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609 Research products, page 1 of 61

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah Oberbichler; Emanuela Boros; Antoine Doucet; Jani Marjanen; Eva Pfanzelter; Juha Rautiainen; Hannu Toivonen; Mikko Tolonen;
    Country: Finland
    Project: EC | NewsEye (770299)

    This article considers the interdisciplinary opportunities and challenges of working with digital cultural heritage, such as digitized historical newspapers, and proposes an integrated digital hermeneutics workflow to combine purely disciplinary research approaches from computer science, humanities, and library work. Common interests and motivations of the above-mentioned disciplines have resulted in interdisciplinary projects and collaborations such as the NewsEye project, which is working on novel solutions on how digital heritage data is (re)searched, accessed, used, and analyzed. We argue that collaborations of different disciplines can benefit from a good understanding of the workflows and traditions of each of the disciplines involved but must find integrated approaches to successfully exploit the full potential of digitized sources. The paper is furthermore providing an insight into digital tools, methods, and hermeneutics in action, showing that integrated interdisciplinary research needs to build something in between the disciplines while respecting and understanding each other's expertise and expectations. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rami Santeri Koskinen;
    Project: EC | LIFEMODE (818772)

    Critics of multiple realizability have recently argued that we should concentrate solely on actual here-and-now realizations that are found in nature. The possibility of alternative, but unactualized, realizations is regarded as uninteresting because it is taken to be a question of pure logic or an unverifiable scenario of science fiction. However, in the biological context only a contingent set of realizations is actualized. Drawing on recent work on the theory of neutral biological spaces, the article shows that we can have ways of assessing the modal dimension of multiple realizability that do not have to rely on mere conceivability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alyson A. van Raalte;
    Project: EC | LIFEINEQ (716323)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zagel, Hannah; Hübgen, Sabine; Nieuwenhuis, Rense;
    Publisher: Oxford: Oxford University Press
    Project: EC | InGRID-2 (730998)

    Abstract To explain single-mother poverty, existing research has either emphasized individualistic, or contextual explanations. Building on the prevalences and penalties framework (Brady et al. 2017), we advance the literature on single-mother poverty in three aspects: First, we extend the framework to incorporate heterogeneity among single mothers across countries and over time. Second, we apply this extended framework to Germany, the United Kingdom and Sweden, whose trends in single-mother poverty (1990–2014) challenge ideal-typical examples of welfare state regimes. Third, using decomposition analyses, we demonstrate variation across countries in the relative importance of prevalences and penalties to explain time trends in single-mother poverty. Our findings support critiques of static welfare regime typologies, which are unable to account for policy change and poverty trends of single mothers. We conclude that we need to understand the combinations of changes in single mothers’ social compositions and social policy contexts, if we want to explain time trends in single-mother poverty.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Natvig;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Norway
    Project: EC | AmNorSSC (838164)

    Although heritage language phonology is often argued to be fairly stable, heritage language speakers often sound noticeably different from both monolinguals and second-language learners. In order to model these types of asymmetries, I propose a theoretical framework—an integrated multilingual sound system—based on modular representations of an integrated set of phonological contrasts. An examination of general findings in laryngeal (voicing, aspiration, etc.) phonetics and phonology for heritage languages shows that procedures for pronouncing phonemes are variable and plastic, even if abstract may representations remain stable. Furthermore, an integrated multilingual sound system predicts that use of one language may require a subset of the available representations, which illuminates the mechanisms that underlie phonological transfer, attrition, and acquisition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Monroy; Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez; Benjamin M. Taylor; Oscar Portolés Marin; Eugenio Parise; Vincent M. Reid;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: EC | ACT (289404)

    The current study examined the effects of variability on infant event-related potential (ERP) data editing methods. A widespread approach for analyzing infant ERPs is through a trial-by-trial editing process. Researchers identify electroencephalogram (EEG) channels containing artifacts and reject trials that are judged to contain excessive noise. This process can be performed manually by experienced researchers, partially automated by specialized software, or completely automated using an artifact-detection algorithm. Here, we compared the editing process from four different editors—three human experts and an automated algorithm—on the final ERP from an existing infant EEG dataset. Findings reveal that agreement between editors was low, for both the numbers of included trials and of interpolated channels. Critically, variability resulted in differences in the final ERP morphology and in the statistical results of the target ERP that each editor obtained. We also analyzed sources of disagreement by estimating the EEG characteristics that each human editor considered for accepting an ERP trial. In sum, our study reveals significant variability in ERP data editing pipelines, which has important consequences for the final ERP results. These findings represent an important step toward developing best practices for ERP editing methods in infancy research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Donald MacKenzie;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EPIFM (291733)

