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  • 0501 psychology and cognitive sciences
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  • Open Access

    This paper describes the ablauting patterns in Siyuewu Khroskyabs, an understudied Gyalrongic language. Ablaut is only found in verbs containing closed syllables, and ablaut patterns in Siyuewu preserve Proto-Khroskyabs patterns relatively well. After providing a synchronic description of verb-stem functions and ablauting patterns, implicative entropy is used to model Siyuewu’s ablauting status. Entropy measurements reveal Siyuewu to have relatively low ablaut predictability, which may be suggestive of a historically conservative ablauting system. On the basis of this quantitative analysis, the current paper proposes an internal reconstruction of ablauting patterns, and postulates a series of velarised vowels for Proto-Siyuewu. Analogical changes are identified through comparison with other Gyalrongic languages. The reconstructed verb forms and patterns are then compared with neighbouring Gyalrongic languages and the directionality of analogy is discussed. 1 Introduction 1.1 Presentation of the data 1.2 Phonological sketch 2 Overview of stem alternation in Siyuewu Khroskyabs 2.1 Tonal alternation 2.2 Coda excrescence 2.3 Aspiration alternation 2.4 Suppletion 2.5 Ablaut 3 Concise description of stem functions 3.1 Stem 1: non-past and irrealis 3.2 Stem 2: past and progressive 3.3 Stem 3: irrealis 4 Ablauting patterns 4.1 The æC : iC pattern 4.2 The ɑC : iC pattern 4.3 The æC : əC pattern 4.4 The oC : əC pattern 4.5 The æC : uC pattern 4.6 The oC : uC pattern 4.7 The æʁ : oʁ pattern 4.8 Non-ablauting verbs with closed syllables 4.8.1 Non-ablauting -æC verbs 4.8.2 Non-ablauting -ɑC verbs 4.8.3 Non-ablauting -oC verbs 4.9 Summary 5 Predictability of ablauting status 5.1 Background and method 5.1.1 Conditional entropy 5.1.2 PCFP and implicative entropy 5.1.3 Bootstrap analysis 5.2 Implicative entropies in the Siyuewu ablauting system 5.2.1 Data preparation and Python scripts 5.2.2 Formulae 5.2.3.2 Results 5.2.4 Stem 2 ⇒ Stem 1 5.2.5 Bootstrapping for Stem 1 ⇔ Stem 2 5.2.6 Implicative entropies by individual vowels 5.2.7 Bootstrapping for individual vowels 5.3 Summary 6 Internal reconstruction of the ablauting patterns 6.1 Reconstruction of ablauting patterns 6.2 Evidence for the sound changes 6.2.1 Evidence for velarised vowels 6.2.2 Comparing internal reconstructions with Gyalrongic cognates 6.3 Directionality of analogy 6.4 Implicative entropy of the Proto-Siyuewu ablauting system 7 Comparing ablauting patterns 7.1 ’Brongrdzong Khroskyabs 7.2 Zbu 8 Conclusion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kun Sun; Haitao Liu; Wenxin Xiong;
    Project: EC | WIDE (742545)

    AbstractScientific writings, as one essential part of human culture, have evolved over centuries into their current form. Knowing how scientific writings evolved is particularly helpful in understanding how trends in scientific culture developed. It also allows us to better understand how scientific culture was interwoven with human culture generally. The availability of massive digitized texts and the progress in computational technologies today provide us with a convenient and credible way to discern the evolutionary patterns in scientific writings by examining the diachronic linguistic changes. The linguistic changes in scientific writings reflect the genre shifts that took place with historical changes in science and scientific writings. This study investigates a general evolutionary linguistic pattern in scientific writings. It does so by merging two credible computational methods: relative entropy; word-embedding concreteness and imageability. It thus creates a novel quantitative methodology and applies this to the examination of diachronic changes in the Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society (PTRS, 1665–1869). The data from two computational approaches can be well mapped to support the argument that this journal followed the evolutionary trend of increasing professionalization and specialization. But it also shows that language use in this journal was greatly influenced by historical events and other socio-cultural factors. This study, as a “culturomic” approach, demonstrates that the linguistic evolutionary patterns in scientific discourse have been interrupted by external factors even though this scientific discourse would likely have cumulatively developed into a professional and specialized genre. The approaches proposed by this study can make a great contribution to full-text analysis in scientometrics.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Yunfan Lai; Xun Gong; Jesse P. Gates; Guillaume Jacques;
    Country: France
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    Abstract This paper proposes that Tangut should be classified as a West Gyalrongic language in the Sino-Tibetan/Trans-Himalayan family. We examine lexical commonalities, case marking, partial reduplication, and verbal morphology in Tangut and in modern West Gyalrongic languages, and point out nontrivial shared innovations between Tangut and modern West Gyalrongic languages. The analysis suggests a closer genetic relationship between Tangut and Modern West Gyalrongic than between Tangut and Modern East Gyalrongic. This paper is the first study that tackles the exact linguistic affiliation of the Tangut language based on the comparative method.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tennie, Claudio; van Schaik, Carel P;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | STONECULT (714658)

