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554 Research products

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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Solár, David;

    Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist es, die jüdischen Kulturpersönlichkeiten der Karlsbader Region in den breiteren kulturgeschichtlichen Kontext des jüdischen Lebens in den böhmischen Ländern einzuordnen, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf ausgewählten jüdischen deutschen oder tschechischen Schriftstellern, Publizisten und anderen ausgewählten bedeutenden jüdischen Persönlichkeiten liegt, die zur Popularisierung und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der Region beigetragen haben. Neben Persönlichkeiten, die direkt aus der Karlsbader Region stammten, werden auch Persönlichkeiten, die einen Teil ihres Lebens oder während längerer oder wiederholter Kuraufenthalte mit der Karlsbader Region verbunden waren, eingehend untersucht. Ein weiteres Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist es, die sozial- und kulturgeschichtlichen Besonderheiten der Karlsbader Region, insbesondere für die jüdische Gemeinde, darzustellen und die tschechisch-deutsch-jüdischen Gesellschaftsbeziehungen in der Region zu veranschaulichen, sowie Beispiele authentischer zeitgenössischer Korrespondenz des ausgewählten Zeitraums zu zeigen. Eine Besonderheit der Region ist die lange Zeit des Verbots der jüdischen Bevölkerung in der Kulturhauptstadt Karlsbad (auf Tschechisch Karlovy Vary) - offiziell seit dem königlichen Verbot von 1499 bis 1848). Die in Karlsbad arbeitenden Juden siedelten sich daher in den umliegenden Städten (insbesondere Lichtenstadt (auf Tschechisch Hroznětín) mit seinem großen jüdischen Viertel) und Dörfern an. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. und in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts entwickelte sich das religiöse und kulturelle Leben der Juden in der Karlsbader Region und passte sich sprachlich der deutschsprachigen Bevölkerungsmehrheit an. Obhájeno The aim of this thesis is to place the Jewish cultural personalities of the Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary) Region in the broader cultural-historical context of Jewish life in the Czech lands, focusing on selected Jewish German or Czech writers, publicists and other selected significant Jewish personalities who contributed to the popularization and economic development of the region. In addition to personalities who came directly from the Carlsbad Region, personalities who were associated with the Carlsbad Region for part of their lives or during extended or repeated spa stays are also examined in detail. Another aim of this thesis is to present the social and cultural historical peculiarities of the Carlsbad Region, especially for the Jewish community, and to illustrate the Czech-German-Jewish social relations in the region, as well as to show examples of authentic contemporary correspondence of the selected period. A specific feature of the region is the long period of the ban on the Jewish population in the cultural capital Carlsbad - officially from the royal ban of 1499 until 1848). Jews working in Carlsbad therefore settled in the surrounding towns (especially Hroznětín with its large Jewish quarter) and villages. In the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, the religious and cultural life of Jews in the Carlsbad region developed, adapting linguistically to the German-speaking majority of the population.

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    Authors: Strolená, Marie;

    Cílem práce je zhodnocení zeleně na veřejných prostranstvích, na náměstí a v historickém středu města. Metodou hodnocení je terénní a archivní průzkum. V práci jsou používány fotografie, historické plány a malby, ze kterých lze odvodit množství a stav zeleně. Zeleň na veřejných prostranstvích je v současnosti uspokojivá a splňuje své funkce, ale zeleně na náměstí po revitalizaci velmi ubylo. Obhájeno The aim of the work is to evaluate the greenery in public spaces, squares and the historical centre of the city. The method of evaluation is field and archival research. The thesis uses photographs, historical plans and paintings from which the quantity and condition of the greenery can be deduced. The greenery in the public spaces is currently satisfactory and fulfils its functions, but the greenery in the square has greatly diminished after the revitalisation.

