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  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Francesca Delogu; Heiner Drenhaus; Matthew W. Crocker;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    When reading a text describing an everyday activity, comprehenders build a model of the situation described that includes prior knowledge of the entities, locations, and sequences of actions that typically occur within the event. Previous work has demonstrated that such knowledge guides the processing of incoming information by making event boundaries more or less expected. In the present ERP study, we investigated whether comprehenders’ expectations about event boundaries are influenced by how elaborately common events are described in the context. Participants read short stories in which a common activity (e.g., washing the dishes) was described either in brief or in an elaborate manner. The final sentence contained a target word referring to a more predictable action marking a fine event boundary (e.g., drying) or a less predictable action, marking a coarse event boundary (e.g., jogging). The results revealed a larger N400 effect for coarse event boundaries compared to fine event boundaries, but no interaction with description length. Between 600 and 1000 ms, however, elaborate contexts elicited a larger frontal positivity compared to brief contexts. This effect was largely driven by less predictable targets, marking coarse event boundaries. We interpret the P600 effect as indexing the updating of the situation model at event boundaries, consistent with Event Segmentation Theory (EST). The updating process is more demanding with coarse event boundaries, which presumably require the construction of a new situation model. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.3758/s13421-017-0766-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Noortje J. Venhuizen; Petra Hendriks; Matthew W. Crocker; Harm Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Natural language semantics has recently sought to combine the complementary strengths of formal and distributional approaches to meaning. More specifically, proposals have been put forward to augment formal semantic machinery with distributional meaning representations, thereby introducing the notion of semantic similarity into formal semantics, or to define distributional systems that aim to incorporate formal notions such as entailment and compositionality. However, given the fundamentally different 'representational currency' underlying formal and distributional approaches - models of the world versus linguistic co-occurrence - their unification has proven extremely difficult. Here, we define a Distributional Formal Semantics that integrates distributionality into a formal semantic system on the level of formal models. This approach offers probabilistic, distributed meaning representations that are also inherently compositional, and that naturally capture fundamental semantic notions such as quantification and entailment. Furthermore, we show how the probabilistic nature of these representations allows for probabilistic inference, and how the information-theoretic notion of "information" (measured in terms of Entropy and Surprisal) naturally follows from it. Finally, we illustrate how meaning representations can be derived incrementally from linguistic input using a recurrent neural network model, and how the resultant incremental semantic construction procedure intuitively captures key semantic phenomena, including negation, presupposition, and anaphoricity. To appear in: Information and Computation (WoLLIC 2019 Special Issue)

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access

    This is a repository associated with the paper "Positional biases in predictive processing of intonation" and contains materials, data and scripts: Abstract: Real-time speech comprehension is challenging because communicatively relevant information is distributed throughout the entire utterance. In five mouse tracking experiments on German and American English, we probe if listeners, in principle, use non-local, early intonational information to anticipate upcoming referents. Listeners had to select a speaker-intended referent with their mouse guided by intonational cues, allowing them to anticipate their decision by moving their hand toward the referent prior to lexical disambiguation. While German listeners (Exps. 1-3) seemed to ignore early pitch cues, American English listeners (Exps. 4-5) were in principle able to use these early pitch cues to anticipate upcoming referents. However, many listeners showed no indication of doing so. These results suggest that there are important positional asymmetries in the way intonational information is integrated, with early information being paid less attention to than later cues in the utterance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jakub Szewczyk; Emily N Mech; Kara D. Federmeier;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | NeuroPred (800046)