    Spoofing (canonically: ‘bidding or offering with the intent to cancel the bid or offer before execution’), once a valued skill in face-to-face trading, has become a crime punishable by jail. Echoing Riles’s call for greater attention to law in research on finance, this article analyzes the interwoven processes of this dramatic shift, including trading’s changing material form, contingencies such as the Congressional response to the global financial crisis, and, above all, the use of criminal (not just civil, administrative) law. Criminal law's particularly strong boundary work – specifically the first criminal indictment and jail sentence for spoofing – rendered earlier ambivalent attitudes and inconsistent enforcement untenable. Nevertheless, drawing a boundary between spoofing and legitimate trading remains work-in-progress, with simultaneously legal, material and moral dimensions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marian Trnka; Sakhia Darjaa; Marian Ritomský; Róbert Sabo; Milan Rusko; Meilin Schaper; Tim H. Stelkens-Kobsch;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SATIE (832969)

    A frequently used procedure to examine the relationship between categorical and dimensional descriptions of emotions is to ask subjects to place verbal expressions representing emotions in a continuous multidimensional emotional space. This work chooses a different approach. It aims at creating a system predicting the values of Activation and Valence (AV) directly from the sound of emotional speech utterances without the use of its semantic content or any other additional information. The system uses X-vectors to represent sound characteristics of the utterance and Support Vector Regressor for the estimation the AV values. The system is trained on a pool of three publicly available databases with dimensional annotation of emotions. The quality of regression is evaluated on the test sets of the same databases. Mapping of categorical emotions to the dimensional space is tested on another pool of eight categorically annotated databases. The aim of the work was to test whether in each unseen database the predicted values of Valence and Activation will place emotion-tagged utterances in the AV space in accordance with expectations based on Russell’s circumplex model of affective space. Due to the great variability of speech data, clusters of emotions create overlapping clouds. Their average location can be represented by centroids. A hypothesis on the position of these centroids is formulated and evaluated. The system’s ability to separate the emotions is evaluated by measuring the distance of the centroids. It can be concluded that the system works as expected and the positions of the clusters follow the hypothesized rules. Although the variance in individual measurements is still very high and the overlap of emotion clusters is large, it can be stated that the AV coordinates predicted by the system lead to an observable separation of the emotions in accordance with the hypothesis. Knowledge from training databases can therefore be used to predict AV coordinates of unseen data of various origins. This could be used to detect high levels of stress or depression. With the appearance of more dimensionally annotated training data, the systems predicting emotional dimensions from speech sound will become more robust and usable in practical applications in call-centers, avatars, robots, information-providing systems, security applications, and the like.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
609 Research products, page 1 of 61
  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah Oberbichler; Emanuela Boros; Antoine Doucet; Jani Marjanen; Eva Pfanzelter; Juha Rautiainen; Hannu Toivonen; Mikko Tolonen;
    Country: Finland
    Project: EC | NewsEye (770299)

    This article considers the interdisciplinary opportunities and challenges of working with digital cultural heritage, such as digitized historical newspapers, and proposes an integrated digital hermeneutics workflow to combine purely disciplinary research approaches from computer science, humanities, and library work. Common interests and motivations of the above-mentioned disciplines have resulted in interdisciplinary projects and collaborations such as the NewsEye project, which is working on novel solutions on how digital heritage data is (re)searched, accessed, used, and analyzed. We argue that collaborations of different disciplines can benefit from a good understanding of the workflows and traditions of each of the disciplines involved but must find integrated approaches to successfully exploit the full potential of digitized sources. The paper is furthermore providing an insight into digital tools, methods, and hermeneutics in action, showing that integrated interdisciplinary research needs to build something in between the disciplines while respecting and understanding each other's expertise and expectations. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rami Santeri Koskinen;
    Project: EC | LIFEMODE (818772)

    Critics of multiple realizability have recently argued that we should concentrate solely on actual here-and-now realizations that are found in nature. The possibility of alternative, but unactualized, realizations is regarded as uninteresting because it is taken to be a question of pure logic or an unverifiable scenario of science fiction. However, in the biological context only a contingent set of realizations is actualized. Drawing on recent work on the theory of neutral biological spaces, the article shows that we can have ways of assessing the modal dimension of multiple realizability that do not have to rely on mere conceivability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alyson A. van Raalte;
    Project: EC | LIFEINEQ (716323)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zagel, Hannah; Hübgen, Sabine; Nieuwenhuis, Rense;
    Publisher: Oxford: Oxford University Press
    Project: EC | InGRID-2 (730998)

    Abstract To explain single-mother poverty, existing research has either emphasized individualistic, or contextual explanations. Building on the prevalences and penalties framework (Brady et al. 2017), we advance the literature on single-mother poverty in three aspects: First, we extend the framework to incorporate heterogeneity among single mothers across countries and over time. Second, we apply this extended framework to Germany, the United Kingdom and Sweden, whose trends in single-mother poverty (1990–2014) challenge ideal-typical examples of welfare state regimes. Third, using decomposition analyses, we demonstrate variation across countries in the relative importance of prevalences and penalties to explain time trends in single-mother poverty. Our findings support critiques of static welfare regime typologies, which are unable to account for policy change and poverty trends of single mothers. We conclude that we need to understand the combinations of changes in single mothers’ social compositions and social policy contexts, if we want to explain time trends in single-mother poverty.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Natvig;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Norway
    Project: EC | AmNorSSC (838164)

