Abstract Renewable Energy Communities (RECs) are anticipated as key means to restructure the energy system in the European Union. However, there are still many open questions regarding the needed conditions that would allow their extensive roll-out. Here we propose a techno-economic model to assess the conditions needed by RECs to operate in an economic beneficial way in the Belgian context. The results indicate that while user type, user consumption and electricity tariff design are important, they are not as important as the amount of installed flexible technology, e.g. heat pumps or electric vehicles, to reduce operational costs. In scenarios with high penetration of flexible technologies the annual operational costs of the REC can be up to 17 % lower than the operational costs of the business-as-usual situation.
Coastal zones are historically rich with unique land/seascapes, tangible artifacts, and intangible cultural heritage. Coastal and maritime cultural heritage (CMCH) contends with various constraining conditions of the sea and shore—both geophysical and socially constructed—which we delineate to identify risks and threats to its sustainable management. In response to calls for the greater incorporation of CMCH in the name of regional development and blue growth, we propose a conceptual framework as a means to identify risks and sustainably manage CMCH. We develop the concepts of communities of meaning and communities of participation to address how CMCH is created and contested and identify key considerations for its management. Building on theories of space, place, and identity, the paper constructs communities of meaning in order to elaborate the various opportunities but also tensions in preserving CH and cultivating reliant enterprises as a part of wider regional development strategies. Working from this understanding of place and identity in degrees of inclusivity/exclusivity, the paper draws upon literature on deliberative and participatory governance, framed as communities of participation. These two concepts provide a vocabulary for managers to address calls for the promotion of CMCH and determine appropriate management strategies and governance based on policy objectives and the will of potentially multiple communities of meaning. Coastal zones are historically rich with unique land/seascapes, tangible artifacts, and intangible cultural heritage. Coastal and maritime cultural heritage (CMCH) contends with various constraining conditions of the sea and shore—both geophysical and socially constructed—which we delineate to identify risks and threats to its sustainable management. In response to calls for the greater incorporation of CMCH in the name of regional development and blue growth, we propose a conceptual framework as a means to identify risks and sustainably manage CMCH. We develop the concepts of communities of meaning and communities of participation to address how CMCH is created and contested and identify key considerations for its management. Building on theories of space, place, and identity, the paper constructs communities of meaning in order to elaborate the various opportunities but also tensions in preserving CH and cultivating reliant enterprises as a part of wider regional development strategies. Working from this understanding of place and identity in degrees of inclusivity/exclusivity, the paper draws upon literature on deliberative and participatory governance, framed as communities of participation. These two concepts provide a vocabulary for managers to address calls for the promotion of CMCH and determine appropriate management strategies and governance based on policy objectives and the will of potentially multiple communities of meaning.
Abstract. The mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP; ∼3.2 million years ago) is seen as the most recent time period characterized by a warm climate state, with similar to modern geography and ∼400 ppmv atmospheric CO2 concentration, and is therefore often considered an interesting analogue for near-future climate projections. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions indicate higher surface temperatures, decreasing tropical deserts, and a more humid climate in West Africa characterized by a strengthened West African Monsoon (WAM). Using model results from the second phase of the Pliocene Modelling Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP2) ensemble, we analyse changes of the WAM rainfall during the mPWP by comparing them with the control simulations for the pre-industrial period. The ensemble shows a robust increase in the summer rainfall over West Africa and the Sahara region, with an average increase of 2.5 mm/d, contrasted by a rainfall decrease over the equatorial Atlantic. An anomalous warming of the Sahara and deepening of the Saharan Heat Low, seen in >90 % of the models, leads to a strengthening of the WAM and an increased monsoonal flow into the continent. A similar warming of the Sahara is seen in future projections using both phase 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5). Though previous studies of future projections indicate a west–east drying–wetting contrast over the Sahel, PlioMIP2 simulations indicate a uniform rainfall increase in that region in warm climates characterized by increasing greenhouse gas forcing. We note that this effect will further depend on the long-term response of the vegetation to the CO2 forcing.