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    Authors: Sellat, Hashem; Saleh, Shadi; Krubiński, Mateusz; Pospíšil, Adam; +2 Authors

    This is the first release of the UFAL Parallel Corpus of North Levantine, compiled by the Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics (ÚFAL) at Charles University within the Welcome project (https://welcome-h2020.eu/). The corpus consists of 120,600 multiparallel sentences in English, French, German, Greek, Spanish, and Standard Arabic selected from the OpenSubtitles2018 corpus [1] and manually translated into the North Levantine Arabic language. The corpus was created for the purpose of training machine translation for North Levantine and the other languages.

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    LINDAT/CLARIAH-CZ repository
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Čedík, Jan;

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá zpracováním přirozeného jazyka pomocí neuronových sítí. V současnosti dochází k rychlému rozvoji neuronových sítí v tomto oboru, přičemž společnost OpenAI je hlavním průkopníkem s jejími velkými modely založenými na architektuře Transformer. Teoretická část se zaměřuje právě na tuto architekturu, konkrétně na architektury T5, BERT a GPT. V praktické části provádíme experimenty jak v češtině, tak v angličtině, založené na architektuře T5. Shromáždili jsme data obsahující přirozené dialogy mezi jednotlivci. Pro dosažení co nejlepších předpovědí výstupu se snažíme o různé modifikace trénovacích dat, jako je značkování nebo augmentace. Hodnocení se provádí pomocí modelu sémantické návaznosti, který porovnává vstup a výstup modelu. Obhájeno This bachelor's thesis deals with natural language processing using neural networks. Currently, there is a rapid development of neural networks in this field, with the company OpenAI being a major pioneer with its large models based on the Transformer architecture. The theoretical part focuses on this architecture, specifically the T5, BERT, and GPT architectures. In the practical part, we conduct experiments in both Czech and English languages based on the T5 architecture. We gathered data containing natural dialogues between individuals. Through various modifications of the training data, such as tagging or augmentation, we aim to achieve the best possible output predictions. Evaluation is performed using a semantic continuity model, comparing the input and output of the model.

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    Authors: Kašáková, Tereza;

    Tématem této práce je automatické rozpoznávání typů otázek v různých jazycích. Práce analyzuje typy vět a typy otázek, zaměřuje se na jejich intonaci a popisuje její pravidla v různých jazycích. Na problematiku se dívá z hlediska syntézy řeči, zvýrazňuje důležitost správného generování prozodie a konkrétně typického tónu různých typů otázek, aby umělá řeč byla co nejpřirozenější. Důležité je tudíž při předzpracování textu před jeho samotnou syntézou automaticky rozlišovat typy otázek. Předkládaná práce se o to snaží využitím pravidel, klasifikátorů a neuronové sítě T5. Tyto přístupy testuje pro data v několika jazycích a porovnává jejich přesnosti při klasifikaci otázek. Obhájeno The subject of this thesis is the automatic recognition of question types in various languages. The thesis analyzes types of sentences and types of questions, focuses on their intonation and describes its rules in different languages. The issue is looked at from the perspective of speech synthesis, it emphasizes the importance of the correct generation of prosody and, in particular, the typical tone of different types of questions, so that artificial speech is as natural as possible. It is therefore important to automatically distinguish between the types of questions when pre-processing the text before the synthesis. The current work aims to do so using rules, classifiers and the T5 neural network. These approaches are tested using data in several languages and their accuracy values for question types classification are compared.

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    Authors: Čížková, Marie;

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá sňatky na radnickém panství v 18. století. Po krátkém seznámení s vývojem panství se již věnuje přípravám na svatbu, svatebnímu obřadu a situaci po něm. Práce je zaměřena na výzkum sňatečnosti z pohledu jednotlivých let, měsíců a dní, dále je zde zkoumán věk, původ a rodinný stav snoubenců, který souvisel s výběrem partnera, a v neposlední řadě také oblast svědků. Vše je zasazeno do obecného kontextu doby, včetně rituálů a tradic spojených se svatbou v novověké společnosti. Obhájeno This master thesis deals with weddings in the Radnice manor in the 18th century. After a brief introduction to the historical development of the manor, there are analyzed the wedding preparations, the wedding ceremony and the situation afterwards. The thesis is focused on the research of wedding rate in terms of years, months and days, than there i salso examines the age, origin and marital status of betrothed, which was related to the choice of a partner, as well as the area of wedding witnesses. All this is set in the general context of the time, including the rituals and traditions associated with weddings in modern society.

