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108 Research products, page 1 of 11

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jonathan Birch;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | ASENT (851145)

    AbstractPeter Godfrey-Smith’s Metazoa and Joseph LeDoux’s The Deep History of Ourselves present radically different big pictures regarding the nature, evolution and distribution of consciousness in animals. In this essay review, I discuss the motivations behind these big pictures and try to steer a course between them.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sieghard Beller; Andrea Bender; Stephen Chrisomalis; Fiona M. Jordan; Karenleigh A. Overmann; Geoffrey B. Saxe; Dirk Schlimm;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | VARIKIN (639291)

    In their recent paper on “Challenges in mathematical cognition”, Alcock and colleagues (Alcock et al. [2016]. Challenges in mathematical cognition: A collaboratively-derived research agenda. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 2, 20-41) defined a research agenda through 26 specific research questions. An important dimension of mathematical cognition almost completely absent from their discussion is the cultural constitution of mathematical cognition. Spanning work from a broad range of disciplines – including anthropology, archaeology, cognitive science, history of science, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology – we argue that for any research agenda on mathematical cognition the cultural dimension is indispensable, and we propose a set of exemplary research questions related to it. publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam N. Sanborn; Katherine Heller; Joseph L. Austerweil; Nick Chater;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | RATIONALITY (295917), UKRI | Big Data, Innovations and... (EP/K039830/1), EC | SAMPLING (817492)

    Much categorization behavior can be explained by family resemblance: New items are classified by comparison with previously learned exemplars. However, categorization behavior also shows a variety of dimensional biases, where the underlying space has so-called "separable" dimensions: Ease of learning categories depends on how the stimuli align with the separable dimensions of the space. For example, if a set of objects of various sizes and colors can be accurately categorized using a single separable dimension (e.g., size), then category learning will be fast, while if the category is determined by both dimensions, learning will be slow. To capture these dimensional biases, almost all models of categorization supplement family resemblance with either rule-based systems or selective attention to separable dimensions. But these models do not explain how separable dimensions initially arise; they are presumed to be unexplained psychological primitives. We develop, instead, a pure family resemblance version of the Rational Model of Categorization (RMC), which we term the Rational Exclusively Family RESemblance Hierarchy (REFRESH), which does not presuppose any separable dimensions in the space of stimuli. REFRESH infers how the stimuli are clustered and uses a hierarchical prior to learn expectations about the variability of clusters across categories. We first demonstrate the dimensional alignment of natural-category features and then show how through a lifetime of categorization experience REFRESH will learn prior expectations that clusters of stimuli will align with separable dimensions. REFRESH captures the key dimensional biases and also explains their stimulus-dependence and how they are learned and develop. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sara Pacchiarotti; Koen Bostoen;
    Country: Belgium
    Project: EC | BantuFirst (724275)

    In this paper we offer a first systematic account of the noun class system of Ngwi, a West-Coastal Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. First, we describe the synchronic system of noun class prefixes and the agreement patterns they trigger on constituents of the noun phrase and the verb. Second, we provide a diachronic analysis of the innovations the synchronic Ngwi noun class system underwent with respect to the noun class system reconstructed for the most recent common ancestor of all Narrow Bantu languages. Finally, we compare the morphological innovations found in the Ngwi noun class system with those identified in the noun class systems of other West-Coastal Bantu varieties and assess whether some of these could be diagnostic for internal classification within this western Bantu branch.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olga Majewska; Diana McCarthy; Jasper J. F. van den Bosch; Nikolaus Kriegeskorte; Ivan Vulić; Anna Korhonen;
    Publisher: MIT Press - Journals
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LEXICAL (648909)