    The potential for rituals in non-human great apes (apes) is an understudied topic. We derive a minimal definition of ritual and then examine the currently available evidence for it in untrained and non-enculturated apes. First, we examine whether such apes show evidence for the two main components of our minimal definition of ritual: symbolism and copying. Second, we examine if there are actual cases already identifiable today that may fit all aspects of our minimal definition of ritual—or whether there are at least cases that fit some aspects (proto-ritual). We find that apes are not likely to spontaneously practise minimal ritual, but we claim that the highest expected likelihood of occurrence is in the results-copying domain. Yet, we did not find actual cases of minimal ritual in apes—including those involving environmental results. We did, however, find some cases that may match at least part of our minimal ritual definition—which we termed proto-ritual. At least two out of three potential cases of such proto-rituals that we identified (rain dance, object-in-ear and surplus nest-making procedures) do revolve around results. Overall, apes do not show much, or very clear, evidence for even minimal ritual, but may sometimes show proto-ritual. However, dedicated ape ritual studies are currently lacking, and future work may identify ape ritual (or clearer cases of proto-ritual). We discuss the implications of our preliminary finding for inferences of ritual in the last common ancestor of humans and apes. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Ritual renaissance: new insights into the most human of behaviours’.

  • Open Access

    This paper describes the inverse marking systems of two closely related Khroskyabs varieties, Siyuewu and Wobzi, and hypothesises the historical development of the Khroskyabs inverse marking system. I propose that a hypothetical prefix, *Cə-, which is probably related to the second person markers attested in many Trans-Himalayan languages, existed in Proto-Khroskyabs, and that it has different reflexes in the two modern Khroskyabs varieties. 1. Introduction 1.1. The Khroskyabs language 1.2. Dialects under investigation 1.3. Argument indexation 2. Inverse marking in Rgyalrongic languages 2.1. Scenarios 2.2. Inverse marking in Rgyalrong languages 2.3. Inverse marking in West-Rgyalrongic 3. Inverse marking in Siyuewu Khroskyabs 3.1. Morphophonology 3.2. With orientational prefixes 3.2.1. Local scenarios 3.2.2. Mixed scenarios 3.3. Without orientational prefixes 4. Inverse marking in Wobzi Khroskyabs 4.1. Morphophonology 4.2. Distribution 4.2.1. With orientational prefixes 4.2.2. Without orientational prefixes 5. Reconstruction of the Proto-Khroskyabs inverse system 5.1. Distributions of inverse marking in Siyuewu and Wobzi 5.2. Local inverse and non-local: the hypothetical prefix *Cə- 5.3. Possible origins of *Cə- 5.4. Mixed inverse: intra-scenario levelling 6. Conclusion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yunfan Lai;
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    This paper focuses on the verbal inflection chain of Siyuewu Khroskyabs, a Gyalrongic language (Trans-Himalayan). Siyuewu Khroskyabs goes against two general typological tendencies: first, as an SOV language, it shows an overwhelming preference for prefixes, which is rarely reported typologically; second, the inflectional prefixes in the outer slots are older than those in the inner slots, which is the reverse case of most languages. In this paper, I will first identify distinct historical layers within the inflectional prefixes, and then focus on two of the prefixes, də- ‘even’ and ɕə- ‘q’ whose evolutionary pathways are relatively clear. The essential part of the hypotheses is that the prefixes originate from enclitics which could be attached to the end of a preverbal chain, originally loosely attached to the verb stem. The preverbal chain later became tightly attached to the verbal stem and eventually became a part of it as a chain of prefixes. As a result, the original enclitics are reanalysed as prefixes. The integration of preverbal morphemes is responsible for the prefixing preference in Modern Siyuewu Khroskyabs. However, despite this superficial prefixing preference, Siyuewu Khroskyabs underlyingly favours postposed morphemes. By following the general suffixing tendency, this language finally managed to create a typologically rare, overwhelmingly prefixing verbal template. 1 Introduction 1.1 The suffixing preference 1.2 Correlation between affix age and position 1.3 The betrayal of Khroskyabs 2 The prefixing preference of Siyuewu Khroskyabs 3 Morphophonology of the Khroskyabs inflectional chain 3.1 Autonomous markers in the first slots (R-1, R-2, IRR-2) 3.1.1 Orientational prefixes 3.1.2 Negative markers 3.1.3 Interrogative â 3.2 Non-autonomous markers (R-1, R-2, IRR-1, IRR-2) 3.2.1 Inverse marker 3.2.2 Interrogative â 3.2.3 Irrealis â 3.2.4 HL tone conditional 3.3 Prefixes undergoing fusion (R-3 and IRR-3) 3.3.1 Sensory râ 3.3.2 Attenuative imperative ^o- 3.3.3 Conditional zâ 3.4 Wordhood of the Siyuewu verb 4 The historical layers of the Siyuewu inflectional chain 4.1 Degree of fusion and compatibility 4.2 Productivity and usage constraints 4.2.1 Orientational prefixes 4.2.2 Negative prefixes 4.2.3 â- ‘Q’ and ‘Q’ 4.2.4 Conditional markers and the irrealis category 4.2.5 Productive prefixes 4.2.6 Summary 4.3 Cross-Gyalrongic comparison 4.3.1 Orientational prefixes 4.3.2 Interrogative â 4.3.3 Irrealis â 4.3.4 Negative prefixes 4.3.5 Inverse marker 4.3.6 Attenuative imperative ^mo- 4.4 Identification of the historical layers 5 How prefixes are integrated 5.1 da- ‘even’ and =da ‘also, even’ 5.2 ‘Q’ and ‘Q’ 5.3 Integration of da- ‘even’ 5.3.1 Semantic narrowing from =da ‘also, even’ to da- ‘even’ 5.3.2 Simplification of double verb construction and clitic reassignment 5.4 Integration of ‘Q’ 5.5 An alternative hypothesis 6 Discussion and conclusion