    Can a single adjective immediately influence message-building during sentence processing? We presented participants with 168 sentence contexts, such as "His skin was red from spending the day at the …" Sentences ended with either the most expected word ("beach") or a low cloze probability completion ("pool"). Nouns were preceded by adjectives that changed their relative likelihood (e.g., "neighborhood" increases the cloze probability of pool whereas "sandy" promotes beach). We asked if participants' online processing can be rapidly updated by the adjective, changing the resulting pattern of facilitation at the noun, and, if so, whether updates unfold symmetrically-not only increasing, but also decreasing, the fit of particular nouns. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to the adjective and the noun and modeled these with respect to (a) the overall amount of updating promoted by the adjective, (b) the preadjectival cloze probability of the noun and, (c) the amount of cloze probability change for the obtained noun after the adjective. Bayesian mixed-effects analysis of N400 amplitude at the noun revealed that adjectives rapidly influenced semantic processing of the noun, but did so asymmetrically, with positive updating (reducing N400 amplitudes) having a greater effect than negative updating (increasing N400s). At the adjective, the amount of (possible) updating was not associated with any discernible ERP modulation. Overall, these results suggest the information provided by adjectives is buffered until a head noun is encountered, at which point the access of the noun's semantics is shaped in parallel by both the adjective and the sentence-level representation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Authors: 
    Dagmar Deuber; Stephanie Hackert; Eva Canan Hänsel; Alexander Laube; Mahyar Hejrani; Catherine Laliberté;
    Publisher: Duke University Press

    This study examines newspaper writing from 10 Caribbean countries as a window on the norm orientation of English in the region. The English used in the former British colonies of the Caribbean has been assumed to be especially prone to postcolonial linguistic Americanization, due to mass tourism, media exposure, and long-standing personal and sociocultural links. The authors present a quantitative investigation of variable features, comparing their Caribbean data with American and British reference corpora as well as newspaper collections from India and Nigeria. The amount of American features employed varies by type of feature and country. In all Caribbean corpora, they are more prevalent in the lexicon than in spelling. With regard to grammar, an orientation toward a singular norm cannot be deduced from the data. While Caribbean journalists do partake in worldwide American-led changes, the frequencies of the relevant features align with neither American English nor British English but instead resemble those found in the Indian and Nigerian corpora. Contemporary Caribbean newspaper writing, thus, neither follows traditional British norms nor is it characterized by massive linguistic Americanization; rather, there appears to be a certain conservatism common to New Englishes generally. These results are discussed in light of new considerations on normativity in English in the twenty-first century.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irene Buselli; Luca Oneto; Carlo Dambra; Christian Eduardo Verdonk Gallego; Miguel García Martínez; Anthony Smoker; Nnenna Ike; Tamara Pejovic; Patricia Ruiz Martino;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | FARO (892542)

    Background: The air traffic management (ATM) system has historically coped with a global increase in traffic demand ultimately leading to increased operational complexity. When dealing with the impact of this increasing complexity on system safety it is crucial to automatically analyse the losses of separation (LoSs) using tools able to extract meaningful and actionable information from safety reports. Current research in this field mainly exploits natural language processing (NLP) to categorise the reports,with the limitations that the considered categories need to be manually annotated by experts and that general taxonomies are seldom exploited. Methods: To address the current gaps,authors propose to perform exploratory data analysis on safety reports combining state-of-the-art techniques like topic modelling and clustering and then to develop an algorithm able to extract the Toolkit for ATM Occurrence Investigation (TOKAI) taxonomy factors from the free-text safety reports based on syntactic analysis. TOKAI is a tool for investigation developed by EUROCONTROL and its taxonomy is intended to become a standard and harmonised approach to future investigations. Results: Leveraging on the LoS events reported in the public databases of the Comisión de Estudio y Análisis de Notificaciones de Incidentes de Tránsito Aéreo and the United Kingdom Airprox Board,authors show how their proposal is able to automatically extract meaningful and actionable information from safety reports,other than to classify their content according to the TOKAI taxonomy. The quality of the approach is also indirectly validated by checking the connection between the identified factors and the main contributor of the incidents. Conclusions: Authors' results are a promising first step toward the full automation of a general analysis of LoS reports supported by results on real-world data coming from two different sources. In the future,authors' proposal could be extended to other taxonomies or tailored to identify factors to be included in the safety taxonomies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Natvig;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Norway
    Project: EC | AmNorSSC (838164)

