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107 Research products, page 1 of 11

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 2013-2022

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  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Šileika, Antanas;

    This talk was given at a symposium called “Small Cultures in a Big World” in September of 2013 at Tartu College, in Toronto, hosted by the Estonian Studies Centre. In it, Canadian novelist, Antanas Šileika, addresses the problems, opportunities and technical difficulties of writing fiction based on Baltic history aimed at publication in North America.

  • Open Access Catalan; Valencian
    Authors: 
    Ajuntament de Barcelona; Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Habana; Trias Vidal de Llobatera, Xavier; Leal Spengler, Eusebio; Cases Pallarès, Jordi;
    Publisher: Ajuntament de Barcelona
    Country: Spain
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    VESTAL, MARQUES A;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Urban histories of race and housing currently ignore the daily conflicts over debt, occupancy, and autonomy that characterized the private market for shelter and home in the United States. The historical literature, instead, has concentrated on the role of government policy, economic restructuring, real estate professionals, white homeowners, and black activists in constructing and resisting racially segregated metropolitan real estate and mortgage markets, resulting in discriminatory access to homeownership and credit for black Americans. This study aims to construct a history not of the contested role of race in housing, but the contested role of private property in shaping the black experience of housing. Specifically, this dissertation examines seminal moments of property conflict in Black Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, arguing that the everyday conflicts over debt, rent, eviction, and autonomy comprised the central substance of the history of black home struggle in the city. Property conflicts were the complaints, jokes, gossip, lawsuits, deals, compromises, and regular violence that parties, often of unequal power, engaged in to claim contested entitlements over land, housing, and revenue, of which contests over segregation were but one aspect of conflict. Thus, the focus on struggle in this study is both broadened and made more intimate. For working-class black Angelenos, the goal of property conflict was to make and to keep home amid urban growth and contraction, not to make a city or to enter the vaunted status of homeowner. By centering the contentious intersection of home and private property, this study consolidates the struggles of both working-class property owners and tenants into a more holistic history of black land struggle. To uncover the history of black property conflict in Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, this study tracked a variety of scattered records that documented such conflict: black newspapers, manuscript collections, Los Angeles City Council minutes and petitions, Los Angeles Board of Supervisors minutes, Superior Court criminal and civil lawsuits, and other city, state, and federal records. Unearthing these records reveals that the history of black land struggle in Los Angeles is the history of conflict over the terms of private property. The findings of this study force urban historians, and anyone concerned with housing policy, to rethink the central problem of race and housing in the United States. The problem is not the discriminatory access to the private property rights and neighborhoods of white America, it is instead, the inadequate structure of private property governance that forces people of unequal power to fight over the contracts stipulating the terms of home for profit.

  • Other research product . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hegel, Allison;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    The rise of online platforms for buying and discussing books such as Amazon and Goodreads opens up new possibilities for reception studies in the twenty-first century. These platforms allow readers unprecedented freedom to preview and talk to others about books, but they also exercise unprecedented control over which books readers buy and how readers respond to them. Online reading platforms rely on algorithms with implicit assumptions that at times imitate and at times differ from the conventions of literary scholarship. This dissertation interrogates those algorithms, using computational methods including machine learning and natural language processing to analyze hundreds of thousands of online book reviews in order to find moments when literary and technological perspectives on contemporary reading can inform each other. A focus on the algorithmic logic of bookselling allows this project to critique the ways companies sell and recommend books in the twenty-first century, while also making room for improvements to these algorithms in both accuracy and theoretical sophistication. This dissertation forms the basis of a re-imagining of literary scholarship in the digital age that takes into account the online platforms that mediate so much of our modern literary consumption.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Redden, Jason Allen;
    Country: Canada

