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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Apollo
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hanlon, Brittany;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article examines the meaning and function of the Old English noun reaflac in two tenth‐century lawsuit documents, Sawyer 877 and Sawyer 1211. It suggests that reaflac was the vernacular counterpart to the Latin terms violentia and rapina. Such connected terminology suggests that a collection of now lost tenth‐century Old English charters, like S 877 and S 1211 in form, was the original source for the twelfth‐century Ely house chronicle, the Libellus Æthelwoldi. Charter draftsmen purposefully selected a language of violence in order to delegitimize a rival party’s claim to an estate, regardless of whether any acts of violence had taken place. Reaflac formed part of this narrative strategy in early English lawsuit documents because of its association with contemporary discourses on moralized wrongdoing.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Brazelton, MA;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This essay presents a survey of recent work in the history of international and global health from the mid-nineteenth to the early twenty-first centuries. It considers longstanding narratives alongside recent studies that have deployed approaches consonant with scholarship in the emerging global history of science and medicine. The cumulative impact of this work is to show how the history of international health has long been embedded in colonial landscapes of power, even as it also fostered revolutionary nationalism and grew from anti-colonial socialist internationalism; and how the absence, as well as presence, of intervention has shaped understandings of global health in recent decades.

  • Authors: 
    Briggs, Christopher; Jervis, Ben;
    Publisher: Kent Archaeological Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    The escheator was an important royal official who, by the fifteenth century, had accumulated a wide range of responsibilities. Escheators were accountable to the exchequer, and each official was responsible for ‘escheats’ arising to the crown within a county or pair of counties, called an ‘escheatry’. One of the escheator’s roles was to account for goods and chattels forfeited to the crown by felons, fugitives and outlaws: people who had been convicted or indicted of felonies (including suicides); who had fled following an accusation of felony; or who had been outlawed following repeated failure to appear in court to answer a charge of felony, or to respond to a civil suit. Leverhulme Trust

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 14 Dec 2022
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Rex, Richard;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article calls into question a story that has become part of the folklore and indeed the official history of Cambridge University. Supposedly, the passage of the Chantries Act posed a threat to university colleges which was averted by the lobbying of Cambridge academics early in 1546, and this adroit intervention inspired Henry VIII to found new colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. Close reading of the sources, however, indicates that the universities were singled out for special treatment from the start and that Henry's new foundations were in his mind before the Chantries Act was passed.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 14 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sylvana Tomaselli;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article offers some reflections on the importance Adam Smith accorded to luck in The Wealth of Nations. While the place of moral luck in The Theory of Moral Sentiments has been the subject of some scholarly attention, this has not been the case for luck in his best-known work. It focuses on what Smith thought particularly striking about our estimation of our own good fortune and argues that it accentuated the need for trustworthiness and trusted friends.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Solomos Solomou; Ryland Thomas;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article brings together some of the improvements to GDP estimates from the income side since the publication of Charles Feinstein's 1972 volume National income, expenditure and output of the United Kingdom, 1855–1965. Many of the improvements and refinements were made by Feinstein himself and this paper makes a start in bringing the different elements together, focusing chiefly on reconstructing the income‐based estimates for the period 1841–1920. The new data are then used to comment on several features of the late nineteenth‐century UK economy, considering both the trend and cyclical path of the economy. The new data, coupled with modern de‐trending methods, suggest that there was a long‐term slowing of the UK economy from the late nineteenth century, starting from the 1870s. To undertake the trend–cycle decomposition, we employ a wavelets methodology to describe the time–varying features of trends and cycles over this period.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 13 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    John Anthony Dawson Dickson;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    The classic work on the morphology of limestone calcite cements done in the 1960s is extended here by utilising growth zones to reconstruct the growth of cement crystals. Only cement composed of fitted polyhedral monocrystals that form by passive crystallisation of calcite on the walls of liquid‐filled, static pores and fissures is considered. Cement can either be initiated by (1) nucleation, when new crystals start but are not attached to their substrate, or (2) seeding, when new crystals are seamlessly connected to and influenced by substrate crystals. After seeding, epitaxial cement growth starts with many sub‐crystals that coalesce distally, followed by layered mantle growth. Junctions between three intercrystalline boundaries in cement aggregates with one interfacial angel = 180° are of two types: the first, enfacial junctions are caused by a pause in the growth of one crystal and the second is caused by movement of all boundaries due to dissolution of adjacent calcite. Growth zone offsetting at some intercrystalline boundaries is caused by dissolution of calcite at boundaries when permeability values are low. The same width to height ratio of mature aggregate crystals is predicted from the shape of the crystal's growth surfaces; dogtooth calcite forms columnar and nail‐head calcite forms tabular‐shaped crystals. Seeding on different sized crystals causes variations in epitaxial growth rate with faster growth on large crystals resulting in a disorganised cement fabric; the variation in epitaxial growth rate is perpetuated into mantle growth. Echinoderm syntaxial crystals dominate many pore cements due to the large size of their seed ossicles, at the same time, syntaxial crystals form on relatively tiny seeds. Texturally mature crystal aggregates with isopachous fabric are initiated from three different substrate to cement arrangements. Calcite cement zones preserve their original positions allowing the investigation of cement's growth and chemical history.