 Authors

    The geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era has been notably improved over the last decades by virtue of integrated stratigraphy, combining high-resolution astrochronologies, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy with high-precision radioisotopic dates. However, the middle Eocene remains a weak link. The so-called "Eocene time scale gap" reflects the scarcity of suitable study sections with clear astronomically-forced variations in carbonate content, primarily because large parts of the oceans were starved of carbonate during the Eocene greenhouse. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 369 cored a carbonate-rich sedimentary sequence of Eocene age in the Mentelle Basin (Site U1514, offshore southwest Australia). The sequence consists of nannofossil chalk and exhibits rhythmic clay content variability. Here, we show that IODP Site U1514 allows for the extraction of an astronomical signal and the construction of an Eocene astrochronology, using 3-cm resolution X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) core scans. The XRF-derived ratio between calcium and iron content (Ca/Fe) tracks the lithologic variability and serves as the basis for our U1514 astrochronology. We present a 16 million-year-long (40-56 Ma) nearly continuous history of Eocene sedimentation with variations paced by eccentricity and obliquity. We supplement the high-resolution XRF data with low-resolution bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes, recording the long-term cooling trend from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM - ca. 56 Ma) into the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma). Our early Eocene astrochronology corroborates existing chronologies based on deep-sea sites and Italian land sections. For the middle Eocene, the sedimentological record at U1514 provides a single-site geochemical backbone and thus offers a further step towards a fully integrated Cenozoic geologic time scale at orbital resolution.

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    Authors: Badger, Marcus P S; Chalk, Thomas B; Foster, Gavin L; Bown, Paul R; +6 Authors

    Atmospheric _p_CO~2~ is a critical component of the global carbon system and is considered to be the major control of Earth's past, present and future climate. Accurate and precise reconstructions of its concentration through geological time are, therefore, crucial to our understanding of the Earth system. Ice core records document _p_CO~2~ for the past 800 kyrs, but at no point during this interval were CO~2~ levels higher than today. Interpretation of older _p_CO~2~ has been hampered by discrepancies during some time intervals between two of the main ocean-based proxy methods used to reconstruct _p_CO~2~: the carbon isotope fractionation that occurs during photosynthesis as recorded by haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and the boron isotope composition (δ^11^B) of foraminifer shells. Here we present alkenone and δ^11^B-based _p_CO~2~ reconstructions generated from the same samples from the Plio-Pleistocene at ODP Site 999 across a glacial-interglacial cycle. We find a muted response to _p_CO~2~ in the alkenone record compared to contemporaneous ice core and δ^11^B records, suggesting caution in the interpretation of alkenone-based records at low _p_CO~2~ levels. This is possibly caused by the physiology of CO~2~ uptake in the haptophytes. Our new understanding resolves some of the inconsistencies between the proxies and highlights that caution may be required when interpreting alkenone-based reconstructions of _p_CO~2~.

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    Authors: Albers, Elmar; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Menzies, C D; +2 Authors

    Few data exist that provide insight into processes affecting the long-term carbon cycle at shallow forearc depths. To better understand the mobilization of carbon in sediments and crust of the subducting slab, we investigated carbonate materials that originate from the subduction channel at the Mariana forearc (< 20 km) and were recovered during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 366. The calcium carbonates exist as vein precipitates within metavolcanic and metasedimentary clasts. The clasts represent portions of the subducting lithosphere, including ocean island basalt, that were altered at lower blueschist facies conditions and were subsequently transported to the forearc seafloor by serpentinite mud volcanism. Euhedral aragonite and calcite and the lack of deformation within the veins suggest carbonate formation in a strain-free environment, that is after peak metamorphism affected their hosts. Intergrowth with barite and marked negative Ce anomalies in carbonate attest the precipitation within a generally oxic environment that was not controlled by serpentinization. Strontium and O isotopic compositions in carbonate (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7052 to 0.7054, δ18OVSMOW = 20 to 24 ‰) imply precipitation from slab-derived fluids at temperatures between ~ 130 and 300 °C. These temperature estimates are consistent with the presence of blueschist facies phases, such as lawsonite coexisting with the carbonates in some veins. Incorporated carbon is inorganic (δ13CVPDB = −1 to +4 ‰) and likely derived from the decarbonation of carbonaceous sediment and/or oceanic crust. These findings provide evidence for the mobilization of carbon in the downgoing slab at depths of < 20 km. Our study for the first time shows in detail that a portion of this carbon forms carbonate precipitates in the subduction channel of an active convergent margin. This process may be an important asset in understanding the deep carbon cycle since it highlights that C is lost from the subducting lithosphere before reaching greater depths.