    This dissertation is an ethnohistorical account of the advent of Christianity, how it was taught and practiced, on the upper Fraser-Skeena watershed and adjacent North Pacific littoral between the years 1741 and 1873. The region was a focal point of sustained international colonial and commercial attention, and missionaries of various European Christianities played an important role in the introduction of Christianity in the vast socio-geographical space. However, they were not the only teachers and practitioners. Lay Christianities, that is, Christianity as practiced by the various workers in the maritime and continental fur trades, and later by Russian, Spanish, British, Canadian and American colonists were perspicuous features of the social field. While the presence of lay Christianities is often underdetermined in the North American historical and ethnographic records, I argue it figured significantly into the quality of social relations between newcomers and peoples Indigenous to the region. Indigenous peoples were initially interested in Christian form and content. Later those interests were augmented by Indigenous prophets interested in indigenizing Christianity; a task which entailed ensuring that Christianity originated locally. When the Hudson’s Bay Company emerged as the chief commercial operator in the region at the close of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, Indigenous Christianity was mobilized as a religion of resistance against the Company’s incursion into local social spaces and in the ensuing struggle with both the Company and Christian missionaries.

  • Other research product . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Quigley, Paul; Kutz, Kimberly; Fralin, Scott;
    Publisher: Virginia Tech
    Country: United States

    April 14, 2015 marks the 150th anniversary of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in the last days of the Civil War. As the first presidential assassination in United States history, Lincoln’s death sent shockwaves across the globe. American soldiers, politicians, and civilians mourned for Lincoln and breathlessly awaited news of the capture of his assassin, actor John Wilkes Booth. After his death, Lincoln became a powerful symbol that generations of Americans mobilized in their struggles for freedom and equality. Displaying objects and documents drawn from Newman Library’s Special Collections, this exhibition focuses on the reaction to Lincoln’s assassination as well as Lincoln’s enduring legacy in American life. Featured items include letters, diaries, and newspapers reporting on the assassination and its aftermath, relics such as fabric from Lincoln’s coffin, and a book by Virginia Tech’s first president and noted Lincoln despiser, Charles L.C. Minor. The exhibition also includes videos produced by students in History 2984, “Abraham Lincoln: The Man, the Myth, the Legend.” This exhibition is part of a series of events commemorating Abraham Lincoln in Spring 2015 sponsored by the Virginia Center for Civil War Studies. On February 14, the VCCWS will screen Young Mr. Lincoln at the Lyric Theatre. On April 10-11, five internationally-renowned historians of Lincoln and the Civil War will discuss Lincoln in a symposium entitled “Lincoln in Our Time.” For more information, please visit www.civilwar.vt.edu. 2015/03/02 - 2015/04/15