This research applies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to measure the gap between designers' intentions towards heritage conservation and the actual design decisions. It aims at contributing to identify which psychological constructs (attitude, norm, perception of control) are hindering the implementation of sustainable conservation approaches in practice. The results suggest that attitudes have a significant correlation with performed behaviour, and that norms, despite impacting intentions, do not necessarily correlate with the performed actions. Using the TPB to analyse designers' behaviours is an innovative methodological approach that opens new possibilities for the design of interventions targeting behavioural change towards the implementation of sustainable conservation practices in built heritage. The authors would like to acknowledge the support granted by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), in the scope of the Doctoral Program Eco-Construction and Rehabilitation (EcoCoRe), to the PhD scholarship with the reference PD/BD/127853/2016, and the support of ISISE, from the UMinho, CERIS, from IST-UL, and of the Heritage & Architecture section, from AE-T-BK at TU Delft.
Highlights • Four seafloor hydrocarbon emissions in the Eastern Black Sea were investigated • Eocene and/or Oligocene-Miocene Formations are most likely sources for oil and gas • Mixed secondary microbial and oil-associated thermogenic hydrocarbons at all sites • Site-specific light hydrocarbon compositions result from different mixing ratios Abstract Numerous hydrocarbon seep sites at the continental shelf, slope, and in the deep water basin are known to feed the Black Sea water reservoir of dissolved methane. In this study, we identified the likely sources of gas and oil that are emitted at four sites located on the continental slope offshore Georgia in the Eastern Black Sea at 830 to 1,140 m water depth – an area with gas seepage only (Batumi seep area) and three areas of joint gas and oil seepage (Iberia Mound, Colkheti Seep, and Pechori Mound). The geochemistry of bulk parameters, organic fractions and individual hydrocarbon biomarkers in near-surface sediments and of gas/oil expelled from the seafloor was analyzed and jointly interpreted to assign most likely hydrocarbon source rocks in the studied region. Presence of oleanane in shallow oil-impregnated sediments and oil slicks attests that the source rock at all sites is younger than Mid Cretaceous in age. We conclude that hydrocarbons ascending at all the four seepage areas originate from the Eocene Kuma Formation and/or the Oligocene–Lower Miocene Maikop Group, which are considered the principal hydrocarbon sources in the Eastern Black Sea region. Distributions of crude oil biomarkers in shallow sediments suggests moderate to heavy biodegradation. C1/C2+ ratios (10 to 4,163) along with stable C and H isotopic ratios (δ13C-CH4 ‒46.3 to ‒53.1.3‰ V-PDB; δ2H-CH4 ‒159 to ‒178‰ SMOW) indicate gas mixtures of oil-associated thermogenic and secondary microbial light hydrocarbons that are discharged from the four seep sites. Light hydrocarbons discharged at the Batumi Seep area are characterized by significant enrichments of methane, but almost similar δ13C-CH4 values if compared to the other study sites. Such methane enrichments likely result from a comparably higher degree of petroleum degradation and associated formation of secondary microbial methane.
Masa Kageyama; Sandy P. Harrison; Marie Kapsch; Marcus Lofverstrom; Juan M. Lora; Uwe Mikolajewicz; Sam Sherriff-Tadano; Tristan Vadsaria; Ayako Abe-Ouchi; Nathaelle Bouttes; +19 more
Masa Kageyama; Sandy P. Harrison; Marie Kapsch; Marcus Lofverstrom; Juan M. Lora; Uwe Mikolajewicz; Sam Sherriff-Tadano; Tristan Vadsaria; Ayako Abe-Ouchi; Nathaelle Bouttes; Deepak Chandan; Lauren Gregoire; Ruza F. Ivanovic; Kenji Izumi; Allegra N. LeGrande; Fanny Lhardy; Gerrit Lohmann; Polina Morozova; Rumi Ohgaito; André Paul; W. Richard Peltier; Christopher J. Poulsen; Aurélien Quiquet; Didier M. Roche; Xiaoxu Shi; Jessica E. Tierney; Paul J. Valdes; Evgeny Volodin; Jiang Zhu;
Countries: France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, France, Germany, France, France, Netherlands, Netherlands ...