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurent Sagart; Guillaume Jacques; Yunfan Lai; Robin J. Ryder; Valentin Thouzeau; Simon J. Greenhill; Johann-Mattis List;
    Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
    Countries: France, Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    The Sino-Tibetan language family is one of the world’s largest and most prominent families, spoken by nearly 1.4 billion people. Despite the importance of the Sino-Tibetan languages, their prehistory remains controversial, with ongoing debate about when and where they originated. To shed light on this debate we develop a database of comparative linguistic data, and apply the linguistic comparative method to identify sound correspondences and establish cognates. We then use phylogenetic methods to infer the relationships among these languages and estimate the age of their origin and homeland. Our findings point to Sino-Tibetan originating with north Chinese millet farmers around 7200 B.P. and suggest a link to the late Cishan and the early Yangshao cultures. Significance Given its size and geographical extension, Sino-Tibetan is of the highest importance for understanding the prehistory of East Asia, and of neighboring language families. Based on a dataset of 50 Sino-Tibetan languages, we infer phylogenies that date the origin of the language family to around 7200 B.P., linking the origin of the language family with the late Cishan and the early Yangshao cultures.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Johann-Mattis List; George Starostin; Lai Yunfan;
    Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David A. Coall; Sonja Hilbrand; Rebecca Sear; Ralph Hertwig;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | FAMMAT (263760)

    © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Why do grandparents invest so heavily in their grandchildren and what impact does this investment have on families? A multitude of factors influence the roles grandparents play in their families. Here, we present an interdisciplinary perspective of grandparenting incorporating theory and research from evolutionary biology, sociology and economics. Discriminative grandparental solicitude, biological relatedness and the impact of resource availability are three phenomena used to illustrate how these perspectives, within such a multi-level approach, add value by complementing not competing with each other. Changing demographics mean there is greater demand and opportunity for actively engaged grandparents to help their families, especially in times of need. Grandparents have been filling this emerging niche because in some societies the role of community and government never has, or increasingly cannot, meet the diverse needs of families. Built on an empirical foundation of descriptive and correlational research, grandparent research has rapidly entered a phase where the potential causal relationships between grandparents’ roles and family health, well-being and structure can be scrutinised. Together, these investigations are producing high-quality evidence that ultimately can support informed public policy and service delivery decisions. We finish by detailing two examples of such research efforts that highlight opportunities for future research.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Armin Falk; Johannes Hermle;
    Project: EC | PREFERENCES (209214)