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    Authors: Mladý, Jakub;

    Aktivní učení je přístup k trénování modelů umělé inteligence v rámci učení s učite- lem. Motivací k jeho zavedení je šetření času a finančních prostředků při pořizování anotací trénovacích dat, jež jsou v mnoha úlohách strojového učení potřebné. Jeho paradigma je jednoduché: předpoklady jsou datová sada s několika málo označenými daty, model a anotátor. Následně do splnění vhodně zvolené ukončovací podmínky probíhá následující cyklus - naučit model na označené podmnožině, vybrat několik neoznačených vzorků a dotázat se anotátora na označení vybraných vzorků. Kri- tickou částí systému je pak výběr vzorků. Při použití vhodné strategie je možné vybrat takové prvky, jejichž naučením se model zlepší nejvíce. Právě tyto strategie jsou hlavním předmětem výzkumu aktivního učení. Tato práce nabízí průzkum již existujících strategií a poskytuje hodnocení přínosu některých strategií a aktivního učení jako celku z výsledků navržených experimentů. Obhájeno Active learning is an approach to training artificial intelligence models within super- vised learning. The motivation for its introduction comes from the need to spare time and financial resources in obtaining labels for the training data, which are fundamental for many machine learning tasks. Its paradigm is simple: the precon- ditions are a training dataset with a few data labeled, the model and an annotator. Then, the following cycle is repeated until some suitable terminal condition is met - train the model on labeled data, query for more unlabeled data and let the annotator provide the labels for the queried instances. The critical part of such a system lies in the startegy of querying for new data samples. With a desirable strategy, such data labels could be obtained, that imporve the model the most. These query strategies are the main subject of ongoing research in active learning. This work offers a sur- vey of existing strategies and provides evaluation of contribution of some chosen strategies and active learning as a whole from the results of proposed experiments.

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    Authors: Zieba, Jakub;

    Tato práce se zabývá analýzou využití strojového překladu v úlohách porozumění přirozenému jazyku. Prozkoumává možnosti použití českých strojových překladů anglických datasetů pro trénování modelů strojového učení a jejich aplikace na úlohu inference přirozeného jazyka. Pro překlad datasetů využívá online služeb strojového překladu. Proces trénování využívá přeneseného učení a existujících předtrénovaných modelů. Cílem práce je zhodnocení výsledků českých modelů trénovaných na přeložených datech a porovnání s výsledky anglických modelů trénovaných na ekvivalentních originálních datech. Obhájeno This paper analyzes the usage of machine translation in natural language understanding tasks. It explores the possibilities of using Czech machine translation of English datasets for training machine learning models and their application on natural language inference tasks. It uses online machine translation services for dataset translation. The training process utilizes transfer learning and existing pre-trained models. Finally, it evaluates the results of Czech models trained on translated data and compares them to the performance of English models trained on equivalent original data.

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    Authors: Panská, Natálie;

    Bakalářská práce se věnuje didaktickým hrám ve výuce na 2. stupni základní školy. Vybrané hry jsou určeny pro výuku českého jazyka a dějepisu a cílem práce je vytvoření praktického portfolia didaktických her pro vlastní potřebu. V první části práce jsou vysvětleny základní pojmy, klasifikace didaktických her, pojetí didaktických her od minulosti po současnost a je tam také představen vlastní průzkum zdrojů didaktických her. Druhá a třetí část práce jsou ve formě portfolia vybraných didaktických her do hodin českého jazyka a dějepisu, na jejichž konci se nachází souhrn toho, co mají dané hry společného. Obhájeno The bachelor's thesis is devoted to didactic games in teaching at the 2nd stage at primary school. The selected games are intended for teaching Czech and History and the aim of the thesis is to create a practical portfolio of didactic games for own use. The first part of the thesis explains the basic concepts, classification of didactic games, the concept of didactic games from the past to the present and there is also presented the own research of didactic games resources. The second and third parts of the thesis are in the form of a portfolio of selected didactic games for Czech and History classes, at the end of which there is a summary of what the games have in common.

