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The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
80 Research products, page 1 of 8

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • 2017-2021
  • 050905 science studies
  • 050904 information & library sciences
  • European Commission
  • EU
  • English

10
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pavlos Fafalios; Kostas Petrakis; Georgios Samaritakis; Korina Doerr; Athina Kritsotaki; Yannis Tzitzikas; Martin Doerr;
    Project: EC | ReKnow (890861), EC | SeaLiT (714437)

    Descriptive and empirical sciences, such as History, are the sciences that collect, observe and describe phenomena in order to explain them and draw interpretative conclusions about influences, driving forces and impacts under given circumstances. Spreadsheet software and relational database management systems are still the dominant tools for quantitative analysis and overall data management in these these sciences, allowing researchers to directly analyse the gathered data and perform scholarly interpretation. However, this current practice has a set of limitations, including the high dependency of the collected data on the initial research hypothesis, usually useless for other research, the lack of representation of the details from which the registered relations are inferred, and the difficulty to revisit the original data sources for verification, corrections or improvements. To cope with these problems, in this paper we present FAST CAT, a collaborative system for assistive data entry and curation in Digital Humanities and similar forms of empirical research. We describe the related challenges, the overall methodology we follow for supporting semantic interoperability, and discuss the use of FAST CAT in the context of a European (ERC) project of Maritime History, called SeaLiT, which examines economic, social and demographic impacts of the introduction of steamboats in the Mediterranean area between the 1850s and the 1920s. This is a preprint of an article accepted for publication at the ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rami Santeri Koskinen;
    Project: EC | LIFEMODE (818772), EC | LIFEMODE (818772)

    Critics of multiple realizability have recently argued that we should concentrate solely on actual here-and-now realizations that are found in nature. The possibility of alternative, but unactualized, realizations is regarded as uninteresting because it is taken to be a question of pure logic or an unverifiable scenario of science fiction. However, in the biological context only a contingent set of realizations is actualized. Drawing on recent work on the theory of neutral biological spaces, the article shows that we can have ways of assessing the modal dimension of multiple realizability that do not have to rely on mere conceivability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bo Hee Min; Christian Borch;
    Project: EC | AlgoFinance (725706)

    This article examines algorithmic trading and some key failures and risks associated with it, including so-called algorithmic ‘flash crashes’. Drawing on documentary sources, 189 interviews with market participants, and fieldwork conducted at an algorithmic trading firm, we argue that automated markets are characterized by tight coupling and complex interactions, which render them prone to large-scale technological accidents, according to Perrow’s normal accident theory. We suggest that the implementation of ideas from research into high-reliability organizations offers a way for trading firms to curb some of the technological risk associated with algorithmic trading. Paradoxically, however, certain systemic conditions in markets can allow individual firms’ high-reliability practices to exacerbate market instability, rather than reduce it. We therefore conclude that in order to make automated markets more stable (and curb the impact of failures), it is important to both widely implement reliability-enhancing practices in trading firms and address the systemic risks that follow from the tight coupling and complex interactions of markets.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Toby T Friend;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MetaScience (771509)

    Interventionism analyses causal influence in terms of correlations of changes under adistribution of interventions. But the correspondence between correlated changes andcausal influence is not obvious. I probe its plausibility with a problem-case involvingvariables related as time derivative (velocity) to integral (position), such that the lattervariable must change given an intervention on the former unless dependencies areintroduced among the testing and controlling interventions. Under the orthodox criteria such interventions will fail to be appropriate for causal analysis. I consider various alternatives, including permitting control interventions to be chancy, restricting the available models and mitigating variation of off-path variables. None of these work. I then present a fourth suggestion which modifies the interventionist criteria in order to permit interventions which can influence other variables than just their own targets. The correspondence between correlated changes and causal influence can thereby saved when dependencies are introduced among such interventions. This modification and the required dependencies, I argue, are perfectly in line with practice and may also assist in a wider class of cases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund; John Woitkowitz;
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | ARCTIC CULT (724317)

    AbstractThis article provides a transnational analysis of the campaigns for the organization of expeditions to the central Arctic region by the American explorer Elisha Kent Kane and the Prussian cartographer August Petermann between 1851 and 1853. By adopting a comparative approach, this study focuses on three interventions in the history of Arctic science and exploration: the construction of scientific expertise surrounding the relationship between the ‘armchair’ and the field, the role of transnational networks, and the significance of maps as travelling epistemic objects in the production of knowledge about the Arctic regions. In bringing both campaigns in conversation with each other, this article demonstrates that the histories of Kane's and Petermann's campaigns did not constitute isolated episodes but form part of a transnational nexus of imperial science and Arctic exploration in the nineteenth century. Moreover, based on research in libraries and archives in the United States, Germany and England, this study reconnects otherwise siloed collections and contributes new findings on the interpersonal networks of science and exploration. Finally, this article illustrates the importance of adopting comparative transnational approaches for understanding the fluid and reciprocal nature of Arctic science throughout the transatlantic world.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Annalisa Pelizza;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Countries: Italy, Netherlands
    Project: EC | ProcessCitizenship (714463)