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bermudez, Rosie Cano;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    “Doing Dignity Work,” examines and analyzes the struggle for economic justice and human dignity waged by single, Chicana mothers in East Los Angeles. For Escalante, being able to lead a dignified life as a single mother receiving welfare entailed having adequate nutrition, clothing, a decent home, medical care for the family, and an honest job with a livable wage. It also meant being respected for the labor of raising children and caring for the elderly at home and not being subjected to demeaning, racist, and sexist policies and practices, as she and many others had experienced continuously at the welfare offices. As a political biography of gender and leadership and a social history, “Doing Dignity Work” excavates a grassroots genealogy of Chicana feminisms rooted in the struggles of single Chicana welfare mothers, sheds new light on the development of social and political consciousness among urban poor women of color, and disrupts the historiographic compartmentalization of social movements by bringing to the fore the multiple insurgencies and inter-organizational dynamics of this era. Employing the oral histories of Alicia Escalante and six of her activist contemporaries in conjunction with rich archival analysis, “Doing Dignity Work” forces us to reconsider women’s activism in the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. What is significant about the activism that Escalante practiced was that it was broadly based and multi-issued and cut across multiple constituencies. Escalante understood that to fight for economic justice and self-respect, you had to fight racism, classism and sexism. She realized, too, that these interlocking systems of oppression did not just affect low income, single Chicana and Mexicana mothers, but all impoverished women and people generally. Building on the integral research of scholars who have centered Mexicanas, Mexican American women, and Chicanas as workers, cultural producers, organizers, activists, and intellectuals, my work calls attention to the class perspective and militant dignity politics of poor Chicanas in Los Angeles. My research attends to an understudied aspect of Chicana/o history and the development of a militant grassroots Chicana feminism rooted in struggles for economic justice and human dignity that went beyond la familia and the Chicano community. Escalante embraced poor, single, unmarried, often divorced and abandoned, mothers who suffered shame and invisibility in larger struggles for la causa, the Chicana/o people. She brought their voices and struggles to the forefront when few others dared. By making room for unrecognized complex historical actors and organizations who do not fit neatly into established histories of the welfare rights movement and the second wave of feminism, my research contributes, too, to the fields of women’s history, women and gender studies, and social movements by moving beyond black-white binaries. It explores how impoverished, Spanish-speaking women came to the fore and in solidarity with other women of color and poor women to transform the social and political agendas of the welfare system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lin, James Yushang;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In the 20th century, development became practiced on a global scale by states, missionaries, philanthropic organizations, scientists, and other groups hoping to achieve a better condition for human society. Many of these efforts focused on social improvement and modernization for the relatively poorer agrarian societies and economies of the world. This dissertation interrogates the rise and practices of agrarian development, particularly by the United States in China and Taiwan, and then by Taiwan in the rest of the world.The first half of the dissertation explores the emergence of development from agricultural science, Protestant missions, and philanthropic famine relief in China, focusing on how Chinese practitioners localized globally circulating ideas. These ideas and practices eventually coalesced into a development “model” in China and Taiwan, which distilled a range of practices, from village-level social reform (i.e. organizing farmers associations) to high modernist science (i.e. plant breeding and chemical fertilizer production). The second half of the dissertation examines the subsequent iteration—how Taiwanese development experts then marketed practices of farmers organizations, land reform, and high yield crop varieties in their Cold War development missions to Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Through demonstrating their technical prowess and ability of providing humanitarian aid abroad, the Taiwanese were attempting to pursue their own political goals and find a postcolonial identity through international development.As development practitioners repackaged ideas of agrarian development for local conditions, they imagined distinct visions of modernity and society that reflected their own expertise, historical experiences, and political goals. Development was a complicated process that Chinese and Taiwanese actors not only co-opted to realize their own visions of modernity at home, but also to demonstrate the superiority of those visions abroad to an international audience.