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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    From the 19th century onwards, with the introduction of new materials, such as iron and reinforced concrete, there was a significant change in construction, and vaults were gradually abandoned. However, before the Modern Movement, in the age of historicism, vaults were still used in churches and representative buildings. In the handbooks and treatises of the time, the more traditional techniques were included alongside the more modern ones and it is not uncommon, even well into the 20th century, to find chapters devoted to the construction of vaults. The search for economy in construction became particularly necessary in the post-war periods when many historic buildings had to be rebuilt. Traditional techniques of lightweight vault construction were used and the possibilities of new techniques were incorporated. Even some systems were patented. This article deals with the construction of light vaults between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries in Belgium, one of the pioneering countries in the industrial revolution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Palacios González, Daniel;

    Les fosses communes sont l’un des héritages les plus controversés du Coup d’État de 1936, de la Guerre et de la Dictature qui s’ensuivirent en Espagne. Elles sont la conséquence d’un programme de génocide planifié et le débat a été réduit à ce que l’on nomme la Mémoire Historique. Je propose de confronter les débats actuels sur la justice et la représentation avec différentes manifestations des mémoires culturelles. Les monuments, les marches et les graffitis permettent de reconnaître une évolution de la simple signalisation des fosses communes au mécontentement dû à l’absence de justice. Un manque de justice qui ne se limite pas seulement aux crimes de la Guerre et de la Dictature. Il existe aussi un lien avec l’espace. Les stratégies de préservation des fosses communes rejoignent celles de la visibilité dans l’espace publique. En raison de leurs caractéristiques, les fosses communes se trouvent à la périphérie de la ville. Par conséquent, l’exclusion des personnes assassinées de leur société reflète l’exclusion de leur représentation dans l’espace public. Les stratégies plus récentes, illustrées par un cas spécifique de graffitis sur des fosses communes, cristallisent le statut des demandes de justice et les possibilités de représentation dans l’espace public de ceux qui ont été assassinés il y a 80 ans. The mass graves are one of the most controversial legacies of the 1936 coup d’état, and consecuent war and dictatorship. These are the consequence of a planned genocide plan and even today, they are a complex heritage. The debate has been monopolized around the field of so-called Historical Memory. I propose to confront the current debates on justice and representation with various manifestations of cultural memories. Monuments, rallies and graffiti make possible to recognize a drift from the simple marking of the mass graves to the discontent on the lack of justice. A lack of justice that is not only limited to the crimes of the war and the dictatorship. This is also link with spatiality. The strategies to preserve the graves join those to get visibility in the urban space. Because of their features, the graves are on the outskirts of the city. Consequently, the exclusion of the murdered from their society reflects the exclusion of their representation from the public space. The most recent strategies, illustrated in a specific case of graffiti on mass graves, crystallize the status of the demands for justice and the possibilities of representation in public space of those murdered 80 years ago. Las fosas comunes son uno de los legados más controvertidos del golpe de estado de 1936 y de la posterior guerra y dictadura en España. Son la consecuencia de un plan de genocidio planificado y el debate se ha monopolizado en torno a la supuesta Memoria Histórica. Propongo confrontar los debates actuales sobre justicia y representación con diferentes manifestaciones de la memoria cultural. Los monumentos, las marchas y los grafitis permiten reconocer una deriva desde la simple señalización de las fosas comunes hasta la insatisfacción por la falta de justicia. Una falta de justicia que no sólo se limita a los crímenes de la Guerra y la Dictadura. También existe un vínculo con la espacialidad. Las estrategias para la preservación de las fosas comunes son similares a las de la visibilidad en el espacio público. Debido a sus características, las fosas comunes se encuentran en las afueras de la ciudad. Por lo tanto, la exclusión de los asesinados de su sociedad refleja la exclusión de su representación en el espacio público. Las estrategias más recientes, ilustradas por un caso concreto de graffiti en las fosas comunes, cristalizan el estado de las demandas de justicia y las posibilidades de representación en el espacio público de quienes fueron asesinados hace 80 años.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenEditionarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sancho i Planas, Marta;