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼ 21 000 years ago) has been a major focus for evaluating how well state-of-the-art climate models simulate climate changes as large as those expected in the future using paleoclimate reconstructions. A new generation of climate models has been used to generate LGM simulations as part of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) contribution to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Here, we provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the results of these LGM experiments (PMIP4, most of which are PMIP4-CMIP6) and compare them with the previous generation of simulations (PMIP3, most of which are PMIP3-CMIP5). We show that the global averages of the PMIP4 simulations span a larger range in terms of mean annual surface air temperature and mean annual precipitation compared to the PMIP3-CMIP5 simulations, with some PMIP4 simulations reaching a globally colder and drier state. However, the multi-model global cooling average is similar for the PMIP4 and PMIP3 ensembles, while the multi-model PMIP4 mean annual precipitation average is drier than the PMIP3 one. There are important differences in both atmospheric and oceanic circulations between the two sets of experiments, with the northern and southern jet streams being more poleward and the changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation being less pronounced in the PMIP4-CMIP6 simulations than in the PMIP3-CMIP5 simulations. Changes in simulated precipitation patterns are influenced by both temperature and circulation changes. Differences in simulated climate between individual models remain large. Therefore, although there are differences in the average behaviour across the two ensembles, the new simulation results are not fundamentally different from the PMIP3-CMIP5 results. Evaluation of large-scale climate features, such as land–sea contrast and polar amplification, confirms that the models capture these well and within the uncertainty of the paleoclimate reconstructions. Nevertheless, regional climate changes are less well simulated: the models underestimate extratropical cooling, particularly in winter, and precipitation changes. These results point to the utility of using paleoclimate simulations to understand the mechanisms of climate change and evaluate model performance.
H.W.K. Berghuis; A. Veldkamp; Shinatria Adhityatama; Sander L. Hilgen; Indra Sutisna; Didit Hadi Barianto; Eduard Pop; Tony Reimann; Dida Yurnaldi; Dian Rahayu Ekowati; +5 more
H.W.K. Berghuis; A. Veldkamp; Shinatria Adhityatama; Sander L. Hilgen; Indra Sutisna; Didit Hadi Barianto; Eduard Pop; Tony Reimann; Dida Yurnaldi; Dian Rahayu Ekowati; Hubert B. Vonhof; Thijs van Kolfschoten; Truman Simanjuntak; Jeroen M. Schoorl; Josephine C.A. Joordens;
Trinil (Java, Indonesia) yielded the type fossils of Homo erectus and the world?s oldest hominin-made engraving. As such, the site is of iconic relevance for paleoanthropology. However, our understanding of its larger geological context is unsatisfactory. Previous sedimentological studies are around 100 years old and their interpretations sometimes contradictory. Moreover, the existing stratigraphic framework is based on regional correlations, which obscure differences in local depositional dynamics. Therefore, a new and more local framework is urgently needed. We carried out a comprehensive geological study of the Trinil area. Using a Digital Elevation Model, we identified seven fluvial terraces. Terrace deposits were described and OSL-dated and fluvial behaviour was reconstructed. The terraces were correlated with terraces of the Kendeng Hills (e.g. the hominin-bearing Ngandong terrace) and date back to the past -350 ka. Thus far, most of the Trinil terraces and their deposits had remained unidentified, confounding sedimentological and stratigraphic interpretations. The exposed pre-terrace series has a thickness of -230 m. Together with the terraces, it forms a -3 Ma record of tectonism, volcanism, climate change and sea-level fluctuations. We subdivided the series into five new and/or revised stratigraphic units, representing different depositional environments: Kalibeng Formation, Padas Malang Formation, Batu Gajah Formation, Trinil Formation and Solo Formation. Special attention was paid to erosional contacts and weathering profiles, forming hiatuses in the depositional series, and offering insight into paleoclimate and base-level change. The Trinil Formation provides a new landscape context of Homo erectus. Between -550 and 350 ka, the area was part of a lake basin (Ngawi Lake Basin), separated from the marine base level by a volcanic barrier, under dry, seasonal conditions and a regular supply of volcanic ash. An expanding and retreating lake provided favourable living conditions for hominin populations. After 350 ka, this role was taken over by the perennial Solo River. Landscape reconstructions suggest that the Solo formed by headward erosion and stream piracy, re-connecting the Ngawi Lake Basin to the plains in the west. Our study offers a local framework, but its Pleistocene landscape record has regional significance. Most of all, it forms a much-needed basis for future, detailed studies on the build-up of the hominin site of Trinil, its fossil assemblages and numerical ages. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Cultural heritage is recognized as a driver and enabler for sustainable development, and its role within the circular economy and circular cities is gaining attention. Its adaptive reuse plays a significant role in this while prolonging the heritage lifespan, preserving the values associated with heritage assets, and creating shared values. The adoption and implementation of the adaptive reuse of cultural heritage practices present challenges at multiple levels. This research aims to identify these challenges and propose solutions to overcome them, considering the post-industrial port city of Rijeka, Croatia, as a case study. The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage practices was assessed through a stakeholder engagement workshop performing a multi-scale analysis using the Historic Urban Landscape approach as an assessment framework. Forty-nine themes were identified by content analysis of the challenges and solutions identified by stakeholders involved in adaptive reuse practices and decision-making in the city. The five most mentioned themes refer to aspects relating to participation, capacity, regulatory systems, economics-finance, and knowledge. These findings provide evidence of challenges for policy- and decision-makers to be addressed in policy-making. Solutions are also suggested to facilitate the adaptive reuse of cultural heritage in the city of Rijeka and similar contexts, such as introducing policies to support participatory decision-making whose absence is a barrier.