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gomer, Justin Daniel;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    "Colorblindness, A Life: Race, Film, and the Articulation of an Ideology," offers a political and cultural biography of the racial ideology of colorblindness from its emergence as a coherent racial ideology in the years after the civil rights movement to its dominant influence in social policy in the 1990s. Most importantly, the project reveals the manner in which colorblindness became the racial project of neoliberalism. This elaboration of colorblindness as an ideology and cultural form is best understood through an examination of film during the period of my study. Beginning in the second-half of the 1970s, Hollywood developed its own set of filmic aesthetics, narratives, and tropes that advocated colorblindness. Moreover, Hollywood was not only central to the articulation of the ideology, it also depended upon colorblindness in the New Hollywood era. In the post-civil rights era, then, colorblindness, neoliberalism, and film are constitutive of and inextricable from one another.The project illustrates three key themes. First, colorblindness is the racial project of neoliberalism. The 1970s were characterized by an anti-government ethos that extended across racial and political lines that neoconservatives used in the 1970s to attack issues like affirmative action and busing as part of a movement intent on dismantling of the welfare state. Out of these struggles emerged a neoliberal notion of "individual" colorblind freedom that neoconservatives, beginning in the mid-seventies, successfully sold as the antidote to the "reverse discrimination" of government mandated "group" rights. The growing popularity of neoliberal economics in the seventies was not merely the result of the seeming failures of Keynesianism to cure stagflation. Instead, the mounting opposition to the "overreach" of the federal government in busing and affirmative action was fundamental in building the appeal of a return to uncompromising laissez faire economics.Secondly, colorblindness, although post-racial in theory, has served as a tool for whites to realign and reconstitute white supremacy within a post-civil rights political correctness. Beginning in the late seventies, white Republicans and moderate Democrats alike used colorblindness to eliminate race-conscious programs intended to promote racial equality. These efforts have only exacerbated racial inequality.Lastly, my dissertation asserts that film served as a key battleground for the culture wars out of which the ideology of colorblindness formed. Yet just as colorblindness needed film to form its cultural cohesion, film needed colorblindness to reinvent itself in the desperate economic times of the post-Classical era. Beginning in the 1970s, movies capitalized upon the volatile racial, social, and economic struggles in the decades after the civil rights movement that shaped colorblindness and have continued to appeal to colorblind sentiments for profit. By the end of the 1980s, Hollywood was increasingly turning to historical dramas that imagined colorblind white heroes at the center of black freedom struggles--emancipation and the civil rights movement, specifically. And by the 1990s, entirely new colorblind film genres, most notably in what I term the "Teacher Film," had emerged.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lorimer, Michelle;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Spanish missions that dot the landscape in California today exist as centers of historical interpretation. Visitors to California, residents of the state, and school children often turn to these sites to learn about the early history of the region. Unbeknownst to many visitors, the history presented at many contemporary California mission sites reflects an incomplete, skewed, and biased perspective of the past created in the early-twentieth century by local promoters such as Charles Fletcher Lummis and John Steven McGroarty. This “revisionist” history focused on a romantic and idyllic representation of the mission era – centered on the benevolent work of Spanish priests and celebration of mission ruins. Revisionists pushed Native Californians into the periphery of this manufactured narrative, despite the central role of indigenous people in building, populating, sustaining, and expanding the missions. Following in this tradition, contemporary mission museums continue to present an unhistorical version of the past. Interpreters at these sites frequently ignore such themes as Native labor, Indian resistance, contagious diseases, malnutrition, infant mortality, violence, death, and Spanish-inflicted punishments. They glorify the Spanish priests, deemphasize the role of Native people, and minimize the negative impact of Spanish colonization on California Indian populations. Scholars writing in the late twentieth century provide more accurate and detailed analyses of early California history and the Spanish mission system. However, popular representations of mission history do not reflect scholarly knowledge offered during the past fifty years about the role of Native Californians within the mission system. Interpreters at mission sites today continue to situate colonial California within idyllic depictions consistent with the mission myth. While some contemporary sites attempt to present more balanced and honest representations of the past, sanitized and romanticized narratives remain the most prominent presentation of Spanish missions in California found in popular culture today.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
107 Research products, page 1 of 11
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Šileika, Antanas;