    Abstract Research into representation learning models of lexical semantics usually utilizes some form of intrinsic evaluation to ensure that the learned representations reflect human semantic judgments. Lexical semantic similarity estimation is a widely used evaluation method, but efforts have typically focused on pairwise judgments of words in isolation, or are limited to specific contexts and lexical stimuli. There are limitations with these approaches that either do not provide any context for judgments, and thereby ignore ambiguity, or provide very specific sentential contexts that cannot then be used to generate a larger lexical resource. Furthermore, similarity between more than two items is not considered. We provide a full description and analysis of our recently proposed methodology for large-scale data set construction that produces a semantic classification of a large sample of verbs in the first phase, as well as multi-way similarity judgments made within the resultant semantic classes in the second phase. The methodology uses a spatial multi-arrangement approach proposed in the field of cognitive neuroscience for capturing multi-way similarity judgments of visual stimuli. We have adapted this method to handle polysemous linguistic stimuli and much larger samples than previous work. We specifically target verbs, but the method can equally be applied to other parts of speech. We perform cluster analysis on the data from the first phase and demonstrate how this might be useful in the construction of a comprehensive verb resource. We also analyze the semantic information captured by the second phase and discuss the potential of the spatially induced similarity judgments to better reflect human notions of word similarity. We demonstrate how the resultant data set can be used for fine-grained analyses and evaluation of representation learning models on the intrinsic tasks of semantic clustering and semantic similarity. In particular, we find that stronger static word embedding methods still outperform lexical representations emerging from more recent pre-training methods, both on word-level similarity and clustering. Moreover, thanks to the data set’s vast coverage, we are able to compare the benefits of specializing vector representations for a particular type of external knowledge by evaluating FrameNet- and VerbNet-retrofitted models on specific semantic domains such as “Heat” or “Motion.”

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Axel Constant; Alexander Daniel Dunsmoir Tschantz; Alexander Daniel Dunsmoir Tschantz; Beren Millidge; Beren Millidge; Felipe Criado-Boado; Luis M Martinez; Johannes Müeller; Andy Clark; Andy Clark; +1 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Countries: United Kingdom, Spain
    Project: EC | XSPECT (692739), SSHRC

    This paper presents an active inference based simulation study of visual foraging. The goal of the simulation is to show the effect of the acquisition of culturally patterned attention styles on cognitive task performance, under active inference. We show how cultural artefacts like antique vase decorations drive cognitive functions such as perception, action and learning, as well as task performance in a simple visual discrimination task. We thus describe a new active inference based research pipeline that future work may employ to inquire on deep guiding principles determining the manner in which material culture drives human thought, by building and rebuilding our patterns of attention. Researchers on this article were supported by an Australian Laureate Fellowship project A Philosophy of Medicine for the 21st Century (Ref: FL170100160) and by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council doctoral fellowship (Ref: 752-2019-0065) (AC), by a PhD studentship from the Sackler Foundation and the School of Engineering and Informatics at the University of Sussex (AT); by an EPSRC PhD Studentship (BM), by a GAIN-Xunta de Galiza Groups of Excellence 2020 (FC-B), and by Horizon 2020 European Union ERC Advanced Grant XSPECT - DLV-692739 (AC). AT is grateful to the Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation, which supports the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milad Ekramnia; Jacques Mehler; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | Babylearn (695710), EC | PASCAL (269502)

    Summary Can preverbal infants utilize logical reasoning such as disjunctive inference? This logical operation requires keeping two alternatives open (A or B), until one of them is eliminated (if not A), allowing the inference: B is true. We presented to 10-month-old infants an ambiguous situation in which a female voice was paired with two faces. Subsequently, one of the two faces was presented with the voice of a male. We measured infants' preference for the correct face when both faces and the initial voice were presented again. Infant pupillary response was measured and utilized as an indicator of cognitive load at the critical moment of disjunctive inference. We controlled for other possible explanations in three additional experiments. Our results show that 10-month-olds can correctly deploy disjunction and negation to disambiguate scenes, suggesting that disjunctive inference does not rely on linguistic constructs. Highlights • 10-month-old infants have no logical operators in their lexicon • Nevertheless, they can use logical deduction in case of an ambiguous situation • They correctly deduce which faces and voices are paired through disjunctive inference • Infants' performance in this task can be followed by measuring their pupil dilation Biological Science, Neuroscience, Cognitive neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience Graphical abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shane Steinert-Threlkeld;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | CoSaQ (716230)

