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32 Research products, page 1 of 4

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nikolay Pavlov;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | CDE4Peace (882055)
  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stian Soiland-Reyes; Peter Sefton; Mercè Crosas; Leyla Jael Castro; Frederik Coppens; José M. Fernández; Daniel Garijo; Björn Grüning; Marco La Rosa; Simone Leo; +6 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: EC | IBISBA 1.0 (730976), SSHRC , EC | PREP-IBISBA (871118), EC | EOSC-Life (824087), EC | RELIANCE (101017501), EC | BioExcel-2 (823830), EC | SYNTHESYS PLUS (823827), EC | IBISBA 1.0 (730976), SSHRC , EC | PREP-IBISBA (871118),...

    An increasing number of researchers support reproducibility by including pointers to and descriptions of datasets, software and methods in their publications. However, scientific articles may be ambiguous, incomplete and difficult to process by automated systems. In this paper we introduce RO-Crate, an open, community-driven, and lightweight approach to packaging research artefacts along with their metadata in a machine readable manner. RO-Crate is based on Schema$.$org annotations in JSON-LD, aiming to establish best practices to formally describe metadata in an accessible and practical way for their use in a wide variety of situations. An RO-Crate is a structured archive of all the items that contributed to a research outcome, including their identifiers, provenance, relations and annotations. As a general purpose packaging approach for data and their metadata, RO-Crate is used across multiple areas, including bioinformatics, digital humanities and regulatory sciences. By applying "just enough" Linked Data standards, RO-Crate simplifies the process of making research outputs FAIR while also enhancing research reproducibility. An RO-Crate for this article is available at https://www.researchobject.org/2021-packaging-research-artefacts-with-ro-crate/ Comment: 42 pages. Submitted to Data Science

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Authors: 
    Perdoncin, Anton;
    Publisher: CAIRN
    Country: France
    Project: EC | LUBARTWORLD (818843)

    International audience

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yichi Zhang;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | BROKEX (802070)

    A transnational flow of capital exchange during the 19th and early 20th centuries brought planning ideas and modernity into China. Since European countries and America used violence to place China ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kun Sun; Haitao Liu; Wenxin Xiong;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | WIDE (742545), EC | WIDE (742545)

    AbstractScientific writings, as one essential part of human culture, have evolved over centuries into their current form. Knowing how scientific writings evolved is particularly helpful in understanding how trends in scientific culture developed. It also allows us to better understand how scientific culture was interwoven with human culture generally. The availability of massive digitized texts and the progress in computational technologies today provide us with a convenient and credible way to discern the evolutionary patterns in scientific writings by examining the diachronic linguistic changes. The linguistic changes in scientific writings reflect the genre shifts that took place with historical changes in science and scientific writings. This study investigates a general evolutionary linguistic pattern in scientific writings. It does so by merging two credible computational methods: relative entropy; word-embedding concreteness and imageability. It thus creates a novel quantitative methodology and applies this to the examination of diachronic changes in the Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society (PTRS, 1665–1869). The data from two computational approaches can be well mapped to support the argument that this journal followed the evolutionary trend of increasing professionalization and specialization. But it also shows that language use in this journal was greatly influenced by historical events and other socio-cultural factors. This study, as a “culturomic” approach, demonstrates that the linguistic evolutionary patterns in scientific discourse have been interrupted by external factors even though this scientific discourse would likely have cumulatively developed into a professional and specialized genre. The approaches proposed by this study can make a great contribution to full-text analysis in scientometrics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Zalc;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | LUBARTWORLD (818843)

    AbstractDuring its first days of existence, the Vichy regime ordered a review of recent naturalizations. In accordance with a law passed on July 22, 1940, denaturalization decisions were made on a ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan José Pierella Karlusich; Juan José Pierella Karlusich; Federico Matias Ibarbalz; Federico Matias Ibarbalz; Federico Matias Ibarbalz; Chris Bowler; Chris Bowler;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Country: Argentina
    Project: EC | AtlantECO (862923)

    Marine phytoplankton are believed to account for more than 45% of photosynthetic net primary production on Earth, and hence are at the base of marine food webs and have an enormous impact on the entire Earth system. Their members are found across many of the major clades of the tree of life, including bacteria (cyanobacteria) and multiple eukaryotic lineages that acquired photosynthesis through the process of endosymbiosis. Our understanding of their distribution in marine ecosystems and their contribution to biogeochemical cycles have increased since they were first described in the 18th century. Here, we review historical milestones in marine phytoplankton research and how their roles were gradually understood, with a particular focus on insights derived from large-scale ocean exploration. We start from the first observations made by explorers and naturalists, review the initial identification of the main phytoplankton groups and the appreciation of their function in the influential Kiel and Plymouth schools that established biological oceanography, to finally outline the contribution of modern large-scale initiatives to understand this fundamental biological component of the ocean. Fil: Pierella Karlusich, Juan José. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Ecole Normale Supérieure; Francia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: Ibarbalz, Federico Matias. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Ecole Normale Supérieure; Francia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera; Argentina Fil: Bowler, Chris. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Ecole Normale Supérieure; Francia. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Francia