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    Authors: Bartička, Vojtěch;

    Tato práce zkoumá atrubuční metody aplikovatelné na Transformer modely pomocí datových sad SST a CTDC. Do datové sady CTDC přidáváme anotace založené na klíčových slovech a bodové vzájemné informaci, čímž umožňujeme evaluaci atribučních metod na české datové sadě. Používáme sedm modelů různých velikostí a architektur, každý s pěti instancemi, což nám umožňuje měřit vliv náhodné inicializace a velikosti modelu. Používáme také destilovaný vícejazyčný model na datové sadě CTDC a ukazujeme, že se rozhoduje racionálně i při použití s jazykem méně frekventovaným v předtrénování. Testujeme atribuční metody s různými referenčními vstupy a počty vzorků, což poskytuje cenné poznatky pro praktické aplikace. Ukazujeme, že přeučení negativně ovlivňuje atribuční metody využívající gradient, zatímco u metody KernelSHAP, která gradient nevyužívá, dochází k velmi malému zhoršení. Obhájeno In this thesis, we evaluate multiple attribution methods applicable to Transformer models using the SST and CTDC datasets. We extend the CTDC dataset by adding ground-truth annotations based on keywords and pointwise mutual information, creating a ground-truth evaluation benchmark for the Czech language. We fine-tune seven models of various sizes and architectures with five instances each, allowing us to measure the effect of random initialization and model size. We also evaluate a distilled multilingual model on the CTDC dataset, showing that it makes rational decisions even when used with a language less represented in the pre-training process. We test attribution methods with different baseline references and sample counts, providing valuable insight for practical applications. We show that overfitting negatively affects gradient-based attribution methods, while KernelSHAP sees little performance degradation.

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554 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Solár, David;

    Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist es, die jüdischen Kulturpersönlichkeiten der Karlsbader Region in den breiteren kulturgeschichtlichen Kontext des jüdischen Lebens in den böhmischen Ländern einzuordnen, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf ausgewählten jüdischen deutschen oder tschechischen Schriftstellern, Publizisten und anderen ausgewählten bedeutenden jüdischen Persönlichkeiten liegt, die zur Popularisierung und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der Region beigetragen haben. Neben Persönlichkeiten, die direkt aus der Karlsbader Region stammten, werden auch Persönlichkeiten, die einen Teil ihres Lebens oder während längerer oder wiederholter Kuraufenthalte mit der Karlsbader Region verbunden waren, eingehend untersucht. Ein weiteres Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist es, die sozial- und kulturgeschichtlichen Besonderheiten der Karlsbader Region, insbesondere für die jüdische Gemeinde, darzustellen und die tschechisch-deutsch-jüdischen Gesellschaftsbeziehungen in der Region zu veranschaulichen, sowie Beispiele authentischer zeitgenössischer Korrespondenz des ausgewählten Zeitraums zu zeigen. Eine Besonderheit der Region ist die lange Zeit des Verbots der jüdischen Bevölkerung in der Kulturhauptstadt Karlsbad (auf Tschechisch Karlovy Vary) - offiziell seit dem königlichen Verbot von 1499 bis 1848). Die in Karlsbad arbeitenden Juden siedelten sich daher in den umliegenden Städten (insbesondere Lichtenstadt (auf Tschechisch Hroznětín) mit seinem großen jüdischen Viertel) und Dörfern an. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. und in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts entwickelte sich das religiöse und kulturelle Leben der Juden in der Karlsbader Region und passte sich sprachlich der deutschsprachigen Bevölkerungsmehrheit an. Obhájeno The aim of this thesis is to place the Jewish cultural personalities of the Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary) Region in the broader cultural-historical context of Jewish life in the Czech lands, focusing on selected Jewish German or Czech writers, publicists and other selected significant Jewish personalities who contributed to the popularization and economic development of the region. In addition to personalities who came directly from the Carlsbad Region, personalities who were associated with the Carlsbad Region for part of their lives or during extended or repeated spa stays are also examined in detail. Another aim of this thesis is to present the social and cultural historical peculiarities of the Carlsbad Region, especially for the Jewish community, and to illustrate the Czech-German-Jewish social relations in the region, as well as to show examples of authentic contemporary correspondence of the selected period. A specific feature of the region is the long period of the ban on the Jewish population in the cultural capital Carlsbad - officially from the royal ban of 1499 until 1848). Jews working in Carlsbad therefore settled in the surrounding towns (especially Hroznětín with its large Jewish quarter) and villages. In the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, the religious and cultural life of Jews in the Carlsbad region developed, adapting linguistically to the German-speaking majority of the population.