    This article pursues a translational approach to the securitization of migration. It argues that sociotechnical processes of identification at the border can be conceived of as translations into legible identities of individuals who are unknown to authorities. The article contributes to the materiality debate on securitization across Critical Security Studies (CSS) and Science and Technology Studies (STS) by answering the call to conduct empirical explorations of security, and by revisiting the potential of the early sociology of translation (i.e. actor-network theory) to account for the identification of border crossers. Data collection was conducted at four identification facilities in the Hellenic Republic. Three sets of implications for the CSS-STS debate on the materiality of securitization are discussed. First, a translational approach can replace a representational understanding of identity with a performative apprehension of identification. Second, adopting a translational approach leads to acknowledge that the identification encounter is mediated by multiple, heterogeneous actors. It thus helps to open technological black boxes and reveal the key role of material qualities, affordances and limitations of artefacts. Third, a translational approach to the securitization of migration can help advance the field of ‘alterity processing’ by appreciating the de facto re-arrangements of institutional orders elicited by techno-political alignments with global security regimes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ahmed Hamdi; Elvys Linhares Pontes; Emanuela Boros; Thi Tuyet Hai Nguyen; Günter Hackl; Jose G. Moreno; Antoine Doucet;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: France
    Project: EC | NewsEye (770299), EC | NewsEye (770299)

    International audience; Named entity processing over historical texts is more and more being used due to the massive documents and archives being stored in digital libraries. However, due to the poor annotated resources of historical nature, information extraction performances fall behind those on contemporary texts. In this paper, we introduce the development of the NewsEye resource, a multilingual dataset for named entity recognition and linking enriched with stances towards named entities. The dataset is comprised of diachronic historical newspaper material published between 1850 and 1950 in French, German, Finnish, and Swedish. Such historical resource is essential in the context of developing and evaluating named entity processing systems. It evenly allows enhancing the performances of existing approaches on historical documents which enables adequate and efficient semantic indexing of historical documents on digital cultural heritage collections.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pablo Ruiz Fabo; Helena Bermúdez Sabel; Clara Isabel Martínez Cantón; Elena González-Blanco;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | POSTDATA (679528)

    Abstract How has the sonnet form in Spanish evolved over the centuries? What is the distribution of metrical patterns and combinations thereof, considering diachronic, geographical, and social factors? What rhyme schemes are favoured in different periods and regions? How is enjambment distributed within the sonnet? Providing quantitative answers to such questions requires a corpus spanning several centuries, annotated for the relevant literary features and containing author metadata. The absence of appropriate digital resources to undertake a macroanalytic study of the evolution of the sonnet in Spanish led us to create the Diachronic Spanish Sonnet Corpus. This article presents how the corpus was designed for providing quantitative evidence on the evolution of sonnets in Spanish, and our findings regarding metrics and enjambment. The corpus contains 4,085 sonnets by 1,204 Spanish and Latin American authors (15th to 19th centuries), encoded in TEI, with RDFa attributes. The corpus aims at breadth, including many peripheral authors besides some major ones. Author metadata were encoded (dates, origin, gender). Scansion and enjambment were annotated automatically, with the ADSO and ANJA tools. The range of authors and periods, the use of TEI and RDFa for interoperability, and the combination of metrical and enjambment annotations goes beyond previously available digital resources. The corpus allowed us to examine the evolution of metrical patterns and their combinations after the Golden Age, complementing earlier studies. We also observed an increase in enjambment across the tercets in the 19th century, which may indicate increased variety in the discourse organization of sonnets in the period.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Pradeu; Maël Lemoine; Mahdi Khelfaoui; Yves Gingras;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | IDEM (637647)

    International audience; Most philosophers of science do philosophy ‘on’ science. By contrast, others do philosophy ‘in’ science (‘PinS’), i.e., they use philosophical tools to address scientific problems and to provide scientifically useful proposals. Here, we consider the evidence in favour of a trend of this nature. We proceed in two stages. First, we identify relevant authors and articles empirically with bibliometric tools, given that PinS would be likely to infiltrate science and thus to be published in scientific journals (‘intervention’), cited in scientific journals (‘visibility’) and sometimes recognized as a scientific result by scientists (‘contribution’). We show that many central figures in philosophy of science have been involved in PinS, and that some philosophers have even ‘specialized’ in this practice. Second, we propose a conceptual definition of PinS as a process involving three conditions (raising a scientific problem, using philosophical tools to address it, and making a scientific proposal), and we ask whether the articles identified at the first stage fulfil all these conditions. We show that PinS is a distinctive, quantitatively substantial trend within philosophy of science, demonstrating the existence of a methodological continuity from science to philosophy of science.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isto Huvila; Olle Sköld; Lisa Börjesson;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ABM
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | CAPTURE (818210)

    PurposeSharing information about work processes has proven to be difficult. This applies especially to information shared from those who participate in a process to those who remain outsiders. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how professionals document their work practices with a focus on information making by analysing how archaeologists document their information work in archaeological reports.Design/methodology/approachIn total 47 Swedish archaeological reports published in 2018 were analysed using close reading and constant comparative categorisation.FindingsEven if explicit narratives of methods and work process have particular significance as documentation of information making, the evidence of information making is spread out all over the report document in (1) procedural narratives, (2) descriptions of methods and tools, (3) actors and actants, (4) photographs, (5) information sources, (6) diagrams and drawings and (7) outcomes. The usability of reports as conveyors of information on information making depends more on how a forthcoming reader can live with it as a whole rather than how to learn of the details it recites.Research limitations/implicationsThe study is based on a limited number of documents representing one country and one scholarly and professional field.Practical implicationsIncreased focus on the internal coherence of documentation and the complementarity of different types of descriptions could improve information sharing. Further, descriptions of concepts that refer to work activities and the situation when information came into being could similarly improve their usability.Originality/valueThere is little earlier research on how professionals and academics document and describe their information activities.