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8 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • 2013-2022
  • Article
  • Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
  • NL
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Energy Research

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    van Bavel, B.J.P.; Curtis, Daniel; Hannaford, Matthew; Moatsos, M.; Roosen, Joris; Soens, Tim; LS Transities v. economie en samenleving; OGKG - Sociaal-economische geschiedenis; LS Economische Geschiedenis;
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium
    Project: EC | COORDINATINGFORLIFE (339647), NWO | CLARIAH Common Lab Resear... (2300184354)

    Recent advances in paleoclimatology and the growing digital availability of large historical datasets on human activity have created new opportunities to investigate long‐term interactions between climate and society. However, noncritical use of historical datasets can create pitfalls, resulting in misleading findings that may become entrenched as accepted knowledge. We demonstrate pitfalls in the content, use and interpretation of historical datasets in research into climate and society interaction through a systematic review of recent studies on the link between climate and (a) conflict incidence, (b) plague outbreaks and (c) agricultural productivity changes. We propose three sets of interventions to overcome these pitfalls, which involve a more critical and multidisciplinary collection and construction of historical datasets, increased specificity and transparency about uncertainty or biases, and replacing inductive with deductive approaches to causality. This will improve the validity and robustness of interpretations on the long‐term relationship between climate and society. This article is categorized under: Climate, History, Society, Culture > Disciplinary Perspectives Recent literature investigating long‐term interactions between climate and society increasingly utilizes historical big data. Too often this is done without applying historical criticism, which may lead to misguided narratives. We propose a set of interventions to avoid this and optimize the use of historical datasets.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. Y. M. Konijnendijk; S. L. Weber; E. Tuenter; M. van Weele;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Project: NWO | Evolution of astronomical... (2300157723)

    Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) variations on orbital timescales are often associated with variations in wetland coverage, most notably in the summer monsoon areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Here we test this assumption by simulating orbitally forced variations in global wetland emissions, using a simple wetland distribution and CH<sub>4</sub> emissions model that has been run on the output of a climate model (CLIMBER-2) containing atmosphere, ocean and vegetation components. The transient climate modeling simulation extends over the last 650 000 yr and includes variations in land-ice distribution and greenhouse gases. Tropical temperature and global vegetation are found to be the dominant controls for global CH<sub>4</sub> emissions and therefore atmospheric concentrations. The relative importance of wetland coverage, vegetation coverage, and emission temperatures depends on the specific climatic zone (boreal, tropics and Indian/Asian monsoon area) and timescale (precession, obliquity and glacial-interglacial timescales). Despite the low spatial resolution of the climate model and crude parameterizations for methane production and release, simulated variations in CH<sub>4</sub> emissions agree well with those in measured concentrations, both in their time series and spectra. The simulated lags between emissions and orbital forcing also show close agreement with those found in measured data, both on the precession and obliquity timescale. We find causal links between atmospheric CH<sub>4</sub> concentrations and tropical temperatures and global vegetation, but only covariance between monsoon precipitation and CH<sub>4</sub> concentrations. The primary importance of the first two factors explains the lags found in the CH<sub>4</sub> record from ice cores. Simulation of the dynamical vegetation response to climate variation on orbital timescales would be needed to reduce the uncertainty in these preliminary attributions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Noorbergen, Lars J.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Robson, Brittany E.; de Jong, Edwin; Dekkers, Mark J.; Krijgsman, Wout; Smit, Jan; Collinson, Margaret E.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Tephrostratigraphy and ge... (2300178871), NWO | Tephrostratigraphy and ge... (2300178871)