    While the languages of the world vary greatly, they exhibit systematic patterns, as well. Semantic universals are restrictions on the variation in meaning exhibit cross-linguistically (e.g., that, in all languages, expressions of a certain type can only denote meanings with a certain special property). This paper pursues an efficient communication analysis to explain the presence of semantic universals in a domain of function words: quantifiers. Two experiments measure how well languages do in optimally trading off between competing pressures of simplicity and informativeness. First, we show that artificial languages which more closely resemble natural languages are more optimal. Then, we introduce information-theoretic measures of degrees of semantic universals and show that these are not correlated with optimality in a random sample of artificial languages. These results suggest both that efficient communication shapes semantic typology in both content and function word domains, as well as that semantic universals may not stand in need of independent explanation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Dijk, Ludger; Kiverstein, Julian;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Belgium, Netherlands
    Project: EC | AFFORDS-HIGHER (679190)

    AbstractRadical empiricists at the turn of the twentieth century described organisms as experiencing the relations they maintain with their surroundings prior to any analytic separation from their environment. They notably avoided separating perception of the material environment from social life. This perspective on perceptual experience was to prove the inspiration for Gibson’s ecological approach to perceptual psychology. Gibson provided a theory of how the direct perception of the organism-environment relation is possible. Central to his account was the notion of a medium for direct perception. However Gibson provided two mutually inconsistent accounts of the medium leading to problems for his radical empiricism. We develop an account of the medium that does justice to ecological psychology’s radical empiricist roots. To complement this account of the medium we detail a usage-based account of information. Together they allow us to propose a novel radical empiricist view of direct perception. We then return to the notion of medium and expand it to include sociomaterial practices. We show how direct perception happens in the midst of social life, and is made possible by an active achieving and maintaining of a pragmatic relation with the environment.

Advanced search in Research products
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
108 Research products, page 1 of 11
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jonathan Birch;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | ASENT (851145)

    AbstractPeter Godfrey-Smith’s Metazoa and Joseph LeDoux’s The Deep History of Ourselves present radically different big pictures regarding the nature, evolution and distribution of consciousness in animals. In this essay review, I discuss the motivations behind these big pictures and try to steer a course between them.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sieghard Beller; Andrea Bender; Stephen Chrisomalis; Fiona M. Jordan; Karenleigh A. Overmann; Geoffrey B. Saxe; Dirk Schlimm;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | VARIKIN (639291)

    In their recent paper on “Challenges in mathematical cognition”, Alcock and colleagues (Alcock et al. [2016]. Challenges in mathematical cognition: A collaboratively-derived research agenda. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 2, 20-41) defined a research agenda through 26 specific research questions. An important dimension of mathematical cognition almost completely absent from their discussion is the cultural constitution of mathematical cognition. Spanning work from a broad range of disciplines – including anthropology, archaeology, cognitive science, history of science, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology – we argue that for any research agenda on mathematical cognition the cultural dimension is indispensable, and we propose a set of exemplary research questions related to it. publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam N. Sanborn; Katherine Heller; Joseph L. Austerweil; Nick Chater;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | RATIONALITY (295917), UKRI | Big Data, Innovations and... (EP/K039830/1), EC | SAMPLING (817492)