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    Authors: Attias, Eric; Amalokwu, Kelvin; Watts, Mille; Falcon-Suarez, Ismael Himar; +4 Authors

    Methane emissions from gas hydrate deposits along continental margins may alter the biogeophysical properties of marine environments, both on local and regional scales. The saturation of a gas hydrate deposit is commonly calculated using the elastic or electrical properties measured remotely or in-situ at the site of interest. Here, we used a combination of controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM), seismic and sediment core data obtained in the Nyegga region, offshore Norway, in a joint elastic-electrical approach to quantify marine gas hydrates found within the CNE03 pockmark. Multiscale analysis of two sediment cores reveals significant differences between the CNE03 pockmark and a reference site located approximately 150 m northwest of CNE03. Gas hydrates and chemosynthetic bivalves were observed in the CNE03 sediments collected. The seismic velocity and electrical resistivity measured in the CNE03 sediment core are consistent with the P-wave velocity (VP ) and resistivity values derived from seismic and CSEM remote sensing datasets, respectively. The VP gradually increases (~1.75–1.9 km/s) with depth within the CNE03 pipe-like structure, whereas the resistivity anomaly remains 3 m. A joint interpretation of the collocated seismic and CSEM data using a joint elastic-electrical effective medium model suggests that for the porosity range 0.55–0.65, the gas hydrate saturation within the CNE03 hydrate stability zone varies with depth between ~20 and 48%. At 0.6 porosity, the hydrate saturation within CNE03 varies between 23 and 37%, whereas the weighted mean saturation is ~30%. Our results demonstrate that a well-constrained gas hydrate quantification can be accomplished by coupling P-wave velocity and CSEM resistivity data through joint elastic-electrical effective medium modelling. The approach applied in this study can be used as a framework to quantify hydrate in various marine sediments.

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    Authors: Greenop, Rosanna; Hain, Mathis P; Sosdian, Sindia M; Oliver, Kevin I C; +5 Authors

    The boron isotope composition (d11B) of planktic foraminiferal calcite, which reflects seawater pH, is a well-established proxy for reconstructing palaeo-atmospheric CO2 and seawater carbonate chemistry. However, to translate d11B measurements determined in calcareous fossils into pH we need to know the boron isotope composition of the parent seawater (d11Bsw). While a number of d11Bsw reconstructions exist, the discrepancies between them reveals uncertainties and deficiencies that need to be addressed. Here we present a new d11Bsw record based on the d11B difference between planktic and benthic foraminifera and an estimate of the pH gradient between surface and deep water. We then calculate d11Bsw two different ways. One variant of our method assumes that the pH gradient between surface and deep has remained the same as today over the past 23 Ma; the other uses the d13C gradient between surface and deep to represent change in the pH gradient through time. The results of these two methods of calculating d11Bsw are broadly consistency with each other, however, based on extensive carbon cycle modelling using CYCLOPS and GENIE we favour the d13C gradient method. In our favoured d11Bsw reconstruction, d11Bsw is around 2 per mil lower than today at ~37.5 per mil during the early and middle Miocene and increases to the modern value (39.61 per mil) by ~5 Ma. A similar pattern of change is evident in the seawater composition of three other stable isotope systems, Mg, Li and Ca. Concurrent shifts in the seawater isotopic composition of all four of these elements during the late Miocene, suggest a common forcing mechanism. We hypothesise the most likely cause of these shifts is a change in the isotopic composition of the riverine input, potentially driven by an increase in secondary mineral formation since ~15 Ma.

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11 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hodell, David A; Crowhurst, Simon J; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Margari, Vasiliki; +7 Authors