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tom Fitton; Federica Sulas; Mik Lisowski; Michelle Alexander; Abdurahman Juma; Stephanie Wynne‐Jones;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Spatial analysis is paramount for understanding, monitoring, and conserving ancient settlements and cultural landscapes. Advancing remote sensing and prospection techniques are expanding the methodological frame of archaeological settlement analysis by enabling remote, landscape‐scale approaches to mapping and investigation. Whilst particularly effective in arid lands and areas with sparse or open ground cover, such as vegetation and buildings, these approaches remain peripheral in tropical environments because of technical and contextual challenges. In tropical Eastern Africa, for example, scales, resolution and visibility are often compromised by thick vegetation cover, inadequate access to, if not lack of, imagery resources and technologies, and the availability of comparative archaeological data for interpretation. This paper presents the initial results of spatial analysis, using historic landscape characterisation, remote sensing, published and legacy data, and a pilot ground survey to examine the earliest settlement of Zanzibar, Unguja Ukuu. Comparing multiple strands of evidence in a Geographic Information System (GIS), we use each as a test on the others to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of each technique in the context of tropical and coastal Eastern Africa. Drone photogrammetry, geophysical prospection, and ground survey were compared with legacy remote sensing resources and the results of a coring survey conducted across the site during the 1990s into a GIS platform to produce multi‐phase hypothetical maps of the archaeological site in the context of its potential resource landscape. These were then tested against the results of recent excavations. The discussion highlights the challenges and potential of combining these techniques in the context of Eastern Africa and provides some suggested methods for doing so. We show that remote sensing techniques give an insight into current landscapes but are less useful in understanding or modelling how sites would have fitted into their surroundings in the past, when conditions were potentially very different.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 06 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Emma Wilson;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article takes the novelist Colette, who bought a house outside Saint-Tropez in 1925, and examines moments and feelings from her time in that place. Inspired by Hewitt's approach, and by his example of ‘the unique hold exerted by Marseille on the nation's imagination’, it traces, through Colette, imaginative modes of inhabiting a space, seeing it as a psychic as much as material location, a repository of feelings. Colette's work invests a place with meaning through writing, so that it becomes an imaginary space, intimate, sensory, and consciously feminine. Since Colette's feminism resides most surely in her pursuit of pleasure, this place can be a house of feelings, about love, about present pleasures shaded by past experience, a space accessed through the senses. In this way, her house in Saint-Tropez appears as a space of speculation and exploratory relations, in which to think too about the lived and dreamed realities of other female lives.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Okolo, Chidinma A; Fish, Thomas M; Nahas, Kamal L; Jadhav, Archana C; Vyas, Nina; Taylor, Adam; Harkiolaki, Maria;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Beamline B24 is a life sciences correlative cryo-imaging beamline at Diamond Light Source. B24 uses a combination of conventional and super-resolution visible-light fluorescence microscopy and soft X-ray tomography (cryoSXT) to provide 3D imaging of the cellular landscape at a resolution up to 25 nm in cryo-preserved biological samples up to 12 μm thick. B24 offers user-friendly, semi-automated 3D correlative cryo-imaging through an integrated platform of methods that encompass (a) sample preparation and evaluation, (b) data collection and processing and (c) data analysis and correlation. CryoSXT fills the current resolution gap between fluorescence and electron microscopy while cryo-structured illumination microscopy provides the additional dimension of chemical localization within the same cellular ultrastructure captured by cryoSXT. Beamline instruments can be accessed biannually by academics and industry globally through peer-reviewed standard and rapid access proposal processes. The B24 user base is primarily academic research groups studying cell function and cytopathology in biological systems ranging from viruses and algae to mammalian cells and proto-tissue complexes. Future work will consolidate development efforts and experiences gained thus far to enable high-throughput data collection. Special emphasis is placed on the delivery of other integrated advanced imaging methods such as X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy and phase contrast.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,487 Research products, page 1 of 149
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hanlon, Brittany;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article examines the meaning and function of the Old English noun reaflac in two tenth‐century lawsuit documents, Sawyer 877 and Sawyer 1211. It suggests that reaflac was the vernacular counterpart to the Latin terms violentia and rapina. Such connected terminology suggests that a collection of now lost tenth‐century Old English charters, like S 877 and S 1211 in form, was the original source for the twelfth‐century Ely house chronicle, the Libellus Æthelwoldi. Charter draftsmen purposefully selected a language of violence in order to delegitimize a rival party’s claim to an estate, regardless of whether any acts of violence had taken place. Reaflac formed part of this narrative strategy in early English lawsuit documents because of its association with contemporary discourses on moralized wrongdoing.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Brazelton, MA;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This essay presents a survey of recent work in the history of international and global health from the mid-nineteenth to the early twenty-first centuries. It considers longstanding narratives alongside recent studies that have deployed approaches consonant with scholarship in the emerging global history of science and medicine. The cumulative impact of this work is to show how the history of international health has long been embedded in colonial landscapes of power, even as it also fostered revolutionary nationalism and grew from anti-colonial socialist internationalism; and how the absence, as well as presence, of intervention has shaped understandings of global health in recent decades.