    This talk was given at a symposium called “Small Cultures in a Big World” in September of 2013 at Tartu College, in Toronto, hosted by the Estonian Studies Centre. In it, Canadian novelist, Antanas Šileika, addresses the problems, opportunities and technical difficulties of writing fiction based on Baltic history aimed at publication in North America.

  • Open Access Catalan; Valencian
    Authors: 
    Ajuntament de Barcelona; Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Habana; Trias Vidal de Llobatera, Xavier; Leal Spengler, Eusebio; Cases Pallarès, Jordi;
    Publisher: Ajuntament de Barcelona
    Country: Spain
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    VESTAL, MARQUES A;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Urban histories of race and housing currently ignore the daily conflicts over debt, occupancy, and autonomy that characterized the private market for shelter and home in the United States. The historical literature, instead, has concentrated on the role of government policy, economic restructuring, real estate professionals, white homeowners, and black activists in constructing and resisting racially segregated metropolitan real estate and mortgage markets, resulting in discriminatory access to homeownership and credit for black Americans. This study aims to construct a history not of the contested role of race in housing, but the contested role of private property in shaping the black experience of housing. Specifically, this dissertation examines seminal moments of property conflict in Black Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, arguing that the everyday conflicts over debt, rent, eviction, and autonomy comprised the central substance of the history of black home struggle in the city. Property conflicts were the complaints, jokes, gossip, lawsuits, deals, compromises, and regular violence that parties, often of unequal power, engaged in to claim contested entitlements over land, housing, and revenue, of which contests over segregation were but one aspect of conflict. Thus, the focus on struggle in this study is both broadened and made more intimate. For working-class black Angelenos, the goal of property conflict was to make and to keep home amid urban growth and contraction, not to make a city or to enter the vaunted status of homeowner. By centering the contentious intersection of home and private property, this study consolidates the struggles of both working-class property owners and tenants into a more holistic history of black land struggle. To uncover the history of black property conflict in Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, this study tracked a variety of scattered records that documented such conflict: black newspapers, manuscript collections, Los Angeles City Council minutes and petitions, Los Angeles Board of Supervisors minutes, Superior Court criminal and civil lawsuits, and other city, state, and federal records. Unearthing these records reveals that the history of black land struggle in Los Angeles is the history of conflict over the terms of private property. The findings of this study force urban historians, and anyone concerned with housing policy, to rethink the central problem of race and housing in the United States. The problem is not the discriminatory access to the private property rights and neighborhoods of white America, it is instead, the inadequate structure of private property governance that forces people of unequal power to fight over the contracts stipulating the terms of home for profit.