    INTRODUCTION Understanding determinants of gender differences in economic and social domains has been of interest, both in academic and public debates. Previous research has shown that gender differences in fundamental economic preferences are important in explaining gender differences in economic outcomes, such as for occupational choice, financial investment, or educational decisions, among many others. However, gaps remain in understanding the sources of gender differences in preferences and their variation. RATIONALE We contrasted and tested two hypotheses that make opposite predictions concerning the cross-country association of gender differences in preferences with economic development and gender equality. On one hand, the attenuation of gender-specific social roles that arises in more developed and gender-egalitarian countries may alleviate differences in preferences between women and men. As a consequence, one would expect gender differences in preferences to be negatively associated with higher levels of economic development and gender equality (social role hypothesis). On the other hand, greater availability of material and social resources removes the gender-neutral goal of subsistence, which creates the scope for gender-specific ambitions and desires. In addition, more gender-equal access to those resources may allow women and men to express preferences independently from each other. As a consequence, one would expect gender differences in preferences to be positively associated with higher levels of economic development and gender equality (resource hypothesis). We tested these competing predictions using data on experimentally validated measures of willingness to take risks, patience, altruism, positive and negative reciprocity, and trust for 80,000 individuals in 76 representative country samples. So that the data would be geographically representative, the dataset was chosen so as to include all continents and a broad range of cultures and economic development levels. In total, the data represent about 90% of both the world population and global income. RESULTS The data revealed substantial cross-country variation in gender differences in preferences. Gender differences were found to be strongly positively associated with economic development as well as gender equality. These relationships held for each preference separately as well as for a summary index of differences in all preferences jointly. Quantitatively, this summary index exhibited correlations of 0.67 ( P P CONCLUSION The reported evidence indicates that higher levels of economic development and gender equality favor the manifestation of gender differences in preferences across countries. Our results highlight the critical role of availability of material and social resources, as well as gender-equal access to these resources, in facilitating the independent formation and expression of gender-specific preferences.

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The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
14 Research products, page 1 of 2
  • Open Access

    This paper describes the ablauting patterns in Siyuewu Khroskyabs, an understudied Gyalrongic language. Ablaut is only found in verbs containing closed syllables, and ablaut patterns in Siyuewu preserve Proto-Khroskyabs patterns relatively well. After providing a synchronic description of verb-stem functions and ablauting patterns, implicative entropy is used to model Siyuewu’s ablauting status. Entropy measurements reveal Siyuewu to have relatively low ablaut predictability, which may be suggestive of a historically conservative ablauting system. On the basis of this quantitative analysis, the current paper proposes an internal reconstruction of ablauting patterns, and postulates a series of velarised vowels for Proto-Siyuewu. Analogical changes are identified through comparison with other Gyalrongic languages. The reconstructed verb forms and patterns are then compared with neighbouring Gyalrongic languages and the directionality of analogy is discussed. 1 Introduction 1.1 Presentation of the data 1.2 Phonological sketch 2 Overview of stem alternation in Siyuewu Khroskyabs 2.1 Tonal alternation 2.2 Coda excrescence 2.3 Aspiration alternation 2.4 Suppletion 2.5 Ablaut 3 Concise description of stem functions 3.1 Stem 1: non-past and irrealis 3.2 Stem 2: past and progressive 3.3 Stem 3: irrealis 4 Ablauting patterns 4.1 The æC : iC pattern 4.2 The ɑC : iC pattern 4.3 The æC : əC pattern 4.4 The oC : əC pattern 4.5 The æC : uC pattern 4.6 The oC : uC pattern 4.7 The æʁ : oʁ pattern 4.8 Non-ablauting verbs with closed syllables 4.8.1 Non-ablauting -æC verbs 4.8.2 Non-ablauting -ɑC verbs 4.8.3 Non-ablauting -oC verbs 4.9 Summary 5 Predictability of ablauting status 5.1 Background and method 5.1.1 Conditional entropy 5.1.2 PCFP and implicative entropy 5.1.3 Bootstrap analysis 5.2 Implicative entropies in the Siyuewu ablauting system 5.2.1 Data preparation and Python scripts 5.2.2 Formulae 5.2.3.2 Results 5.2.4 Stem 2 ⇒ Stem 1 5.2.5 Bootstrapping for Stem 1 ⇔ Stem 2 5.2.6 Implicative entropies by individual vowels 5.2.7 Bootstrapping for individual vowels 5.3 Summary 6 Internal reconstruction of the ablauting patterns 6.1 Reconstruction of ablauting patterns 6.2 Evidence for the sound changes 6.2.1 Evidence for velarised vowels 6.2.2 Comparing internal reconstructions with Gyalrongic cognates 6.3 Directionality of analogy 6.4 Implicative entropy of the Proto-Siyuewu ablauting system 7 Comparing ablauting patterns 7.1 ’Brongrdzong Khroskyabs 7.2 Zbu 8 Conclusion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kun Sun; Haitao Liu; Wenxin Xiong;
    Project: EC | WIDE (742545)