Adam H. Robinson; Ben Callow; Christoph Böttner; Naima Yilo; Giuseppe Provenzano; Ismael Falcon-Suarez; Héctor Marín-Moreno; Anna Lichtschlag; Gaye Bayrakci; Romina Gehrmann; +29 more
Adam H. Robinson; Ben Callow; Christoph Böttner; Naima Yilo; Giuseppe Provenzano; Ismael Falcon-Suarez; Héctor Marín-Moreno; Anna Lichtschlag; Gaye Bayrakci; Romina Gehrmann; Lou Parkes; Ben Roche; Umer Saleem; Bettina Schramm; Malin Waage; Aude Lavayssière; Jianghui Li; Farid Jedari-Eyvazi; Sourav K. Sahoo; Christian Deusner; Elke Kossel; Timothy A. Minshull; Christian Berndt; Jonathan M. Bull; Marcella Dean; Rachael H. James; Mark Chapman; Angus I. Best; Stefan Bünz; Baixin Chen; Douglas P. Connelly; Judith Elger; Matthias Haeckel; Timothy J. Henstock; Jens Karstens; Calum Macdonald; Juerg M. Matter; Laurence J. North; Benedict T. I. Reinardy;
Abstract Evaluation of seismic reflection data has identified the presence of fluid escape structures cross-cutting overburden stratigraphy within sedimentary basins globally. Seismically-imaged chimneys/pipes are considered to be possible pathways for fluid flow, which may hydraulically connect deeper strata to the seabed. The properties of fluid migration pathways through the overburden must be constrained to enable secure, long-term subsurface carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. We have investigated a site of natural active fluid escape in the North Sea, the Scanner pockmark complex, to determine the physical characteristics of focused fluid conduits, and how they control fluid flow. Here we show that a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary experimental approach is required for complete characterisation of fluid escape structures. Geophysical techniques are necessary to resolve fracture geometry and subsurface structure (e.g., multi-frequency seismics) and physical parameters of sediments (e.g., controlled source electromagnetics) across a wide range of length scales (m to km). At smaller (mm to cm) scales, sediment cores were sampled directly and their physical and chemical properties assessed using laboratory-based methods. Numerical modelling approaches bridge the resolution gap, though their validity is dependent on calibration and constraint from field and laboratory experimental data. Further, time-lapse seismic and acoustic methods capable of resolving temporal changes are key for determining fluid flux. Future optimisation of experiment resource use may be facilitated by the installation of permanent seabed infrastructure, and replacement of manual data processing with automated workflows. This study can be used to inform measurement, monitoring and verification workflows that will assist policymaking, regulation, and best practice for CO2 subsurface storage operations.
The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage has been recognized as a driver of the circular economy. It stimulates economic growth, boosts its inherent values, and reduces material usage and energy consumption. It can be regarded unviable due to financial constraints, limitations in regulatory frameworks and lack of engagement in decision-making. To tackle these challenges, this study aims to examine the drivers and related policy instruments that support adaptive reuse practices, and to analyze the usefulness and feasibility of a set of multi-level policy enablers at varying local contexts. In this context, we first conducted a semi-systematic review of academic and gray literature and identified 19 driving factors and associated policy documents. These instruments were concentrated on administrative, regulatory and financial tools. This analysis led to the identification of policy enablers that can be adopted at three levels: European, national and local. An online survey was then conducted to investigate how a variety of local stakeholders in the selected case cities and region evaluate the adaptability of these enablers in their individual cases. The findings show that all the assessed enablers are deemed useful and feasible to a certain extent with higher score of usefulness, confirming the adaptability of these instruments into the circular economy framework. These evidence-based results can inform future policies at multiple-levels that will accelerate and scale up circular actions through heritage adaptive reuse.