    Much categorization behavior can be explained by family resemblance: New items are classified by comparison with previously learned exemplars. However, categorization behavior also shows a variety of dimensional biases, where the underlying space has so-called "separable" dimensions: Ease of learning categories depends on how the stimuli align with the separable dimensions of the space. For example, if a set of objects of various sizes and colors can be accurately categorized using a single separable dimension (e.g., size), then category learning will be fast, while if the category is determined by both dimensions, learning will be slow. To capture these dimensional biases, almost all models of categorization supplement family resemblance with either rule-based systems or selective attention to separable dimensions. But these models do not explain how separable dimensions initially arise; they are presumed to be unexplained psychological primitives. We develop, instead, a pure family resemblance version of the Rational Model of Categorization (RMC), which we term the Rational Exclusively Family RESemblance Hierarchy (REFRESH), which does not presuppose any separable dimensions in the space of stimuli. REFRESH infers how the stimuli are clustered and uses a hierarchical prior to learn expectations about the variability of clusters across categories. We first demonstrate the dimensional alignment of natural-category features and then show how through a lifetime of categorization experience REFRESH will learn prior expectations that clusters of stimuli will align with separable dimensions. REFRESH captures the key dimensional biases and also explains their stimulus-dependence and how they are learned and develop. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sara Pacchiarotti; Koen Bostoen;
    Country: Belgium
    Project: EC | BantuFirst (724275)

    In this paper we offer a first systematic account of the noun class system of Ngwi, a West-Coastal Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. First, we describe the synchronic system of noun class prefixes and the agreement patterns they trigger on constituents of the noun phrase and the verb. Second, we provide a diachronic analysis of the innovations the synchronic Ngwi noun class system underwent with respect to the noun class system reconstructed for the most recent common ancestor of all Narrow Bantu languages. Finally, we compare the morphological innovations found in the Ngwi noun class system with those identified in the noun class systems of other West-Coastal Bantu varieties and assess whether some of these could be diagnostic for internal classification within this western Bantu branch.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olga Majewska; Diana McCarthy; Jasper J. F. van den Bosch; Nikolaus Kriegeskorte; Ivan Vulić; Anna Korhonen;
    Publisher: MIT Press - Journals
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LEXICAL (648909)

    Abstract Research into representation learning models of lexical semantics usually utilizes some form of intrinsic evaluation to ensure that the learned representations reflect human semantic judgments. Lexical semantic similarity estimation is a widely used evaluation method, but efforts have typically focused on pairwise judgments of words in isolation, or are limited to specific contexts and lexical stimuli. There are limitations with these approaches that either do not provide any context for judgments, and thereby ignore ambiguity, or provide very specific sentential contexts that cannot then be used to generate a larger lexical resource. Furthermore, similarity between more than two items is not considered. We provide a full description and analysis of our recently proposed methodology for large-scale data set construction that produces a semantic classification of a large sample of verbs in the first phase, as well as multi-way similarity judgments made within the resultant semantic classes in the second phase. The methodology uses a spatial multi-arrangement approach proposed in the field of cognitive neuroscience for capturing multi-way similarity judgments of visual stimuli. We have adapted this method to handle polysemous linguistic stimuli and much larger samples than previous work. We specifically target verbs, but the method can equally be applied to other parts of speech. We perform cluster analysis on the data from the first phase and demonstrate how this might be useful in the construction of a comprehensive verb resource. We also analyze the semantic information captured by the second phase and discuss the potential of the spatially induced similarity judgments to better reflect human notions of word similarity. We demonstrate how the resultant data set can be used for fine-grained analyses and evaluation of representation learning models on the intrinsic tasks of semantic clustering and semantic similarity. In particular, we find that stronger static word embedding methods still outperform lexical representations emerging from more recent pre-training methods, both on word-level similarity and clustering. Moreover, thanks to the data set’s vast coverage, we are able to compare the benefits of specializing vector representations for a particular type of external knowledge by evaluating FrameNet- and VerbNet-retrofitted models on specific semantic domains such as “Heat” or “Motion.”