    Although heritage language phonology is often argued to be fairly stable, heritage language speakers often sound noticeably different from both monolinguals and second-language learners. In order to model these types of asymmetries, I propose a theoretical framework—an integrated multilingual sound system—based on modular representations of an integrated set of phonological contrasts. An examination of general findings in laryngeal (voicing, aspiration, etc.) phonetics and phonology for heritage languages shows that procedures for pronouncing phonemes are variable and plastic, even if abstract may representations remain stable. Furthermore, an integrated multilingual sound system predicts that use of one language may require a subset of the available representations, which illuminates the mechanisms that underlie phonological transfer, attrition, and acquisition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Monroy; Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez; Benjamin M. Taylor; Oscar Portolés Marin; Eugenio Parise; Vincent M. Reid;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: EC | ACT (289404)

    The current study examined the effects of variability on infant event-related potential (ERP) data editing methods. A widespread approach for analyzing infant ERPs is through a trial-by-trial editing process. Researchers identify electroencephalogram (EEG) channels containing artifacts and reject trials that are judged to contain excessive noise. This process can be performed manually by experienced researchers, partially automated by specialized software, or completely automated using an artifact-detection algorithm. Here, we compared the editing process from four different editors—three human experts and an automated algorithm—on the final ERP from an existing infant EEG dataset. Findings reveal that agreement between editors was low, for both the numbers of included trials and of interpolated channels. Critically, variability resulted in differences in the final ERP morphology and in the statistical results of the target ERP that each editor obtained. We also analyzed sources of disagreement by estimating the EEG characteristics that each human editor considered for accepting an ERP trial. In sum, our study reveals significant variability in ERP data editing pipelines, which has important consequences for the final ERP results. These findings represent an important step toward developing best practices for ERP editing methods in infancy research.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
785 Research products, page 1 of 79
  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Francesca Delogu; Heiner Drenhaus; Matthew W. Crocker;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    When reading a text describing an everyday activity, comprehenders build a model of the situation described that includes prior knowledge of the entities, locations, and sequences of actions that typically occur within the event. Previous work has demonstrated that such knowledge guides the processing of incoming information by making event boundaries more or less expected. In the present ERP study, we investigated whether comprehenders’ expectations about event boundaries are influenced by how elaborately common events are described in the context. Participants read short stories in which a common activity (e.g., washing the dishes) was described either in brief or in an elaborate manner. The final sentence contained a target word referring to a more predictable action marking a fine event boundary (e.g., drying) or a less predictable action, marking a coarse event boundary (e.g., jogging). The results revealed a larger N400 effect for coarse event boundaries compared to fine event boundaries, but no interaction with description length. Between 600 and 1000 ms, however, elaborate contexts elicited a larger frontal positivity compared to brief contexts. This effect was largely driven by less predictable targets, marking coarse event boundaries. We interpret the P600 effect as indexing the updating of the situation model at event boundaries, consistent with Event Segmentation Theory (EST). The updating process is more demanding with coarse event boundaries, which presumably require the construction of a new situation model. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.3758/s13421-017-0766-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Noortje J. Venhuizen; Petra Hendriks; Matthew W. Crocker; Harm Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Natural language semantics has recently sought to combine the complementary strengths of formal and distributional approaches to meaning. More specifically, proposals have been put forward to augment formal semantic machinery with distributional meaning representations, thereby introducing the notion of semantic similarity into formal semantics, or to define distributional systems that aim to incorporate formal notions such as entailment and compositionality. However, given the fundamentally different 'representational currency' underlying formal and distributional approaches - models of the world versus linguistic co-occurrence - their unification has proven extremely difficult. Here, we define a Distributional Formal Semantics that integrates distributionality into a formal semantic system on the level of formal models. This approach offers probabilistic, distributed meaning representations that are also inherently compositional, and that naturally capture fundamental semantic notions such as quantification and entailment. Furthermore, we show how the probabilistic nature of these representations allows for probabilistic inference, and how the information-theoretic notion of "information" (measured in terms of Entropy and Surprisal) naturally follows from it. Finally, we illustrate how meaning representations can be derived incrementally from linguistic input using a recurrent neural network model, and how the resultant incremental semantic construction procedure intuitively captures key semantic phenomena, including negation, presupposition, and anaphoricity. To appear in: Information and Computation (WoLLIC 2019 Special Issue)

