In recent years, scholars have devoted a great deal of attention to the history of scholarship in general and, more specifically, to the emergence of critical historical and anthropological literature from and within ecclesiastical scholarship. However, few studies have discussed the Jewish figures who took part in this process. This paper analyzes the role played by historiographical and ethnographical writing in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Italian Jewish–Christian polemics. Tracing various Christian polemical ethnographical depictions of the Jewish rite of shaking the lulav (sacramental palm leaves used by Jews during the festival of Sukkot), it discusses the variety of ways in which Jewish scholars responded to these depictions or circumvented them. These responses reflect the Jewish scholars’ familiarity with prevailing contemporary scholarship and the key role of translation and cultural transfers in their own attempts to create parallel works. Furthermore, this paper presents new Jewish polemical manuscript material within the relevant contexts, examines Jewish attempts to compose polemical and apologetic ethnographies, and argues that Jewish engagement with critical scholarship began earlier than scholars of this period usually suggest
Abstract This study synthesizes 15 years (2001–2016) of detailed multibeam hydrographic mapping covering the entire 26,500 km2 of the Israeli Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Multibeam data were collected on-board three research vessels across the continental shelf, slope, and the deep Levant basin; between water depths of about 15 m to 2100 m. Single-channel 3.5 kHz seismic reflection chirp profiles were collected simultaneously with the multibeam surveys in selected parts of the area. The new data enabled the first comprehensive quantitative seafloor morphological analysis of the slope and deep basin. Using GIS techniques on the high-resolution multibeam data, we analyze the spatial distribution and quantitatively describe the seafloor morphologies in detail. High-resolution chirp seismic profiles demonstrate the underlying shallow structure. Results indicate that the seabed comprises five main morphologies: folds, faults, sediment waves, deepwater channels, and sediment fan lobes. Quantitative morphological analysis and seismic data interpretation were used to derive field relations between these morphologies, which along with previously collected multi-channel seismic reflection data, suggest that a concentric fold geometry formed around the Nile outlet during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene, as part of a general thin-skin radial salt-tectonic deformation above the Messinian mobile unit. This radial motion was accompanied by displacement along NNE-trending strike-slip faults in the basin, and an extensional component across E-W trending strike-slip faults along the Levant margin. While some of these displacements continue to deform the modern seabed (across Area A), others are covered by a wedge of Quaternary deposits, mainly in the northeastern part of the basin (Area B). Areas A and B also differ in grain size distribution, as indicated by backscatter analysis of the multibeam data. These observations divide the Israeli EEZ into two distinct areas: (Area A) Nile derived siliciclastic sediments transported directly into the deep basin via confined (forming meandering channels and overbank deposits) and unconfined flows (forming fans and lobes). The wedge consisting of Area B was fed by erosion products of the Nile outlet that were transported northwards along the continental shelf by seafloor currents of the Levant Jet System, and glided down the northern Levant continental slope as turbidity currents. This supply built at least seven sequences of Quaternary sediment waves that form upslope migrating cyclic steps. The complete data coverage and quantitative morphological analysis presented here introduce new spatial and temporal constraints that call for a reexamination of previous seabed sampling locations not accounting for detailed bathymetry, and to augment future seabed sampling efforts, understanding the sediment supply paths across the basin, and the geomorphological footprint of salt tectonics processes.
In recent years, pre-modern beds have generated extensive scholarly interest. Their social, religious, and economic importance has been rightfully highlighted in the study of domestic piety. Yet, concern has primarily focused on beds in late medieval English homes. This essay uses Hebrew texts from thirteenth-century Southern Germany, primarily Sefer Hasidim, to further this analysis of the role of the bed in shaping medieval domestic devotion. Jewish notions about the social, moral, and sexual significance of the bed reflect those identified in late medieval Christian culture. These ideas inspired numerous rituals practiced in Jewish homes. Yet, the bed and the remnants of sex assumed to be found in it also frustrated Jewish attempts to perform domestic devotion. These findings highlight the complicated nature of the home and how medieval people had to navigate both its opportunities and challenges in order to foster a rich culture of domestic devotion.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
s zenith, the Jewish sages introduced special ecological regulations pertaining to its overall urban landscape. One of them was a prohibition against growing plants within the city in order to prevent undesirable odors or litter and thus maintain the city&rsquo s respectable image. The prohibition against growing plants within the city did not apply to rose gardens, maybe because of ecological reasons, i.e., their contribution to aesthetics and to improving bad odors in a crowded city. In the city&rsquo ) around the city of Jerusalem. Haggadic-Talmudic tradition tries to endow Jerusalem with a metaphysical uniqueness by describing fantastic plants that allegedly grew in it in the past but disappeared as a result of its destruction. s status is its flora and ecology. The current study aims to address the historical events and the Talmudic traditions concerning the flora and landscape of Jerusalem. In the city&rsquo The Second Temple period is considered both a pinnacle and a low point in the history of Jerusalem. One manifestation of the sharp fluctuations in Jerusalem&rsquo s decline, its agricultural crops and natural vegetation were destroyed when the beleaguered inhabitants were defeated by Titus&rsquo army. One Talmudic tradition voices hope for the rehabilitation of the flora (&ldquo shitim&rdquo
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Whereas the conflict over Palestine’s’ holy places and their role in forming Israeli or Palestinian national identity is well studied, this article brings to the fore an absent perspective. It shows that in the first half of the 20th century Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem shared holy sites, religious beliefs and feasts. Jewish–Muslim encounters of that period went much beyond pre-modern practices of cohabitation, to the extent of developing joint local patriotism. On the other hand, religious and other holy sites were instrumental in the Jewish and Palestinian exclusive nation building process rather than an inclusive one, thus contributing to escalate the national conflict.
Indic rites of purification aim to negate the law of karma by removing the residues of malignant past actions from their patrons. This principle is exemplified in the Kahika Mela, a rarely studied religious festival of the West Himalayan highlands (Himachal Pradesh, India), wherein a ritual specialist assumes karmic residues from large publics and then sacrificed to their presiding deity. British officials who had ‘discovered’ this purificatory rite at the turn of the twentieth century interpreted it as a variant of the universal ‘scapegoat’ rituals that were then being popularized by James Frazer and found it loosely connected to ancient Tantric practises. The However, observing a recent performance of the ritual significantly complicated this view. This paper proposes a novel reading of the Kahika Mela through the prism of karmic transference. Tracing the path of karmas from participants to ritual specialist and beyond, it delineates the logic behind the rite, revealing that the culminating act of human sacrifice is, in fact, secondary to the mysterious force that impels its acceptance.