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Axel Constant; Alexander Daniel Dunsmoir Tschantz; Alexander Daniel Dunsmoir Tschantz; Beren Millidge; Beren Millidge; Felipe Criado-Boado; Luis M Martinez; Johannes Müeller; Andy Clark; Andy Clark; +1 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Countries: United Kingdom, Spain
    Project: EC | XSPECT (692739), SSHRC

    This paper presents an active inference based simulation study of visual foraging. The goal of the simulation is to show the effect of the acquisition of culturally patterned attention styles on cognitive task performance, under active inference. We show how cultural artefacts like antique vase decorations drive cognitive functions such as perception, action and learning, as well as task performance in a simple visual discrimination task. We thus describe a new active inference based research pipeline that future work may employ to inquire on deep guiding principles determining the manner in which material culture drives human thought, by building and rebuilding our patterns of attention. Researchers on this article were supported by an Australian Laureate Fellowship project A Philosophy of Medicine for the 21st Century (Ref: FL170100160) and by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council doctoral fellowship (Ref: 752-2019-0065) (AC), by a PhD studentship from the Sackler Foundation and the School of Engineering and Informatics at the University of Sussex (AT); by an EPSRC PhD Studentship (BM), by a GAIN-Xunta de Galiza Groups of Excellence 2020 (FC-B), and by Horizon 2020 European Union ERC Advanced Grant XSPECT - DLV-692739 (AC). AT is grateful to the Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation, which supports the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milad Ekramnia; Jacques Mehler; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | Babylearn (695710), EC | PASCAL (269502)

    Summary Can preverbal infants utilize logical reasoning such as disjunctive inference? This logical operation requires keeping two alternatives open (A or B), until one of them is eliminated (if not A), allowing the inference: B is true. We presented to 10-month-old infants an ambiguous situation in which a female voice was paired with two faces. Subsequently, one of the two faces was presented with the voice of a male. We measured infants' preference for the correct face when both faces and the initial voice were presented again. Infant pupillary response was measured and utilized as an indicator of cognitive load at the critical moment of disjunctive inference. We controlled for other possible explanations in three additional experiments. Our results show that 10-month-olds can correctly deploy disjunction and negation to disambiguate scenes, suggesting that disjunctive inference does not rely on linguistic constructs. Highlights • 10-month-old infants have no logical operators in their lexicon • Nevertheless, they can use logical deduction in case of an ambiguous situation • They correctly deduce which faces and voices are paired through disjunctive inference • Infants' performance in this task can be followed by measuring their pupil dilation Biological Science, Neuroscience, Cognitive neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience Graphical abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shane Steinert-Threlkeld;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | CoSaQ (716230)

    While the languages of the world vary greatly, they exhibit systematic patterns, as well. Semantic universals are restrictions on the variation in meaning exhibit cross-linguistically (e.g., that, in all languages, expressions of a certain type can only denote meanings with a certain special property). This paper pursues an efficient communication analysis to explain the presence of semantic universals in a domain of function words: quantifiers. Two experiments measure how well languages do in optimally trading off between competing pressures of simplicity and informativeness. First, we show that artificial languages which more closely resemble natural languages are more optimal. Then, we introduce information-theoretic measures of degrees of semantic universals and show that these are not correlated with optimality in a random sample of artificial languages. These results suggest both that efficient communication shapes semantic typology in both content and function word domains, as well as that semantic universals may not stand in need of independent explanation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Dijk, Ludger; Kiverstein, Julian;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Belgium, Netherlands
    Project: EC | AFFORDS-HIGHER (679190)

    AbstractRadical empiricists at the turn of the twentieth century described organisms as experiencing the relations they maintain with their surroundings prior to any analytic separation from their environment. They notably avoided separating perception of the material environment from social life. This perspective on perceptual experience was to prove the inspiration for Gibson’s ecological approach to perceptual psychology. Gibson provided a theory of how the direct perception of the organism-environment relation is possible. Central to his account was the notion of a medium for direct perception. However Gibson provided two mutually inconsistent accounts of the medium leading to problems for his radical empiricism. We develop an account of the medium that does justice to ecological psychology’s radical empiricist roots. To complement this account of the medium we detail a usage-based account of information. Together they allow us to propose a novel radical empiricist view of direct perception. We then return to the notion of medium and expand it to include sociomaterial practices. We show how direct perception happens in the midst of social life, and is made possible by an active achieving and maintaining of a pragmatic relation with the environment.