  • Other research product . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hegel, Allison;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    The rise of online platforms for buying and discussing books such as Amazon and Goodreads opens up new possibilities for reception studies in the twenty-first century. These platforms allow readers unprecedented freedom to preview and talk to others about books, but they also exercise unprecedented control over which books readers buy and how readers respond to them. Online reading platforms rely on algorithms with implicit assumptions that at times imitate and at times differ from the conventions of literary scholarship. This dissertation interrogates those algorithms, using computational methods including machine learning and natural language processing to analyze hundreds of thousands of online book reviews in order to find moments when literary and technological perspectives on contemporary reading can inform each other. A focus on the algorithmic logic of bookselling allows this project to critique the ways companies sell and recommend books in the twenty-first century, while also making room for improvements to these algorithms in both accuracy and theoretical sophistication. This dissertation forms the basis of a re-imagining of literary scholarship in the digital age that takes into account the online platforms that mediate so much of our modern literary consumption.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Redden, Jason Allen;
    Country: Canada

    This dissertation is an ethnohistorical account of the advent of Christianity, how it was taught and practiced, on the upper Fraser-Skeena watershed and adjacent North Pacific littoral between the years 1741 and 1873. The region was a focal point of sustained international colonial and commercial attention, and missionaries of various European Christianities played an important role in the introduction of Christianity in the vast socio-geographical space. However, they were not the only teachers and practitioners. Lay Christianities, that is, Christianity as practiced by the various workers in the maritime and continental fur trades, and later by Russian, Spanish, British, Canadian and American colonists were perspicuous features of the social field. While the presence of lay Christianities is often underdetermined in the North American historical and ethnographic records, I argue it figured significantly into the quality of social relations between newcomers and peoples Indigenous to the region. Indigenous peoples were initially interested in Christian form and content. Later those interests were augmented by Indigenous prophets interested in indigenizing Christianity; a task which entailed ensuring that Christianity originated locally. When the Hudson’s Bay Company emerged as the chief commercial operator in the region at the close of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, Indigenous Christianity was mobilized as a religion of resistance against the Company’s incursion into local social spaces and in the ensuing struggle with both the Company and Christian missionaries.

  • Other research product . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Quigley, Paul; Kutz, Kimberly; Fralin, Scott;
    Publisher: Virginia Tech
    Country: United States

    April 14, 2015 marks the 150th anniversary of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in the last days of the Civil War. As the first presidential assassination in United States history, Lincoln’s death sent shockwaves across the globe. American soldiers, politicians, and civilians mourned for Lincoln and breathlessly awaited news of the capture of his assassin, actor John Wilkes Booth. After his death, Lincoln became a powerful symbol that generations of Americans mobilized in their struggles for freedom and equality. Displaying objects and documents drawn from Newman Library’s Special Collections, this exhibition focuses on the reaction to Lincoln’s assassination as well as Lincoln’s enduring legacy in American life. Featured items include letters, diaries, and newspapers reporting on the assassination and its aftermath, relics such as fabric from Lincoln’s coffin, and a book by Virginia Tech’s first president and noted Lincoln despiser, Charles L.C. Minor. The exhibition also includes videos produced by students in History 2984, “Abraham Lincoln: The Man, the Myth, the Legend.” This exhibition is part of a series of events commemorating Abraham Lincoln in Spring 2015 sponsored by the Virginia Center for Civil War Studies. On February 14, the VCCWS will screen Young Mr. Lincoln at the Lyric Theatre. On April 10-11, five internationally-renowned historians of Lincoln and the Civil War will discuss Lincoln in a symposium entitled “Lincoln in Our Time.” For more information, please visit www.civilwar.vt.edu. 2015/03/02 - 2015/04/15