    AbstractScientific writings, as one essential part of human culture, have evolved over centuries into their current form. Knowing how scientific writings evolved is particularly helpful in understanding how trends in scientific culture developed. It also allows us to better understand how scientific culture was interwoven with human culture generally. The availability of massive digitized texts and the progress in computational technologies today provide us with a convenient and credible way to discern the evolutionary patterns in scientific writings by examining the diachronic linguistic changes. The linguistic changes in scientific writings reflect the genre shifts that took place with historical changes in science and scientific writings. This study investigates a general evolutionary linguistic pattern in scientific writings. It does so by merging two credible computational methods: relative entropy; word-embedding concreteness and imageability. It thus creates a novel quantitative methodology and applies this to the examination of diachronic changes in the Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society (PTRS, 1665–1869). The data from two computational approaches can be well mapped to support the argument that this journal followed the evolutionary trend of increasing professionalization and specialization. But it also shows that language use in this journal was greatly influenced by historical events and other socio-cultural factors. This study, as a “culturomic” approach, demonstrates that the linguistic evolutionary patterns in scientific discourse have been interrupted by external factors even though this scientific discourse would likely have cumulatively developed into a professional and specialized genre. The approaches proposed by this study can make a great contribution to full-text analysis in scientometrics.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Yunfan Lai; Xun Gong; Jesse P. Gates; Guillaume Jacques;
    Country: France
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    Abstract This paper proposes that Tangut should be classified as a West Gyalrongic language in the Sino-Tibetan/Trans-Himalayan family. We examine lexical commonalities, case marking, partial reduplication, and verbal morphology in Tangut and in modern West Gyalrongic languages, and point out nontrivial shared innovations between Tangut and modern West Gyalrongic languages. The analysis suggests a closer genetic relationship between Tangut and Modern West Gyalrongic than between Tangut and Modern East Gyalrongic. This paper is the first study that tackles the exact linguistic affiliation of the Tangut language based on the comparative method.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tennie, Claudio; van Schaik, Carel P;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | STONECULT (714658)

    The potential for rituals in non-human great apes (apes) is an understudied topic. We derive a minimal definition of ritual and then examine the currently available evidence for it in untrained and non-enculturated apes. First, we examine whether such apes show evidence for the two main components of our minimal definition of ritual: symbolism and copying. Second, we examine if there are actual cases already identifiable today that may fit all aspects of our minimal definition of ritual—or whether there are at least cases that fit some aspects (proto-ritual). We find that apes are not likely to spontaneously practise minimal ritual, but we claim that the highest expected likelihood of occurrence is in the results-copying domain. Yet, we did not find actual cases of minimal ritual in apes—including those involving environmental results. We did, however, find some cases that may match at least part of our minimal ritual definition—which we termed proto-ritual. At least two out of three potential cases of such proto-rituals that we identified (rain dance, object-in-ear and surplus nest-making procedures) do revolve around results. Overall, apes do not show much, or very clear, evidence for even minimal ritual, but may sometimes show proto-ritual. However, dedicated ape ritual studies are currently lacking, and future work may identify ape ritual (or clearer cases of proto-ritual). We discuss the implications of our preliminary finding for inferences of ritual in the last common ancestor of humans and apes. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Ritual renaissance: new insights into the most human of behaviours’.