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    Authors: Strolená, Marie;

    Cílem práce je zhodnocení zeleně na veřejných prostranstvích, na náměstí a v historickém středu města. Metodou hodnocení je terénní a archivní průzkum. V práci jsou používány fotografie, historické plány a malby, ze kterých lze odvodit množství a stav zeleně. Zeleň na veřejných prostranstvích je v současnosti uspokojivá a splňuje své funkce, ale zeleně na náměstí po revitalizaci velmi ubylo. Obhájeno The aim of the work is to evaluate the greenery in public spaces, squares and the historical centre of the city. The method of evaluation is field and archival research. The thesis uses photographs, historical plans and paintings from which the quantity and condition of the greenery can be deduced. The greenery in the public spaces is currently satisfactory and fulfils its functions, but the greenery in the square has greatly diminished after the revitalisation.

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    Authors: Sellat, Hashem; Saleh, Shadi; Krubiński, Mateusz; Pospíšil, Adam; +2 Authors

    This is the first release of the UFAL Parallel Corpus of North Levantine, compiled by the Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics (ÚFAL) at Charles University within the Welcome project (https://welcome-h2020.eu/). The corpus consists of 120,600 multiparallel sentences in English, French, German, Greek, Spanish, and Standard Arabic selected from the OpenSubtitles2018 corpus [1] and manually translated into the North Levantine Arabic language. The corpus was created for the purpose of training machine translation for North Levantine and the other languages.

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    Authors: Čedík, Jan;

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá zpracováním přirozeného jazyka pomocí neuronových sítí. V současnosti dochází k rychlému rozvoji neuronových sítí v tomto oboru, přičemž společnost OpenAI je hlavním průkopníkem s jejími velkými modely založenými na architektuře Transformer. Teoretická část se zaměřuje právě na tuto architekturu, konkrétně na architektury T5, BERT a GPT. V praktické části provádíme experimenty jak v češtině, tak v angličtině, založené na architektuře T5. Shromáždili jsme data obsahující přirozené dialogy mezi jednotlivci. Pro dosažení co nejlepších předpovědí výstupu se snažíme o různé modifikace trénovacích dat, jako je značkování nebo augmentace. Hodnocení se provádí pomocí modelu sémantické návaznosti, který porovnává vstup a výstup modelu. Obhájeno This bachelor's thesis deals with natural language processing using neural networks. Currently, there is a rapid development of neural networks in this field, with the company OpenAI being a major pioneer with its large models based on the Transformer architecture. The theoretical part focuses on this architecture, specifically the T5, BERT, and GPT architectures. In the practical part, we conduct experiments in both Czech and English languages based on the T5 architecture. We gathered data containing natural dialogues between individuals. Through various modifications of the training data, such as tagging or augmentation, we aim to achieve the best possible output predictions. Evaluation is performed using a semantic continuity model, comparing the input and output of the model.