    Fluvial systems in which peat formation occurs are typified by autogenic processes such as river meandering, crevasse splaying and channel avulsion. Nevertheless, autogenic processes cannot satisfactorily explain the repetitive nature and lateral continuity of many coal seams (compacted peats). The fluvial lower Palaeocene Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation (Western Interior Williston Basin; Montana, USA) contains lignite rank coal seams that are traceable over distances of several kilometres. This sequence is used to test the hypothesis that peat formation in the fluvial system was controlled by orbitally forced climate change interacting with autogenic processes. Major successions are documented with an average thickness of 6·8 m consisting of ca 6 m thick intervals of channel and overbank deposits overlain by ca 1 m thick coal seam units. These major coal seams locally split and merge. Time-stratigraphic correlation, using a Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary event horizon, several distinctive volcanic ash-fall layers, and the C29r/C29n magnetic polarity reversal, shows consistent lateral recurrence of seven successive major successions along a 10 km wide fence panel perpendicular to east/south-east palaeo-flow. The stratigraphic pattern, complemented by stratigraphic age control and cyclostratigraphic tests, suggests that the major peat-forming phases, resulting in major coal seams, were driven by 100 kyr eccentricity-related climate cycles. Two distinct conceptual models were developed, both based on the hypothesis that the major peat-forming phases ended when enhanced seasonal contrast, at times of minimum precession during increasing eccentricity, intensified mire degradation and flooding. In model 1, orbitally forced climate change controls the timing of peat compaction, leading to enhancement of autogenic channel avulsions. In model 2, orbitally forced climate change controls upstream sediment supply and clastic influx determining the persistence of peat-forming conditions. At the scale of the major successions, model 2 is supported because interfingering channel sandstones do not interrupt lateral continuity of major coal seams.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierik, H.J.; Van Lanen, Rowin; Gouw-Bouman, M.T.I.J.; Groenewoudt, Bert; Wallinga, Jakob; Hoek, W.Z.; Biogeomorphology of Rivers and Estuaries; Geomorfologie; Coastal dynamics, Fluvial systems and Global change;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | The Dark Age of the Lowla... (2300172486)

    Holocene drift-sand activity in the northwest European sand belt is commonly directly linked to population pressure (agricultural activity) or to climate change (e.g. storminess). In the Pleistocene sand areas of the Netherlands, small-scale Holocene drift-sand activity began in the Mesolithic, whereas large-scale sand drifting started during the Middle Ages. This last phase not only coincides with the intensification of farming and demographic pressure but also is commonly associated with a colder climate and enhanced storminess. This raises the question to what extent drift-sand activity can be attributed to either human activities or natural forcing factors. In this study, we compare the spatial and temporal patterns of drift-sand occurrence for the four characteristic Pleistocene sand regions in the Netherlands for the period between 1000 BC and AD 1700. To this end, we compiled a new supra-regional overview of drift-sand activity based on age estimates (14C, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), archaeological and historical ages). The occurrence of sand drifting was then compared in time and space with historical-route networks, relative vegetation openness and climate. Results indicate a constant but low drift-sand activity between 1000 BC and AD 1000, interrupted by a remarkable decrease in activity around the BC/AD transition. It is evident that human pressure on the landscape was most influential on initiating sand drifting: this is supported by more frequent occurrences close to routes and the uninterrupted increase of drift-sand activity from AD 900 onwards, a period of high population density and large-scale deforestation. Once triggered by human activities, this drift-sand development was probably further intensified several centuries later during the cold and stormier ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA; AD 1570–1850).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Konijnendijk, T. Y M; Ziegler, M.; Lourens, L. J.; NWO-VICI: Evolution of astronomically paced climate changes from Greenhouse to Icehouse world; Stratigraphy and paleontology;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Evolution of astronomical... (2300157723)