    Data consist of a continuous millennially-resolved record of oxgyen and carbon stable isotope composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifera at IODP Site U1385 and piston core MD01-2444 from the southwestern Iberian margin for the last 1.5 million years. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) are also reported from the composite section of Site U1385 and core MD01-2444. Oxygen and carbon isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera were made at an average temporal resolution of ~200 years for the last 1.45 million years. For planktic foraminifera, the surface-dwelling species Globigerina bulloides from the 250 - 350 um size fraction was used. Benthic foraminifer data consists mostly of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and occasionally other species of Cibicidoides were measured from the >212 um size fraction. In samples where specimens of Cibicidoides spp. were absent, we used d18O of Uvigerina peregrina or Globobulimina affinis. All δ18O values for each species were corrected to Uvigerina using the offsets suggested by Shackleton et al. (2000) -- i.e., +0.64 for Cibicidoides and -0.3 for G. affinis. Stable isotope measurements were made in the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate research at the University of Cambridge. Foraminifer tests were crushed and soaked in a solution of 1% hydrogen per-oxide for 30 min in individual vials. Acetone was added and the samples placed in an ultra-sonic bath for 10 s, after which the liquid was carefully decanted to remove any contaminants. The samples were dried in an oven at 50 °C overnight. Isotopic analyses of the samples were per-formed using a VG SIRA mass spectrometer with a Multicarb system for samples with a mass exceeding 80 μg. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for both δ18O and δ13C. For smaller samples (<80 μg), measurements were performed on a Thermo Finnigan MAT253 mass spectrometer fitted with a Kiel device. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for δ18O and ±0.06‰ for δ13C, respectively. All results are reported relative to VPDB. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) were obtained using an Avaatech X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner at 1-cm spatial resolution. Cores from Holes U1385A and U1385B were measured at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Holes U1385D and U1385E and MD01-2444 were measured at the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Reseach at the University of Cambridge. The core surface was carefully scraped cleaned and covered with a 4-μm thin SPEXCertiPrep Ultralene foil to avoid contamination and reduce desiccation. All XRF scanners irradiated a surface of 10-mm high by 12-mm wide every 1 cm with identical instrument settings used at both NIOZ and Cambridge. Cores were scanned at 3 voltages: 10kv (750 μamps, 10 sec count time with no filter); 30 kv (500 μamps, 10 sec count time with Pd thin filter); and 50 kv (1000 μramps, 60 sec count time with Cu vilter). Element intensities were obtained by post-processing of the XRF spectra using the Canberra WinAxil software with standard soft-ware settings and spectrum-fit models. The purpose of the analyses were to produce records of millennial-scale climate variability (MCV) during the last 1.45 million years. Questions to be addressed with the data included: How common was MCV during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? Did the nature (intensity, duration, pacing) of MCV change with orbital configuration or climate background state (ice volume, sea-level, ice sheet height)? What is the relationship between MCV and longer-term, orbitally-driven glacial-interglacial cycles – how do they interact? How did MCV change across the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when ice sheets grew larger in size and the amplitude of glacial-interglacial cycles increased? Was the thermal bipolar seesaw mechanism active during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? What role did millennial variability play in atmospheric CO2 variations or vice-versa?

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    Authors: Alison Clarke; Emma Karoune;

    This data is the results of two similar polls. The first set of results, "Reproducible Archaeology: Responses from Durham University Archaeologists" holds data from a live poll participated in during the workshop on 'Reproducible research in Archaeology' at Durham University on 15th October 2021. (See https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5615534 for a recording of the workshop.) The second poll was advertised on Twitter in November 2021, aiming to gather answers to the same questions but in a modified format for a survey rather than a live poll. The poll and reports were created using Slido: the PDF is an automatically generated report; the Excel Spreadsheet gives all poll answers. The use of Slido was funded by the Software Sustainability Institute as part of their Fellowship scheme.

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    Authors: Thompson, Nick; Salzmann, Ulrich; López-Quirós, Adrián; Bijl, Peter K; +7 Authors

    A total of 35 samples from the late-middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene (643.73-520.88 mbsf) were analysed for their pollen and spore content. Slides were analysed using a Leica DM500 and Leica DM2000 transmitted light microscopes at 200x and 1000x magnification. Where possible, counts of 300 (excluding reworked grains) sporomorphs were made. Only samples containing 50 or more in situ sporomorphs were used for further analysis and evaluation. Sporomorph diversity was measured using both the Shannon–Wiener index and the observed number of taxa. A rarefaction method for sums of ≥50 and ≥100 grains was applied, so that the effect caused by differences in the sample size may be removed allowing the estimation of the number of sporomorph species at a constant sample size. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was performed, with downweighting of rare species by removing pollen types whose representation is <5%. Estimates for terrestrial mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), warmest month mean temperature (WMMT) and coldest month mean temperature (CMMT) were obtained using the NLR approach in conjunction with the Probability Density Function (PDF) method.

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    Authors: Artur Sokolovsky; Thomas Gross; Jaume Bacardit;

    Reproducibility package for "Is it feasible to detect FLOSS version release events from textual messages? A case study on Stack Overflow" paper accepted to PlosOne journal.

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    Reproducibility package for "Machine learning-based detection of FLOSS version release events from Stack Overflow message data" paper.