    Although heritage language phonology is often argued to be fairly stable, heritage language speakers often sound noticeably different from both monolinguals and second-language learners. In order to model these types of asymmetries, I propose a theoretical framework—an integrated multilingual sound system—based on modular representations of an integrated set of phonological contrasts. An examination of general findings in laryngeal (voicing, aspiration, etc.) phonetics and phonology for heritage languages shows that procedures for pronouncing phonemes are variable and plastic, even if abstract may representations remain stable. Furthermore, an integrated multilingual sound system predicts that use of one language may require a subset of the available representations, which illuminates the mechanisms that underlie phonological transfer, attrition, and acquisition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Monroy; Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez; Benjamin M. Taylor; Oscar Portolés Marin; Eugenio Parise; Vincent M. Reid;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: EC | ACT (289404)

    The current study examined the effects of variability on infant event-related potential (ERP) data editing methods. A widespread approach for analyzing infant ERPs is through a trial-by-trial editing process. Researchers identify electroencephalogram (EEG) channels containing artifacts and reject trials that are judged to contain excessive noise. This process can be performed manually by experienced researchers, partially automated by specialized software, or completely automated using an artifact-detection algorithm. Here, we compared the editing process from four different editors—three human experts and an automated algorithm—on the final ERP from an existing infant EEG dataset. Findings reveal that agreement between editors was low, for both the numbers of included trials and of interpolated channels. Critically, variability resulted in differences in the final ERP morphology and in the statistical results of the target ERP that each editor obtained. We also analyzed sources of disagreement by estimating the EEG characteristics that each human editor considered for accepting an ERP trial. In sum, our study reveals significant variability in ERP data editing pipelines, which has important consequences for the final ERP results. These findings represent an important step toward developing best practices for ERP editing methods in infancy research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Donald MacKenzie;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EPIFM (291733)

    Spoofing (canonically: ‘bidding or offering with the intent to cancel the bid or offer before execution’), once a valued skill in face-to-face trading, has become a crime punishable by jail. Echoing Riles’s call for greater attention to law in research on finance, this article analyzes the interwoven processes of this dramatic shift, including trading’s changing material form, contingencies such as the Congressional response to the global financial crisis, and, above all, the use of criminal (not just civil, administrative) law. Criminal law's particularly strong boundary work – specifically the first criminal indictment and jail sentence for spoofing – rendered earlier ambivalent attitudes and inconsistent enforcement untenable. Nevertheless, drawing a boundary between spoofing and legitimate trading remains work-in-progress, with simultaneously legal, material and moral dimensions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marian Trnka; Sakhia Darjaa; Marian Ritomský; Róbert Sabo; Milan Rusko; Meilin Schaper; Tim H. Stelkens-Kobsch;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SATIE (832969)

    A frequently used procedure to examine the relationship between categorical and dimensional descriptions of emotions is to ask subjects to place verbal expressions representing emotions in a continuous multidimensional emotional space. This work chooses a different approach. It aims at creating a system predicting the values of Activation and Valence (AV) directly from the sound of emotional speech utterances without the use of its semantic content or any other additional information. The system uses X-vectors to represent sound characteristics of the utterance and Support Vector Regressor for the estimation the AV values. The system is trained on a pool of three publicly available databases with dimensional annotation of emotions. The quality of regression is evaluated on the test sets of the same databases. Mapping of categorical emotions to the dimensional space is tested on another pool of eight categorically annotated databases. The aim of the work was to test whether in each unseen database the predicted values of Valence and Activation will place emotion-tagged utterances in the AV space in accordance with expectations based on Russell’s circumplex model of affective space. Due to the great variability of speech data, clusters of emotions create overlapping clouds. Their average location can be represented by centroids. A hypothesis on the position of these centroids is formulated and evaluated. The system’s ability to separate the emotions is evaluated by measuring the distance of the centroids. It can be concluded that the system works as expected and the positions of the clusters follow the hypothesized rules. Although the variance in individual measurements is still very high and the overlap of emotion clusters is large, it can be stated that the AV coordinates predicted by the system lead to an observable separation of the emotions in accordance with the hypothesis. Knowledge from training databases can therefore be used to predict AV coordinates of unseen data of various origins. This could be used to detect high levels of stress or depression. With the appearance of more dimensionally annotated training data, the systems predicting emotional dimensions from speech sound will become more robust and usable in practical applications in call-centers, avatars, robots, information-providing systems, security applications, and the like.