Crtež dvojnog ljetnikovca Kaboga-Zec iz serije Diversa Cancellariae Državnog arhiva u Dubrovniku iz 1508. godine najraniji je sačuvani vizualni prikaz dubrovačke ladanjske arhitekture te donosi niz likovnih i tekstualnih podataka značajnih za razumijevanje njezina razvoja na prijelazu 15. i 16. stoljeća. Osim udvostručenog pročelja s gotičkom triforom i bočnim biforama, to se posebice odnosi na element ugaone lođe, poput lođa kakve se u simetričnom paru pojavljuju na pročeljima dvaju dubrovačkih ljetnikovaca kasnog 16. stoljeća (Sorgo-Natali i Mleci), dok je znatno ranija lođa ljetnikovca Kaboga-Zec oblikovno i funkcionalno donekle usporediva s bočnim “prohodnim” lođama ranoga 16. stoljeća. Srodnosti s objema vrstama lođa ukazuju na prijelazni oblik, odnosno na moguće najraniji primjer ugaone lođe u korpusu dubrovačke ladanjske arhitekture, a time i na lokalno podrijetlo ovoga arhitektonskog motiva.
This deliverable pertains to SSHOC Task 3.1 which was responsible for investigating and providing resources and tools to support the multilingual aspects of the future pan-EU SSH infrastructure. Making data and services accessible and usable in SSH is very much also a matter of providing relevant translations, translation of metadata concepts, multilingual vocabularies, terminology extraction across languages, multilingual databases. The deliverable offers a detailed report on the gathering and translation of relevant SSH metadata, ontologies and vocabularies for the use-cases indicated in the task’s topics: multilingual metadata concepts and vocabularies, the multilingual occupation ontology, with cross-country female occupational titles. In accordance with SSHOC and the EOSC FAIR recommendations and requirements, the metadata vocabularies and ontologies have been published via several different formats and facilities. Section 1. The introduction sets the landscape and describes the need of multilingual vocabularies both for classification and discovery in the context of a cloud-based infrastructure that will offer access to research data and related services adapted to the needs of the SSH community. Section 2. “Multilingual metadata” investigates the possibility to use and test Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches and Machine Translation (MT) to make the metadata more accessible using national languages other than English. A selected case study was the recommended metadata set of the CLARIN Concept Registry (CCR): the whole set of metadata and definitions were translated into French, Greek, and Italian. The section describes the machine-translation and evaluation process, also comparing different technologies. Section 3. “Multilingual vocabularies and ontologies” introduces two other typical case-studies. The first one addresses one of the pressing needs in social sciences research. Many surveys, indeed, ask respondents to specify their occupation and the occupational ontology is used for the survey questions. For many languages the occupational titles for males and females are not identical. In section 3.1 the enrichment of the occupational ontology with lists for male and female titles, is described for many languages, namely for Dutch, German, Slovenian and French. The second case study focuses on the automatic extraction of terminology from texts: a list of domain- specific terms was automatically extracted from a corpus of Data Curation and Stewardship, validated by domain experts, automatically translated into multiple languages (Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Slovenian) and linked to other existing terminologies. Section 4. describes the SKOS-ification and publication process of the results, together with the challenges posed by multilinguality. Section 5. offers an overview of the exploitation and sustainability of the results and how these are made available to the community. Finally the Conclusions provide some reflections on Machine Translation approaches adopted for translating the vocabularies into multiple languages, the advantages in terms of time saving and some first recommendations to the community.
The characterization of archaeological ceramics according to their chemical composition provides essential information about the production and distribution of specific pottery wares. If a correlation between compositional patterns and local production centers is assumed, pottery manufacturing and trade and, more generally, economic, political, as well as cultural relations between communities and regions can be investigated. In the present paper, the combined application of portable XRF and statistical analysis to the investigation of a large repertory of ceramic fragments allowed us to group the assemblage by identifying geochemical clusters. The results from the chemical and statistical analysis were then compared with reference ceramic samples from the same area, as well as with macroscopic and petrographic observations to confirm, coalesce or sub-divide putative sub-divisions. The study of 141 samples from different sites located within a wide area spanning across the Colline Metallifere and the coast (Monterotondo Marittimo, Roccastrada, Donoratico, and Vetricella) provided new clues for a new interpretive archaeological framework that suggests that there was a well-defined organization of pottery manufacturing and circulation across southern Tuscany during the early medieval period.