  • Open Access

    This paper describes the inverse marking systems of two closely related Khroskyabs varieties, Siyuewu and Wobzi, and hypothesises the historical development of the Khroskyabs inverse marking system. I propose that a hypothetical prefix, *Cə-, which is probably related to the second person markers attested in many Trans-Himalayan languages, existed in Proto-Khroskyabs, and that it has different reflexes in the two modern Khroskyabs varieties. 1. Introduction 1.1. The Khroskyabs language 1.2. Dialects under investigation 1.3. Argument indexation 2. Inverse marking in Rgyalrongic languages 2.1. Scenarios 2.2. Inverse marking in Rgyalrong languages 2.3. Inverse marking in West-Rgyalrongic 3. Inverse marking in Siyuewu Khroskyabs 3.1. Morphophonology 3.2. With orientational prefixes 3.2.1. Local scenarios 3.2.2. Mixed scenarios 3.3. Without orientational prefixes 4. Inverse marking in Wobzi Khroskyabs 4.1. Morphophonology 4.2. Distribution 4.2.1. With orientational prefixes 4.2.2. Without orientational prefixes 5. Reconstruction of the Proto-Khroskyabs inverse system 5.1. Distributions of inverse marking in Siyuewu and Wobzi 5.2. Local inverse and non-local: the hypothetical prefix *Cə- 5.3. Possible origins of *Cə- 5.4. Mixed inverse: intra-scenario levelling 6. Conclusion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yunfan Lai;
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    This paper focuses on the verbal inflection chain of Siyuewu Khroskyabs, a Gyalrongic language (Trans-Himalayan). Siyuewu Khroskyabs goes against two general typological tendencies: first, as an SOV language, it shows an overwhelming preference for prefixes, which is rarely reported typologically; second, the inflectional prefixes in the outer slots are older than those in the inner slots, which is the reverse case of most languages. In this paper, I will first identify distinct historical layers within the inflectional prefixes, and then focus on two of the prefixes, də- ‘even’ and ɕə- ‘q’ whose evolutionary pathways are relatively clear. The essential part of the hypotheses is that the prefixes originate from enclitics which could be attached to the end of a preverbal chain, originally loosely attached to the verb stem. The preverbal chain later became tightly attached to the verbal stem and eventually became a part of it as a chain of prefixes. As a result, the original enclitics are reanalysed as prefixes. The integration of preverbal morphemes is responsible for the prefixing preference in Modern Siyuewu Khroskyabs. However, despite this superficial prefixing preference, Siyuewu Khroskyabs underlyingly favours postposed morphemes. By following the general suffixing tendency, this language finally managed to create a typologically rare, overwhelmingly prefixing verbal template. 1 Introduction 1.1 The suffixing preference 1.2 Correlation between affix age and position 1.3 The betrayal of Khroskyabs 2 The prefixing preference of Siyuewu Khroskyabs 3 Morphophonology of the Khroskyabs inflectional chain 3.1 Autonomous markers in the first slots (R-1, R-2, IRR-2) 3.1.1 Orientational prefixes 3.1.2 Negative markers 3.1.3 Interrogative â 3.2 Non-autonomous markers (R-1, R-2, IRR-1, IRR-2) 3.2.1 Inverse marker 3.2.2 Interrogative â 3.2.3 Irrealis â 3.2.4 HL tone conditional 3.3 Prefixes undergoing fusion (R-3 and IRR-3) 3.3.1 Sensory râ 3.3.2 Attenuative imperative ^o- 3.3.3 Conditional zâ 3.4 Wordhood of the Siyuewu verb 4 The historical layers of the Siyuewu inflectional chain 4.1 Degree of fusion and compatibility 4.2 Productivity and usage constraints 4.2.1 Orientational prefixes 4.2.2 Negative prefixes 4.2.3 â- ‘Q’ and ‘Q’ 4.2.4 Conditional markers and the irrealis category 4.2.5 Productive prefixes 4.2.6 Summary 4.3 Cross-Gyalrongic comparison 4.3.1 Orientational prefixes 4.3.2 Interrogative â 4.3.3 Irrealis â 4.3.4 Negative prefixes 4.3.5 Inverse marker 4.3.6 Attenuative imperative ^mo- 4.4 Identification of the historical layers 5 How prefixes are integrated 5.1 da- ‘even’ and =da ‘also, even’ 5.2 ‘Q’ and ‘Q’ 5.3 Integration of da- ‘even’ 5.3.1 Semantic narrowing from =da ‘also, even’ to da- ‘even’ 5.3.2 Simplification of double verb construction and clitic reassignment 5.4 Integration of ‘Q’ 5.5 An alternative hypothesis 6 Discussion and conclusion