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access

    This is a repository associated with the paper "Positional biases in predictive processing of intonation" and contains materials, data and scripts: Abstract: Real-time speech comprehension is challenging because communicatively relevant information is distributed throughout the entire utterance. In five mouse tracking experiments on German and American English, we probe if listeners, in principle, use non-local, early intonational information to anticipate upcoming referents. Listeners had to select a speaker-intended referent with their mouse guided by intonational cues, allowing them to anticipate their decision by moving their hand toward the referent prior to lexical disambiguation. While German listeners (Exps. 1-3) seemed to ignore early pitch cues, American English listeners (Exps. 4-5) were in principle able to use these early pitch cues to anticipate upcoming referents. However, many listeners showed no indication of doing so. These results suggest that there are important positional asymmetries in the way intonational information is integrated, with early information being paid less attention to than later cues in the utterance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jakub Szewczyk; Emily N Mech; Kara D. Federmeier;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | NeuroPred (800046)

    Can a single adjective immediately influence message-building during sentence processing? We presented participants with 168 sentence contexts, such as "His skin was red from spending the day at the …" Sentences ended with either the most expected word ("beach") or a low cloze probability completion ("pool"). Nouns were preceded by adjectives that changed their relative likelihood (e.g., "neighborhood" increases the cloze probability of pool whereas "sandy" promotes beach). We asked if participants' online processing can be rapidly updated by the adjective, changing the resulting pattern of facilitation at the noun, and, if so, whether updates unfold symmetrically-not only increasing, but also decreasing, the fit of particular nouns. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to the adjective and the noun and modeled these with respect to (a) the overall amount of updating promoted by the adjective, (b) the preadjectival cloze probability of the noun and, (c) the amount of cloze probability change for the obtained noun after the adjective. Bayesian mixed-effects analysis of N400 amplitude at the noun revealed that adjectives rapidly influenced semantic processing of the noun, but did so asymmetrically, with positive updating (reducing N400 amplitudes) having a greater effect than negative updating (increasing N400s). At the adjective, the amount of (possible) updating was not associated with any discernible ERP modulation. Overall, these results suggest the information provided by adjectives is buffered until a head noun is encountered, at which point the access of the noun's semantics is shaped in parallel by both the adjective and the sentence-level representation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Authors: 
    Dagmar Deuber; Stephanie Hackert; Eva Canan Hänsel; Alexander Laube; Mahyar Hejrani; Catherine Laliberté;
    Publisher: Duke University Press

    This study examines newspaper writing from 10 Caribbean countries as a window on the norm orientation of English in the region. The English used in the former British colonies of the Caribbean has been assumed to be especially prone to postcolonial linguistic Americanization, due to mass tourism, media exposure, and long-standing personal and sociocultural links. The authors present a quantitative investigation of variable features, comparing their Caribbean data with American and British reference corpora as well as newspaper collections from India and Nigeria. The amount of American features employed varies by type of feature and country. In all Caribbean corpora, they are more prevalent in the lexicon than in spelling. With regard to grammar, an orientation toward a singular norm cannot be deduced from the data. While Caribbean journalists do partake in worldwide American-led changes, the frequencies of the relevant features align with neither American English nor British English but instead resemble those found in the Indian and Nigerian corpora. Contemporary Caribbean newspaper writing, thus, neither follows traditional British norms nor is it characterized by massive linguistic Americanization; rather, there appears to be a certain conservatism common to New Englishes generally. These results are discussed in light of new considerations on normativity in English in the twenty-first century.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irene Buselli; Luca Oneto; Carlo Dambra; Christian Eduardo Verdonk Gallego; Miguel García Martínez; Anthony Smoker; Nnenna Ike; Tamara Pejovic; Patricia Ruiz Martino;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | FARO (892542)