Understanding large ontologies is still an issue, and has an impact on many ontology engineering tasks. We describe a novel method for identifying and extracting conceptual components from domain ontologies, which are used to understand and compare them. The method is applied to two corpora of ontologies in the Cultural Heritage and Conference domain, respectively. The results, which show good quality, are evaluated by manual inspection and by correlation with datasets and tool performance from the ontology alignment evaluation initiative.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Countries: Spain, United Kingdom, Spain
Project: EC | PAThs (687567), EC | PAThs (687567)
Over the last few years, the Federal Institute for material research (BAM, Berlin) together with the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMC, University of Hamburg) have initiated a systematic material investigation of black inks produced from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages (ca. fourth century CE–fourteenth/fifteenth centuries CE), aimed primarily at extending and complementing findings from previous sporadic studies. Part of this systematic investigation has focused on Egyptian Coptic manuscripts, and the present preliminary study is one of its outputs. It centres on a corpus of 45 Coptic manuscripts—43 papyri and 2 ostraca—preserved at the Palau-Ribes and Roca-Puig collections in Barcelona. The manuscripts come from the Monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit, one of the largest monastic settlements in Egypt between the Late Antiquity and the Early Islamic Period (sixth–eighth centuries CE). The composition of their black inks was investigated in situ using near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The analyses determined that the manuscripts were written using different types of ink: pure carbon ink; carbon ink containing iron; mixed inks containing carbon, polyphenols and metallic elements; and iron-gall ink. The variety of inks used for the documentary texts seems to reflect the articulate administrative system of the monastery of Bawit. This study reveals that, in contrast to the documents, written mostly with carbon-based inks, literary biblical texts were written with iron-gall ink. The frequent reuse of papyrus paper for certain categories of documents may suggest that carbon-based inks were used for ephemeral manuscripts, since they were easy to erase by abrasion. Peer reviewed
Even if Alessandro Tassoni fully translated Justus Lipsius’ “Politicorum libri” a few years after the publication of the princeps edition (1589), critics have frequently diminished the impact of Lipsian thought on his writings. This article aims at refuting this thesis, showing how the “Politicorum libri” permeate Tassoni’s ideas. However, the comparison with Lipsius, characterised by a strong polemical spirit, is not patent. Rather, it develops through a subtle quotation game: in his texts, Tassoni includes various references to Tacit that Lipsius had used to sustain his absolutist, hispanophile and conservative thought, reversing its sense.
The cosmic-ray flux of positrons is measured with high precision by the space-borne particle spectrometer AMS-02. The hypothesis that pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) can significantly contribute to the excess of the positron ($e^+$) cosmic-ray flux has been consolidated after the observation of a $\gamma$-ray emission at TeV energies of a few degree size around Geminga and Monogem PWNe. In this work we undertake massive simulations of Galactic pulsars populations, adopting different distributions for their position in the Galaxy, intrinsic physical properties, pair emission models, in order to overcome the incompleteness of the ATNF catalog. We fit the $e^+$ AMS-02 data together with a secondary component due to collisions of primary cosmic rays with the interstellar medium. We find that several mock galaxies have a pulsar population able to explain the observed $e^+$ flux, typically by few, bright sources. We determine the physical parameters of the pulsars dominating the $e^+$ flux, and assess the impact of different assumptions on radial distributions, spin-down properties, Galactic propagation scenarios and $e^+$ emission time. Comment: 21 pages, 7 figures. Typos corrected, references added. Matches version published by JCAP
Archaeobotanical and genetic analysis of modern plant materials are drawing a complex scenario for the origins of cereal agriculture in the Levant. This paper presents an improved method for the study of early farming harvesting systems based on the texture analysis of gloss observed on sickle blades through onfocal microscopy. Using this method, we identify different plant harvesting activities unripe, semi-ripe and ripe cereal reaping and reed and other grass cutting) quantitatively and evaluate their change during the time when plant cultivation activities started and domesticated crops appeared in the Levant (12 800–7000 cal BC). The state of maturity of cereals when harvested shifted over time from unripe, to semi-ripe and finally to ripe. Most of these changes in harvesting techniques are explained by the modification of crops during the transition to agriculture. The shift in plant harvesting strategies was neither chronologically linear nor geographically homogeneous. Fully mature cereal harvesting becomes dominant around 8500 cal BC in the Southern Levant and one millennium later in the Middle Euphrates, which accords with the appearance of domestic varieties in the archaeobotanical record. The change in plant harvesting method fits better with the gradualist model of explanation of cereal agriculture than with the punctual one.
AbstractThe evolution and development of human mortuary behaviors is of enormous cultural significance. Here we report a richly-decorated young infant burial (AVH-1) from Arma Veirana (Liguria, northwestern Italy) that is directly dated to 10,211–9910 cal BP (95.4% probability), placing it within the early Holocene and therefore attributable to the early Mesolithic, a cultural period from which well-documented burials are exceedingly rare. Virtual dental histology, proteomics, and aDNA indicate that the infant was a 40–50 days old female. Associated artifacts indicate significant material and emotional investment in the child’s interment. The detailed biological profile of AVH-1 establishes the child as the earliest European near-neonate documented to be female. The Arma Veirana burial thus provides insight into sex/gender-based social status, funerary treatment, and the attribution of personhood to the youngest individuals among prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups and adds substantially to the scant data on mortuary practices from an important period in prehistory shortly following the end of the last Ice Age.
Publisher: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Project: EC | AVATAR (894785)
Desde 2016 venimos desarrollando prospecciones geofísicas y excavaciones arqueológicas en el oppidum de Ulaca (Solosancho, Ávila) con el objetivo de comprender mejor un edificio singular conocido como el “Torreón”. Se trata de una estructura en ruinas de planta rectangular (14 × 10 m) que debió tener una importante altura. El interés que presenta esta construcción nos ha llevado a realizar su reconstrucción virtual en 3D utilizando el software Blender 2.90. Los resultados se han concretado en nueve imágenes estáticas donde mostramos el edificio en su época de uso (ss. II-I a. C.) y su asociación con un manantial. En la reconstrucción virtual hemos conjugado distintos rasgos del edificio: arquitectónicos, de emplazamiento, de posibles funcionalidades e incorporado información etnográfica y de sistemas constructivos tradicionales. Este proyecto demuestra las capacidades interpretativas y divulgativas de las técnicas tridimensionales y, aun con todas sus limitaciones, contribuye a una mejor comprensión del pasado.