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    Authors: Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Batenburg, Sietske J; Edgar, Kirsty M; +10 Authors

    The geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era has been notably improved over the last decades by virtue of integrated stratigraphy, combining high-resolution astrochronologies, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy with high-precision radioisotopic dates. However, the middle Eocene remains a weak link. The so-called "Eocene time scale gap" reflects the scarcity of suitable study sections with clear astronomically-forced variations in carbonate content, primarily because large parts of the oceans were starved of carbonate during the Eocene greenhouse. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 369 cored a carbonate-rich sedimentary sequence of Eocene age in the Mentelle Basin (Site U1514, offshore southwest Australia). The sequence consists of nannofossil chalk and exhibits rhythmic clay content variability. Here, we show that IODP Site U1514 allows for the extraction of an astronomical signal and the construction of an Eocene astrochronology, using 3-cm resolution X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) core scans. The XRF-derived ratio between calcium and iron content (Ca/Fe) tracks the lithologic variability and serves as the basis for our U1514 astrochronology. We present a 16 million-year-long (40-56 Ma) nearly continuous history of Eocene sedimentation with variations paced by eccentricity and obliquity. We supplement the high-resolution XRF data with low-resolution bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes, recording the long-term cooling trend from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM - ca. 56 Ma) into the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma). Our early Eocene astrochronology corroborates existing chronologies based on deep-sea sites and Italian land sections. For the middle Eocene, the sedimentological record at U1514 provides a single-site geochemical backbone and thus offers a further step towards a fully integrated Cenozoic geologic time scale at orbital resolution.

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    Authors: Badger, Marcus P S; Chalk, Thomas B; Foster, Gavin L; Bown, Paul R; +6 Authors

    Atmospheric _p_CO~2~ is a critical component of the global carbon system and is considered to be the major control of Earth's past, present and future climate. Accurate and precise reconstructions of its concentration through geological time are, therefore, crucial to our understanding of the Earth system. Ice core records document _p_CO~2~ for the past 800 kyrs, but at no point during this interval were CO~2~ levels higher than today. Interpretation of older _p_CO~2~ has been hampered by discrepancies during some time intervals between two of the main ocean-based proxy methods used to reconstruct _p_CO~2~: the carbon isotope fractionation that occurs during photosynthesis as recorded by haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and the boron isotope composition (δ^11^B) of foraminifer shells. Here we present alkenone and δ^11^B-based _p_CO~2~ reconstructions generated from the same samples from the Plio-Pleistocene at ODP Site 999 across a glacial-interglacial cycle. We find a muted response to _p_CO~2~ in the alkenone record compared to contemporaneous ice core and δ^11^B records, suggesting caution in the interpretation of alkenone-based records at low _p_CO~2~ levels. This is possibly caused by the physiology of CO~2~ uptake in the haptophytes. Our new understanding resolves some of the inconsistencies between the proxies and highlights that caution may be required when interpreting alkenone-based reconstructions of _p_CO~2~.

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    Authors: Albers, Elmar; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Menzies, C D; +2 Authors

    Few data exist that provide insight into processes affecting the long-term carbon cycle at shallow forearc depths. To better understand the mobilization of carbon in sediments and crust of the subducting slab, we investigated carbonate materials that originate from the subduction channel at the Mariana forearc (< 20 km) and were recovered during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 366. The calcium carbonates exist as vein precipitates within metavolcanic and metasedimentary clasts. The clasts represent portions of the subducting lithosphere, including ocean island basalt, that were altered at lower blueschist facies conditions and were subsequently transported to the forearc seafloor by serpentinite mud volcanism. Euhedral aragonite and calcite and the lack of deformation within the veins suggest carbonate formation in a strain-free environment, that is after peak metamorphism affected their hosts. Intergrowth with barite and marked negative Ce anomalies in carbonate attest the precipitation within a generally oxic environment that was not controlled by serpentinization. Strontium and O isotopic compositions in carbonate (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7052 to 0.7054, δ18OVSMOW = 20 to 24 ‰) imply precipitation from slab-derived fluids at temperatures between ~ 130 and 300 °C. These temperature estimates are consistent with the presence of blueschist facies phases, such as lawsonite coexisting with the carbonates in some veins. Incorporated carbon is inorganic (δ13CVPDB = −1 to +4 ‰) and likely derived from the decarbonation of carbonaceous sediment and/or oceanic crust. These findings provide evidence for the mobilization of carbon in the downgoing slab at depths of < 20 km. Our study for the first time shows in detail that a portion of this carbon forms carbonate precipitates in the subduction channel of an active convergent margin. This process may be an important asset in understanding the deep carbon cycle since it highlights that C is lost from the subducting lithosphere before reaching greater depths.

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