  • Authors: 
    Briggs, Christopher; Jervis, Ben;
    Publisher: Kent Archaeological Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    The escheator was an important royal official who, by the fifteenth century, had accumulated a wide range of responsibilities. Escheators were accountable to the exchequer, and each official was responsible for ‘escheats’ arising to the crown within a county or pair of counties, called an ‘escheatry’. One of the escheator’s roles was to account for goods and chattels forfeited to the crown by felons, fugitives and outlaws: people who had been convicted or indicted of felonies (including suicides); who had fled following an accusation of felony; or who had been outlawed following repeated failure to appear in court to answer a charge of felony, or to respond to a civil suit. Leverhulme Trust

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 14 Dec 2022
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Rex, Richard;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article calls into question a story that has become part of the folklore and indeed the official history of Cambridge University. Supposedly, the passage of the Chantries Act posed a threat to university colleges which was averted by the lobbying of Cambridge academics early in 1546, and this adroit intervention inspired Henry VIII to found new colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. Close reading of the sources, however, indicates that the universities were singled out for special treatment from the start and that Henry's new foundations were in his mind before the Chantries Act was passed.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 14 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sylvana Tomaselli;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article offers some reflections on the importance Adam Smith accorded to luck in The Wealth of Nations. While the place of moral luck in The Theory of Moral Sentiments has been the subject of some scholarly attention, this has not been the case for luck in his best-known work. It focuses on what Smith thought particularly striking about our estimation of our own good fortune and argues that it accentuated the need for trustworthiness and trusted friends.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Solomos Solomou; Ryland Thomas;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article brings together some of the improvements to GDP estimates from the income side since the publication of Charles Feinstein's 1972 volume National income, expenditure and output of the United Kingdom, 1855–1965. Many of the improvements and refinements were made by Feinstein himself and this paper makes a start in bringing the different elements together, focusing chiefly on reconstructing the income‐based estimates for the period 1841–1920. The new data are then used to comment on several features of the late nineteenth‐century UK economy, considering both the trend and cyclical path of the economy. The new data, coupled with modern de‐trending methods, suggest that there was a long‐term slowing of the UK economy from the late nineteenth century, starting from the 1870s. To undertake the trend–cycle decomposition, we employ a wavelets methodology to describe the time–varying features of trends and cycles over this period.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 13 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    John Anthony Dawson Dickson;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    The classic work on the morphology of limestone calcite cements done in the 1960s is extended here by utilising growth zones to reconstruct the growth of cement crystals. Only cement composed of fitted polyhedral monocrystals that form by passive crystallisation of calcite on the walls of liquid‐filled, static pores and fissures is considered. Cement can either be initiated by (1) nucleation, when new crystals start but are not attached to their substrate, or (2) seeding, when new crystals are seamlessly connected to and influenced by substrate crystals. After seeding, epitaxial cement growth starts with many sub‐crystals that coalesce distally, followed by layered mantle growth. Junctions between three intercrystalline boundaries in cement aggregates with one interfacial angel = 180° are of two types: the first, enfacial junctions are caused by a pause in the growth of one crystal and the second is caused by movement of all boundaries due to dissolution of adjacent calcite. Growth zone offsetting at some intercrystalline boundaries is caused by dissolution of calcite at boundaries when permeability values are low. The same width to height ratio of mature aggregate crystals is predicted from the shape of the crystal's growth surfaces; dogtooth calcite forms columnar and nail‐head calcite forms tabular‐shaped crystals. Seeding on different sized crystals causes variations in epitaxial growth rate with faster growth on large crystals resulting in a disorganised cement fabric; the variation in epitaxial growth rate is perpetuated into mantle growth. Echinoderm syntaxial crystals dominate many pore cements due to the large size of their seed ossicles, at the same time, syntaxial crystals form on relatively tiny seeds. Texturally mature crystal aggregates with isopachous fabric are initiated from three different substrate to cement arrangements. Calcite cement zones preserve their original positions allowing the investigation of cement's growth and chemical history.