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    Authors: Kašáková, Tereza;

    Tématem této práce je automatické rozpoznávání typů otázek v různých jazycích. Práce analyzuje typy vět a typy otázek, zaměřuje se na jejich intonaci a popisuje její pravidla v různých jazycích. Na problematiku se dívá z hlediska syntézy řeči, zvýrazňuje důležitost správného generování prozodie a konkrétně typického tónu různých typů otázek, aby umělá řeč byla co nejpřirozenější. Důležité je tudíž při předzpracování textu před jeho samotnou syntézou automaticky rozlišovat typy otázek. Předkládaná práce se o to snaží využitím pravidel, klasifikátorů a neuronové sítě T5. Tyto přístupy testuje pro data v několika jazycích a porovnává jejich přesnosti při klasifikaci otázek. Obhájeno The subject of this thesis is the automatic recognition of question types in various languages. The thesis analyzes types of sentences and types of questions, focuses on their intonation and describes its rules in different languages. The issue is looked at from the perspective of speech synthesis, it emphasizes the importance of the correct generation of prosody and, in particular, the typical tone of different types of questions, so that artificial speech is as natural as possible. It is therefore important to automatically distinguish between the types of questions when pre-processing the text before the synthesis. The current work aims to do so using rules, classifiers and the T5 neural network. These approaches are tested using data in several languages and their accuracy values for question types classification are compared.

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    Authors: Čížková, Marie;

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá sňatky na radnickém panství v 18. století. Po krátkém seznámení s vývojem panství se již věnuje přípravám na svatbu, svatebnímu obřadu a situaci po něm. Práce je zaměřena na výzkum sňatečnosti z pohledu jednotlivých let, měsíců a dní, dále je zde zkoumán věk, původ a rodinný stav snoubenců, který souvisel s výběrem partnera, a v neposlední řadě také oblast svědků. Vše je zasazeno do obecného kontextu doby, včetně rituálů a tradic spojených se svatbou v novověké společnosti. Obhájeno This master thesis deals with weddings in the Radnice manor in the 18th century. After a brief introduction to the historical development of the manor, there are analyzed the wedding preparations, the wedding ceremony and the situation afterwards. The thesis is focused on the research of wedding rate in terms of years, months and days, than there i salso examines the age, origin and marital status of betrothed, which was related to the choice of a partner, as well as the area of wedding witnesses. All this is set in the general context of the time, including the rituals and traditions associated with weddings in modern society.

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    Authors: Mladý, Jakub;

    Aktivní učení je přístup k trénování modelů umělé inteligence v rámci učení s učite- lem. Motivací k jeho zavedení je šetření času a finančních prostředků při pořizování anotací trénovacích dat, jež jsou v mnoha úlohách strojového učení potřebné. Jeho paradigma je jednoduché: předpoklady jsou datová sada s několika málo označenými daty, model a anotátor. Následně do splnění vhodně zvolené ukončovací podmínky probíhá následující cyklus - naučit model na označené podmnožině, vybrat několik neoznačených vzorků a dotázat se anotátora na označení vybraných vzorků. Kri- tickou částí systému je pak výběr vzorků. Při použití vhodné strategie je možné vybrat takové prvky, jejichž naučením se model zlepší nejvíce. Právě tyto strategie jsou hlavním předmětem výzkumu aktivního učení. Tato práce nabízí průzkum již existujících strategií a poskytuje hodnocení přínosu některých strategií a aktivního učení jako celku z výsledků navržených experimentů. Obhájeno Active learning is an approach to training artificial intelligence models within super- vised learning. The motivation for its introduction comes from the need to spare time and financial resources in obtaining labels for the training data, which are fundamental for many machine learning tasks. Its paradigm is simple: the precon- ditions are a training dataset with a few data labeled, the model and an annotator. Then, the following cycle is repeated until some suitable terminal condition is met - train the model on labeled data, query for more unlabeled data and let the annotator provide the labels for the queried instances. The critical part of such a system lies in the startegy of querying for new data samples. With a desirable strategy, such data labels could be obtained, that imporve the model the most. These query strategies are the main subject of ongoing research in active learning. This work offers a sur- vey of existing strategies and provides evaluation of contribution of some chosen strategies and active learning as a whole from the results of proposed experiments.