    Background: The air traffic management (ATM) system has historically coped with a global increase in traffic demand ultimately leading to increased operational complexity. When dealing with the impact of this increasing complexity on system safety it is crucial to automatically analyse the losses of separation (LoSs) using tools able to extract meaningful and actionable information from safety reports. Current research in this field mainly exploits natural language processing (NLP) to categorise the reports,with the limitations that the considered categories need to be manually annotated by experts and that general taxonomies are seldom exploited. Methods: To address the current gaps,authors propose to perform exploratory data analysis on safety reports combining state-of-the-art techniques like topic modelling and clustering and then to develop an algorithm able to extract the Toolkit for ATM Occurrence Investigation (TOKAI) taxonomy factors from the free-text safety reports based on syntactic analysis. TOKAI is a tool for investigation developed by EUROCONTROL and its taxonomy is intended to become a standard and harmonised approach to future investigations. Results: Leveraging on the LoS events reported in the public databases of the Comisión de Estudio y Análisis de Notificaciones de Incidentes de Tránsito Aéreo and the United Kingdom Airprox Board,authors show how their proposal is able to automatically extract meaningful and actionable information from safety reports,other than to classify their content according to the TOKAI taxonomy. The quality of the approach is also indirectly validated by checking the connection between the identified factors and the main contributor of the incidents. Conclusions: Authors' results are a promising first step toward the full automation of a general analysis of LoS reports supported by results on real-world data coming from two different sources. In the future,authors' proposal could be extended to other taxonomies or tailored to identify factors to be included in the safety taxonomies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Natvig;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Norway
    Project: EC | AmNorSSC (838164)

    Although heritage language phonology is often argued to be fairly stable, heritage language speakers often sound noticeably different from both monolinguals and second-language learners. In order to model these types of asymmetries, I propose a theoretical framework—an integrated multilingual sound system—based on modular representations of an integrated set of phonological contrasts. An examination of general findings in laryngeal (voicing, aspiration, etc.) phonetics and phonology for heritage languages shows that procedures for pronouncing phonemes are variable and plastic, even if abstract may representations remain stable. Furthermore, an integrated multilingual sound system predicts that use of one language may require a subset of the available representations, which illuminates the mechanisms that underlie phonological transfer, attrition, and acquisition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Monroy; Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez; Benjamin M. Taylor; Oscar Portolés Marin; Eugenio Parise; Vincent M. Reid;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: EC | ACT (289404)

    The current study examined the effects of variability on infant event-related potential (ERP) data editing methods. A widespread approach for analyzing infant ERPs is through a trial-by-trial editing process. Researchers identify electroencephalogram (EEG) channels containing artifacts and reject trials that are judged to contain excessive noise. This process can be performed manually by experienced researchers, partially automated by specialized software, or completely automated using an artifact-detection algorithm. Here, we compared the editing process from four different editors—three human experts and an automated algorithm—on the final ERP from an existing infant EEG dataset. Findings reveal that agreement between editors was low, for both the numbers of included trials and of interpolated channels. Critically, variability resulted in differences in the final ERP morphology and in the statistical results of the target ERP that each editor obtained. We also analyzed sources of disagreement by estimating the EEG characteristics that each human editor considered for accepting an ERP trial. In sum, our study reveals significant variability in ERP data editing pipelines, which has important consequences for the final ERP results. These findings represent an important step toward developing best practices for ERP editing methods in infancy research.