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tom Fitton; Federica Sulas; Mik Lisowski; Michelle Alexander; Abdurahman Juma; Stephanie Wynne‐Jones;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Spatial analysis is paramount for understanding, monitoring, and conserving ancient settlements and cultural landscapes. Advancing remote sensing and prospection techniques are expanding the methodological frame of archaeological settlement analysis by enabling remote, landscape‐scale approaches to mapping and investigation. Whilst particularly effective in arid lands and areas with sparse or open ground cover, such as vegetation and buildings, these approaches remain peripheral in tropical environments because of technical and contextual challenges. In tropical Eastern Africa, for example, scales, resolution and visibility are often compromised by thick vegetation cover, inadequate access to, if not lack of, imagery resources and technologies, and the availability of comparative archaeological data for interpretation. This paper presents the initial results of spatial analysis, using historic landscape characterisation, remote sensing, published and legacy data, and a pilot ground survey to examine the earliest settlement of Zanzibar, Unguja Ukuu. Comparing multiple strands of evidence in a Geographic Information System (GIS), we use each as a test on the others to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of each technique in the context of tropical and coastal Eastern Africa. Drone photogrammetry, geophysical prospection, and ground survey were compared with legacy remote sensing resources and the results of a coring survey conducted across the site during the 1990s into a GIS platform to produce multi‐phase hypothetical maps of the archaeological site in the context of its potential resource landscape. These were then tested against the results of recent excavations. The discussion highlights the challenges and potential of combining these techniques in the context of Eastern Africa and provides some suggested methods for doing so. We show that remote sensing techniques give an insight into current landscapes but are less useful in understanding or modelling how sites would have fitted into their surroundings in the past, when conditions were potentially very different.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 06 Dec 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Emma Wilson;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This article takes the novelist Colette, who bought a house outside Saint-Tropez in 1925, and examines moments and feelings from her time in that place. Inspired by Hewitt's approach, and by his example of ‘the unique hold exerted by Marseille on the nation's imagination’, it traces, through Colette, imaginative modes of inhabiting a space, seeing it as a psychic as much as material location, a repository of feelings. Colette's work invests a place with meaning through writing, so that it becomes an imaginary space, intimate, sensory, and consciously feminine. Since Colette's feminism resides most surely in her pursuit of pleasure, this place can be a house of feelings, about love, about present pleasures shaded by past experience, a space accessed through the senses. In this way, her house in Saint-Tropez appears as a space of speculation and exploratory relations, in which to think too about the lived and dreamed realities of other female lives.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Okolo, Chidinma A; Fish, Thomas M; Nahas, Kamal L; Jadhav, Archana C; Vyas, Nina; Taylor, Adam; Harkiolaki, Maria;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Beamline B24 is a life sciences correlative cryo-imaging beamline at Diamond Light Source. B24 uses a combination of conventional and super-resolution visible-light fluorescence microscopy and soft X-ray tomography (cryoSXT) to provide 3D imaging of the cellular landscape at a resolution up to 25 nm in cryo-preserved biological samples up to 12 μm thick. B24 offers user-friendly, semi-automated 3D correlative cryo-imaging through an integrated platform of methods that encompass (a) sample preparation and evaluation, (b) data collection and processing and (c) data analysis and correlation. CryoSXT fills the current resolution gap between fluorescence and electron microscopy while cryo-structured illumination microscopy provides the additional dimension of chemical localization within the same cellular ultrastructure captured by cryoSXT. Beamline instruments can be accessed biannually by academics and industry globally through peer-reviewed standard and rapid access proposal processes. The B24 user base is primarily academic research groups studying cell function and cytopathology in biological systems ranging from viruses and algae to mammalian cells and proto-tissue complexes. Future work will consolidate development efforts and experiences gained thus far to enable high-throughput data collection. Special emphasis is placed on the delivery of other integrated advanced imaging methods such as X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy and phase contrast.