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    Authors: Zieba, Jakub;

    Tato práce se zabývá analýzou využití strojového překladu v úlohách porozumění přirozenému jazyku. Prozkoumává možnosti použití českých strojových překladů anglických datasetů pro trénování modelů strojového učení a jejich aplikace na úlohu inference přirozeného jazyka. Pro překlad datasetů využívá online služeb strojového překladu. Proces trénování využívá přeneseného učení a existujících předtrénovaných modelů. Cílem práce je zhodnocení výsledků českých modelů trénovaných na přeložených datech a porovnání s výsledky anglických modelů trénovaných na ekvivalentních originálních datech. Obhájeno This paper analyzes the usage of machine translation in natural language understanding tasks. It explores the possibilities of using Czech machine translation of English datasets for training machine learning models and their application on natural language inference tasks. It uses online machine translation services for dataset translation. The training process utilizes transfer learning and existing pre-trained models. Finally, it evaluates the results of Czech models trained on translated data and compares them to the performance of English models trained on equivalent original data.

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    Authors: Panská, Natálie;

    Bakalářská práce se věnuje didaktickým hrám ve výuce na 2. stupni základní školy. Vybrané hry jsou určeny pro výuku českého jazyka a dějepisu a cílem práce je vytvoření praktického portfolia didaktických her pro vlastní potřebu. V první části práce jsou vysvětleny základní pojmy, klasifikace didaktických her, pojetí didaktických her od minulosti po současnost a je tam také představen vlastní průzkum zdrojů didaktických her. Druhá a třetí část práce jsou ve formě portfolia vybraných didaktických her do hodin českého jazyka a dějepisu, na jejichž konci se nachází souhrn toho, co mají dané hry společného. Obhájeno The bachelor's thesis is devoted to didactic games in teaching at the 2nd stage at primary school. The selected games are intended for teaching Czech and History and the aim of the thesis is to create a practical portfolio of didactic games for own use. The first part of the thesis explains the basic concepts, classification of didactic games, the concept of didactic games from the past to the present and there is also presented the own research of didactic games resources. The second and third parts of the thesis are in the form of a portfolio of selected didactic games for Czech and History classes, at the end of which there is a summary of what the games have in common.

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    Authors: Bartička, Vojtěch;

    Tato práce zkoumá atrubuční metody aplikovatelné na Transformer modely pomocí datových sad SST a CTDC. Do datové sady CTDC přidáváme anotace založené na klíčových slovech a bodové vzájemné informaci, čímž umožňujeme evaluaci atribučních metod na české datové sadě. Používáme sedm modelů různých velikostí a architektur, každý s pěti instancemi, což nám umožňuje měřit vliv náhodné inicializace a velikosti modelu. Používáme také destilovaný vícejazyčný model na datové sadě CTDC a ukazujeme, že se rozhoduje racionálně i při použití s jazykem méně frekventovaným v předtrénování. Testujeme atribuční metody s různými referenčními vstupy a počty vzorků, což poskytuje cenné poznatky pro praktické aplikace. Ukazujeme, že přeučení negativně ovlivňuje atribuční metody využívající gradient, zatímco u metody KernelSHAP, která gradient nevyužívá, dochází k velmi malému zhoršení. Obhájeno In this thesis, we evaluate multiple attribution methods applicable to Transformer models using the SST and CTDC datasets. We extend the CTDC dataset by adding ground-truth annotations based on keywords and pointwise mutual information, creating a ground-truth evaluation benchmark for the Czech language. We fine-tune seven models of various sizes and architectures with five instances each, allowing us to measure the effect of random initialization and model size. We also evaluate a distilled multilingual model on the CTDC dataset, showing that it makes rational decisions even when used with a language less represented in the pre-training process. We test attribution methods with different baseline references and sample counts, providing valuable insight for practical applications. We show that overfitting negatively affects gradient-based attribution methods, while KernelSHAP sees little performance degradation.

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