    Abstract Benthic oxygen isotope records of deep marine sedimentary archives have yielded a wealth of information regarding ice sheet dynamics and climate change during the Pleistocene. However, since they often lack independent age control, these records are generally bound by a fixed phase relationship between orbital forcing and the climate response, e.g. ice volume changes. We present the first long (∼1.2 Ma) benthic oxygen isotope record from the eastern Mediterranean, based on ODP Sites 967 and 968, which clearly reflects the behavior of global climate on a glacial–interglacial scale throughout the late Pleistocene time period. The age model for our record is based on tuning the elemental ratio of titanium versus aluminum (Ti/Al) against insolation. The Ti/Al record is dominated by the precession-related changes in northern African climate, i.e. monsoonal forcing, and hence largely independent of glacial–interglacial variability. We found the largest offset between our chronology and that of the widely applied, open ocean stacked record LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005) for T VII (∼624 ka), which occurred ∼9 kyr earlier according to our estimates, though in agreement with the AICC2012 δD ice chronology of EPICA Dome C (Bazin et al., 2013). Spectral cross-correlation analysis between our benthic δ 18 O record and 65°N summer insolation reveals significant amounts of power in the obliquity and precession range, with an average lag of 5.5 ± 0.8 kyr for obliquity, and 6.0 ± 1.0 kyr for precession. In addition, our results show that the obliquity-related time lag was smaller (3.0 ± 3.3 kyr) prior to ∼900 ka than after (5.7 ± 1.1 kyr), suggesting that on average the glacial response time to obliquity forcing increased during the mid-Pleistocene transition, much later than assumed by Lisiecki and Raymo (2005). Finally, we found that almost all glacial terminations have a consistent phase relationship of ∼45 ± 45° with respect to the precession and obliquity-driven increases in 65°N summer insolation, consistent with the general consensus that both obliquity and precession are important for deglaciation during the Late Pleistocene. Exceptions are glacial terminations T IIIb , T 36 and potentially T 32 (and T VII T 24 and T 34 ), which show this consistent phase relationship only with precession (only with obliquity). Our findings point towards an early (>1200 ka) onset of the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Vice versa, the timing of T VII , which can only be explained as a response to obliquity forcing, indicates that the transition lasted until at least after MIS 15.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; O'Hara, R.B.; Raine, J.I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; NWO-NNPP: Reconstructing the evolution and dynamics of the Antarctic cryosphere from Ocean Drilling; a dinoflagellate perspective; NWO-VENI: The Dawn of Greenhouse Earth: climate and carbon cycle dynamics of the Palaeocene; Marine palynology and palaeoceanography;
    Countries: Germany, Netherlands
    Project: EC | DINOPRO (259627), NWO | The Dawn of a Greenhouse ... (2300180216)

    Reconstructing the early Palaeogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Palaeogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Palaeocene to the early Eocene (60.7–54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Palaeocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Palaeocene (excluding the middle/late Palaeocene transition); (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians that transiently prevailed across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval (~ 59.5 to ~ 59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e. palms and cycads) across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP Site 1172 with the TEX86L- and TEX86H-based temperature data suggests a warm bias of both calibrations for the early Palaeogene of the high southern latitudes.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Article . 2014
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Robert Verelst; Torben J. Larsen; J.W. van Wingerden;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | WINDFLOWER (230698), NWO | Reconfigurable floating w... (2300167745), EC | WINDFLOWER (230698), NWO | Reconfigurable floating w... (2300167745)

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Craig A. Grove; Jens Zinke; Frank Peeters; Wonsun Park; Tim Scheufen; Sebastian Kasper; Bemahafaly Randriamanantsoa; Malcolm T. McCulloch; Geert-Jan A Brummer;
    Countries: Germany, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands
    Project: NWO | CLIMATCH:Climatic and ant... (2300160903)

    Abstract. Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) influence rainfall variability on multidecadal and interdecadal timescales in concert with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Rainfall variations in locations such as Australia and North America are therefore linked to phase changes in the PDO. Furthermore, studies have suggested teleconnections exist between the western Indian Ocean and Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV), similar to those observed on interannual timescales related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, as instrumental records of rainfall are too short and sparse to confidently assess multidecadal climatic teleconnections, here we present four coral climate archives from Madagascar spanning up to the past 300 yr (1708–2008) to assess such decadal variability. Using spectral luminescence scanning to reconstruct past changes in river runoff, we identify significant multidecadal and interdecadal frequencies in the coral records, which before 1900 are coherent with Asian-based PDO reconstructions. This multidecadal relationship with the Asian-based PDO reconstructions points to an unidentified teleconnection mechanism that affects Madagascar rainfall/runoff, most likely triggered by multidecadal changes in North Pacific SST, influencing the Asian Monsoon circulation. In the 20th century we decouple human deforestation effects from rainfall-induced soil erosion by pairing luminescence with coral geochemistry. Positive PDO phases are associated with increased Indian Ocean temperatures and runoff/rainfall in eastern Madagascar, while precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia declines. Consequently, the negative PDO phase that started in 1998 may contribute to reduced rainfall over eastern Madagascar and increased precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia. We conclude that multidecadal rainfall variability in Madagascar and the western Indian Ocean needs to be taken into account when considering water resource management under a future warming climate.