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bermudez, Rosie Cano;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    “Doing Dignity Work,” examines and analyzes the struggle for economic justice and human dignity waged by single, Chicana mothers in East Los Angeles. For Escalante, being able to lead a dignified life as a single mother receiving welfare entailed having adequate nutrition, clothing, a decent home, medical care for the family, and an honest job with a livable wage. It also meant being respected for the labor of raising children and caring for the elderly at home and not being subjected to demeaning, racist, and sexist policies and practices, as she and many others had experienced continuously at the welfare offices. As a political biography of gender and leadership and a social history, “Doing Dignity Work” excavates a grassroots genealogy of Chicana feminisms rooted in the struggles of single Chicana welfare mothers, sheds new light on the development of social and political consciousness among urban poor women of color, and disrupts the historiographic compartmentalization of social movements by bringing to the fore the multiple insurgencies and inter-organizational dynamics of this era. Employing the oral histories of Alicia Escalante and six of her activist contemporaries in conjunction with rich archival analysis, “Doing Dignity Work” forces us to reconsider women’s activism in the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. What is significant about the activism that Escalante practiced was that it was broadly based and multi-issued and cut across multiple constituencies. Escalante understood that to fight for economic justice and self-respect, you had to fight racism, classism and sexism. She realized, too, that these interlocking systems of oppression did not just affect low income, single Chicana and Mexicana mothers, but all impoverished women and people generally. Building on the integral research of scholars who have centered Mexicanas, Mexican American women, and Chicanas as workers, cultural producers, organizers, activists, and intellectuals, my work calls attention to the class perspective and militant dignity politics of poor Chicanas in Los Angeles. My research attends to an understudied aspect of Chicana/o history and the development of a militant grassroots Chicana feminism rooted in struggles for economic justice and human dignity that went beyond la familia and the Chicano community. Escalante embraced poor, single, unmarried, often divorced and abandoned, mothers who suffered shame and invisibility in larger struggles for la causa, the Chicana/o people. She brought their voices and struggles to the forefront when few others dared. By making room for unrecognized complex historical actors and organizations who do not fit neatly into established histories of the welfare rights movement and the second wave of feminism, my research contributes, too, to the fields of women’s history, women and gender studies, and social movements by moving beyond black-white binaries. It explores how impoverished, Spanish-speaking women came to the fore and in solidarity with other women of color and poor women to transform the social and political agendas of the welfare system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lin, James Yushang;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In the 20th century, development became practiced on a global scale by states, missionaries, philanthropic organizations, scientists, and other groups hoping to achieve a better condition for human society. Many of these efforts focused on social improvement and modernization for the relatively poorer agrarian societies and economies of the world. This dissertation interrogates the rise and practices of agrarian development, particularly by the United States in China and Taiwan, and then by Taiwan in the rest of the world.The first half of the dissertation explores the emergence of development from agricultural science, Protestant missions, and philanthropic famine relief in China, focusing on how Chinese practitioners localized globally circulating ideas. These ideas and practices eventually coalesced into a development “model” in China and Taiwan, which distilled a range of practices, from village-level social reform (i.e. organizing farmers associations) to high modernist science (i.e. plant breeding and chemical fertilizer production). The second half of the dissertation examines the subsequent iteration—how Taiwanese development experts then marketed practices of farmers organizations, land reform, and high yield crop varieties in their Cold War development missions to Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Through demonstrating their technical prowess and ability of providing humanitarian aid abroad, the Taiwanese were attempting to pursue their own political goals and find a postcolonial identity through international development.As development practitioners repackaged ideas of agrarian development for local conditions, they imagined distinct visions of modernity and society that reflected their own expertise, historical experiences, and political goals. Development was a complicated process that Chinese and Taiwanese actors not only co-opted to realize their own visions of modernity at home, but also to demonstrate the superiority of those visions abroad to an international audience.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gomer, Justin Daniel;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    "Colorblindness, A Life: Race, Film, and the Articulation of an Ideology," offers a political and cultural biography of the racial ideology of colorblindness from its emergence as a coherent racial ideology in the years after the civil rights movement to its dominant influence in social policy in the 1990s. Most importantly, the project reveals the manner in which colorblindness became the racial project of neoliberalism. This elaboration of colorblindness as an ideology and cultural form is best understood through an examination of film during the period of my study. Beginning in the second-half of the 1970s, Hollywood developed its own set of filmic aesthetics, narratives, and tropes that advocated colorblindness. Moreover, Hollywood was not only central to the articulation of the ideology, it also depended upon colorblindness in the New Hollywood era. In the post-civil rights era, then, colorblindness, neoliberalism, and film are constitutive of and inextricable from one another.The project illustrates three key themes. First, colorblindness is the racial project of neoliberalism. The 1970s were characterized by an anti-government ethos that extended across racial and political lines that neoconservatives used in the 1970s to attack issues like affirmative action and busing as part of a movement intent on dismantling of the welfare state. Out of these struggles emerged a neoliberal notion of "individual" colorblind freedom that neoconservatives, beginning in the mid-seventies, successfully sold as the antidote to the "reverse discrimination" of government mandated "group" rights. The growing popularity of neoliberal economics in the seventies was not merely the result of the seeming failures of Keynesianism to cure stagflation. Instead, the mounting opposition to the "overreach" of the federal government in busing and affirmative action was fundamental in building the appeal of a return to uncompromising laissez faire economics.Secondly, colorblindness, although post-racial in theory, has served as a tool for whites to realign and reconstitute white supremacy within a post-civil rights political correctness. Beginning in the late seventies, white Republicans and moderate Democrats alike used colorblindness to eliminate race-conscious programs intended to promote racial equality. These efforts have only exacerbated racial inequality.Lastly, my dissertation asserts that film served as a key battleground for the culture wars out of which the ideology of colorblindness formed. Yet just as colorblindness needed film to form its cultural cohesion, film needed colorblindness to reinvent itself in the desperate economic times of the post-Classical era. Beginning in the 1970s, movies capitalized upon the volatile racial, social, and economic struggles in the decades after the civil rights movement that shaped colorblindness and have continued to appeal to colorblind sentiments for profit. By the end of the 1980s, Hollywood was increasingly turning to historical dramas that imagined colorblind white heroes at the center of black freedom struggles--emancipation and the civil rights movement, specifically. And by the 1990s, entirely new colorblind film genres, most notably in what I term the "Teacher Film," had emerged.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lorimer, Michelle;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Spanish missions that dot the landscape in California today exist as centers of historical interpretation. Visitors to California, residents of the state, and school children often turn to these sites to learn about the early history of the region. Unbeknownst to many visitors, the history presented at many contemporary California mission sites reflects an incomplete, skewed, and biased perspective of the past created in the early-twentieth century by local promoters such as Charles Fletcher Lummis and John Steven McGroarty. This “revisionist” history focused on a romantic and idyllic representation of the mission era – centered on the benevolent work of Spanish priests and celebration of mission ruins. Revisionists pushed Native Californians into the periphery of this manufactured narrative, despite the central role of indigenous people in building, populating, sustaining, and expanding the missions. Following in this tradition, contemporary mission museums continue to present an unhistorical version of the past. Interpreters at these sites frequently ignore such themes as Native labor, Indian resistance, contagious diseases, malnutrition, infant mortality, violence, death, and Spanish-inflicted punishments. They glorify the Spanish priests, deemphasize the role of Native people, and minimize the negative impact of Spanish colonization on California Indian populations. Scholars writing in the late twentieth century provide more accurate and detailed analyses of early California history and the Spanish mission system. However, popular representations of mission history do not reflect scholarly knowledge offered during the past fifty years about the role of Native Californians within the mission system. Interpreters at mission sites today continue to situate colonial California within idyllic depictions consistent with the mission myth. While some contemporary sites attempt to present more balanced and honest representations of the past, sanitized and romanticized narratives remain the most prominent presentation of Spanish missions in California found in popular culture today.