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurent Sagart; Guillaume Jacques; Yunfan Lai; Robin J. Ryder; Valentin Thouzeau; Simon J. Greenhill; Johann-Mattis List;
    Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
    Countries: France, Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    The Sino-Tibetan language family is one of the world’s largest and most prominent families, spoken by nearly 1.4 billion people. Despite the importance of the Sino-Tibetan languages, their prehistory remains controversial, with ongoing debate about when and where they originated. To shed light on this debate we develop a database of comparative linguistic data, and apply the linguistic comparative method to identify sound correspondences and establish cognates. We then use phylogenetic methods to infer the relationships among these languages and estimate the age of their origin and homeland. Our findings point to Sino-Tibetan originating with north Chinese millet farmers around 7200 B.P. and suggest a link to the late Cishan and the early Yangshao cultures. Significance Given its size and geographical extension, Sino-Tibetan is of the highest importance for understanding the prehistory of East Asia, and of neighboring language families. Based on a dataset of 50 Sino-Tibetan languages, we infer phylogenies that date the origin of the language family to around 7200 B.P., linking the origin of the language family with the late Cishan and the early Yangshao cultures.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Johann-Mattis List; George Starostin; Lai Yunfan;
    Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David A. Coall; Sonja Hilbrand; Rebecca Sear; Ralph Hertwig;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | FAMMAT (263760)

    © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Why do grandparents invest so heavily in their grandchildren and what impact does this investment have on families? A multitude of factors influence the roles grandparents play in their families. Here, we present an interdisciplinary perspective of grandparenting incorporating theory and research from evolutionary biology, sociology and economics. Discriminative grandparental solicitude, biological relatedness and the impact of resource availability are three phenomena used to illustrate how these perspectives, within such a multi-level approach, add value by complementing not competing with each other. Changing demographics mean there is greater demand and opportunity for actively engaged grandparents to help their families, especially in times of need. Grandparents have been filling this emerging niche because in some societies the role of community and government never has, or increasingly cannot, meet the diverse needs of families. Built on an empirical foundation of descriptive and correlational research, grandparent research has rapidly entered a phase where the potential causal relationships between grandparents’ roles and family health, well-being and structure can be scrutinised. Together, these investigations are producing high-quality evidence that ultimately can support informed public policy and service delivery decisions. We finish by detailing two examples of such research efforts that highlight opportunities for future research.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Armin Falk; Johannes Hermle;
    Project: EC | PREFERENCES (209214)

    INTRODUCTION Understanding determinants of gender differences in economic and social domains has been of interest, both in academic and public debates. Previous research has shown that gender differences in fundamental economic preferences are important in explaining gender differences in economic outcomes, such as for occupational choice, financial investment, or educational decisions, among many others. However, gaps remain in understanding the sources of gender differences in preferences and their variation. RATIONALE We contrasted and tested two hypotheses that make opposite predictions concerning the cross-country association of gender differences in preferences with economic development and gender equality. On one hand, the attenuation of gender-specific social roles that arises in more developed and gender-egalitarian countries may alleviate differences in preferences between women and men. As a consequence, one would expect gender differences in preferences to be negatively associated with higher levels of economic development and gender equality (social role hypothesis). On the other hand, greater availability of material and social resources removes the gender-neutral goal of subsistence, which creates the scope for gender-specific ambitions and desires. In addition, more gender-equal access to those resources may allow women and men to express preferences independently from each other. As a consequence, one would expect gender differences in preferences to be positively associated with higher levels of economic development and gender equality (resource hypothesis). We tested these competing predictions using data on experimentally validated measures of willingness to take risks, patience, altruism, positive and negative reciprocity, and trust for 80,000 individuals in 76 representative country samples. So that the data would be geographically representative, the dataset was chosen so as to include all continents and a broad range of cultures and economic development levels. In total, the data represent about 90% of both the world population and global income. RESULTS The data revealed substantial cross-country variation in gender differences in preferences. Gender differences were found to be strongly positively associated with economic development as well as gender equality. These relationships held for each preference separately as well as for a summary index of differences in all preferences jointly. Quantitatively, this summary index exhibited correlations of 0.67 ( P P CONCLUSION The reported evidence indicates that higher levels of economic development and gender equality favor the manifestation of gender differences in preferences across countries. Our results highlight the critical role of availability of material and social resources, as well as gender-equal access to these resources, in facilitating the independent formation and expression of gender-specific preferences.