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kylie Thomas;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FEM-RESIST (838864), EC | FEM-RESIST (838864)

    In his book about his Irish-South African family and his childhood under apartheid, White Boy Running, Christopher Hope writes of the ‘bitter emotion’ that infuses the politics of both Ireland and South Africa. This article considers how the histories of political struggle in both places are intertwined through readings of photographs taken in Ireland and South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. I draw on these photographs to develop an argument about how affective archives of music, images, and poetry travel across time and space and serve as a conduit for raising awareness about injustice and for forging transnational solidarity. At the same time these photographs provoke a consideration about how Irish identification with the struggle of black South Africans is complicated by the longer history of British colonialism and racism and how solidarity requires both remembering and forgetting. This article also begins to trace the presence and work of South African activists in Ireland who campaigned against apartheid while they were in exile.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anders Svensson; Dorthe Dahl-Jensen; Jørgen Peder Steffensen; Thomas Blunier; Sune Olander Rasmussen; Bo Møllesøe Vinther; Paul Vallelonga; Emilie Capron; Vasileios Gkinis; Eliza Cook; +16 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, Denmark, Switzerland, France, France, Denmark, France ...
    Project: SNSF | EURODIVERSITY 2005 FP083-... (114216), EC | THERA (820047), EC | TiPES (820970), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (1142166), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (0839093), SNSF | EURODIVERSITY 2005 FP083-... (114216), EC | THERA (820047), EC | TiPES (820970), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (1142166), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (0839093)

    The last glacial period is characterized by a number of millennial climate events that have been identified in both Greenland and Antarctic ice cores and that are abrupt in Greenland climate records. The mechanisms governing this climate variability remain a puzzle that requires a precise synchronization of ice cores from the two hemispheres to be resolved. Previously, Greenland and Antarctic ice cores have been synchronized primarily via their common records of gas concentrations or isotopes from the trapped air and via cosmogenic isotopes measured on the ice. In this work, we apply ice core volcanic proxies and annual layer counting to identify large volcanic eruptions that have left a signature in both Greenland and Antarctica. Generally, no tephra is associated with those eruptions in the ice cores, so the source of the eruptions cannot be identified. Instead, we identify and match sequences of volcanic eruptions with bipolar distribution of sulfate, i.e. unique patterns of volcanic events separated by the same number of years at the two poles. Using this approach, we pinpoint 82 large bipolar volcanic eruptions throughout the second half of the last glacial period (12–60 ka). This improved ice core synchronization is applied to determine the bipolar phasing of abrupt climate change events at decadal-scale precision. In response to Greenland abrupt climatic transitions, we find a response in the Antarctic water isotope signals (δ18O and deuterium excess) that is both more immediate and more abrupt than that found with previous gas-based interpolar synchronizations, providing additional support for our volcanic framework. On average, the Antarctic bipolar seesaw climate response lags the midpoint of Greenland abrupt δ18O transitions by 122±24 years. The time difference between Antarctic signals in deuterium excess and δ18O, which likewise informs the time needed to propagate the signal as described by the theory of the bipolar seesaw but is less sensitive to synchronization errors, suggests an Antarctic δ18O lag behind Greenland of 152±37 years. These estimates are shorter than the 200 years suggested by earlier gas-based synchronizations. As before, we find variations in the timing and duration between the response at different sites and for different events suggesting an interaction of oceanic and atmospheric teleconnection patterns as well as internal climate variability.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yichi Zhang;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | BROKEX (802070)

    This article examines a largely unexplored component of China’s classical garden system – the gardens of salt merchants in Tianjin during the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911). Beyond existing works, which tend to focus on imperial and scholar gardens – gardens of the ruling elites – this examination of merchant gardens contributes to garden history by revealing that merchants created gardens to improve their low social status. It further reveals shifts in the functions, architectural design and flora of the gardens which reflects both individual aesthetics and the changing fortunes of Tianjin’s salt merchants in general. Salt merchant gardens in Tianjin initially presented idyllic scenery to create literary-based, self-immersed spaces. Then beginning in the 1720s, they evolved into a showcase of rising merchant power displaying affluence, thereby enabling merchants to improve their social rank. Finally, from the 1840s, salt merchant gardens gradually became extravagant enclosures as the collapse of the established social structure unfolded.