    [ES] La tradición de la construcción en piedra en Catalunya se remonta a tiempos protohistóricos y presenta una continuidad ininterrumpida hasta nuestros días. En este estudio nos proponemos mostrar las formas como fueron utilizados los recursos pétreos en la construcción de edificaciones diversas desde el siglo VI hasta el siglo XI. Analizaremos estructuras de adecuación del territorio, las construcciones vinculadas al hábitat, las fortificaciones y edificaciones de carácter cultual. Nos interesa especialmente mostrar los tipos de piedra que fueron utilizados en las construcciones, las zonas de extracción, el labrado y las distintas técnicas de colocación de los sillares, los materiales de unión, así como los recubrimientos. Este análisis nos deberá permitir establecer las características diferenciadoras de las edificaciones vinculadas a las construcciones populares de aquellas que están relacionadas con las élites. Las evidencias arqueológicas nos aportaran los datos necesarios para abordar estos objetivos por lo que consultaremos bibliografía específica de distintos yacimientos seleccionados para tal fin. Los criterios de selección se fundamentan en dos principios básicos: los restos conservados y la calidad y detalle de la información que los investigadores correspondientes nos ofrecen en sus publicaciones. [EN] The tradition of stone construction in Catalonia dates back to protohistoric times, and displays an uninterrupted continuity right up to the present day. In this study, we set out to show the ways in which stone resources were used in the construction of various different buildings from the 6th century clown to the 11 'h century. We will analyse structures designed to adapt the local territory, constructions linked to the habitar, fortifications, and buildings used as places of worship. We are especially interested in showing the types of stone used in constructions, the areas where they were quarried, the way they were worked, and the various different techniques for laying the stone blocks, the bonding agents and materials, as well as materials used to cover the wall surfaces. This analysis should allow us to establish the distinguishing characteristics of buildings linked to lower-status constructions, as distinct from those connected to élite groups. Archaeological evidence will the 11th century, and in the 12th century too, among the social classes of the local aristocracy. Actas del congreso Il paesaggio pietrificato. La storia sociale dell’Europa tra X e XIII secolo attraverso l’archeologia del costruito (Arezzo, 7-8 febbraio 2020). Este congreso fue celebrado en el ámbito del proyecto ERC: Petrifying Wealth. The Southern European Shift to Masonry as Collective Investment in identity, c.1050-1300. Este artículo está sujeto a una licencia CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    From the 19th century onwards, with the introduction of new materials, such as iron and reinforced concrete, there was a significant change in construction, and vaults were gradually abandoned. However, before the Modern Movement, in the age of historicism, vaults were still used in churches and representative buildings. In the handbooks and treatises of the time, the more traditional techniques were included alongside the more modern ones and it is not uncommon, even well into the 20th century, to find chapters devoted to the construction of vaults. The search for economy in construction became particularly necessary in the post-war periods when many historic buildings had to be rebuilt. Traditional techniques of lightweight vault construction were used and the possibilities of new techniques were incorporated. Even some systems were patented. This article deals with the construction of light vaults between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries in Belgium, one of the pioneering countries in the industrial revolution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Palacios González, Daniel;

    Les fosses communes sont l’un des héritages les plus controversés du Coup d’État de 1936, de la Guerre et de la Dictature qui s’ensuivirent en Espagne. Elles sont la conséquence d’un programme de génocide planifié et le débat a été réduit à ce que l’on nomme la Mémoire Historique. Je propose de confronter les débats actuels sur la justice et la représentation avec différentes manifestations des mémoires culturelles. Les monuments, les marches et les graffitis permettent de reconnaître une évolution de la simple signalisation des fosses communes au mécontentement dû à l’absence de justice. Un manque de justice qui ne se limite pas seulement aux crimes de la Guerre et de la Dictature. Il existe aussi un lien avec l’espace. Les stratégies de préservation des fosses communes rejoignent celles de la visibilité dans l’espace publique. En raison de leurs caractéristiques, les fosses communes se trouvent à la périphérie de la ville. Par conséquent, l’exclusion des personnes assassinées de leur société reflète l’exclusion de leur représentation dans l’espace public. Les stratégies plus récentes, illustrées par un cas spécifique de graffitis sur des fosses communes, cristallisent le statut des demandes de justice et les possibilités de représentation dans l’espace public de ceux qui ont été assassinés il y a 80 ans. The mass graves are one of the most controversial legacies of the 1936 coup d’état, and consecuent war and dictatorship. These are the consequence of a planned genocide plan and even today, they are a complex heritage. The debate has been monopolized around the field of so-called Historical Memory. I propose to confront the current debates on justice and representation with various manifestations of cultural memories. Monuments, rallies and graffiti make possible to recognize a drift from the simple marking of the mass graves to the discontent on the lack of justice. A lack of justice that is not only limited to the crimes of the war and the dictatorship. This is also link with spatiality. The strategies to preserve the graves join those to get visibility in the urban space. Because of their features, the graves are on the outskirts of the city. Consequently, the exclusion of the murdered from their society reflects the exclusion of their representation from the public space. The most recent strategies, illustrated in a specific case of graffiti on mass graves, crystallize the status of the demands for justice and the possibilities of representation in public space of those murdered 80 years ago. Las fosas comunes son uno de los legados más controvertidos del golpe de estado de 1936 y de la posterior guerra y dictadura en España. Son la consecuencia de un plan de genocidio planificado y el debate se ha monopolizado en torno a la supuesta Memoria Histórica. Propongo confrontar los debates actuales sobre justicia y representación con diferentes manifestaciones de la memoria cultural. Los monumentos, las marchas y los grafitis permiten reconocer una deriva desde la simple señalización de las fosas comunes hasta la insatisfacción por la falta de justicia. Una falta de justicia que no sólo se limita a los crímenes de la Guerra y la Dictadura. También existe un vínculo con la espacialidad. Las estrategias para la preservación de las fosas comunes son similares a las de la visibilidad en el espacio público. Debido a sus características, las fosas comunes se encuentran en las afueras de la ciudad. Por lo tanto, la exclusión de los asesinados de su sociedad refleja la exclusión de su representación en el espacio público. Las estrategias más recientes, ilustradas por un caso concreto de graffiti en las fosas comunes, cristalizan el estado de las demandas de justicia y las posibilidades de representación en el espacio público de quienes fueron asesinados hace 80 años.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenEditionarrow_drop_down
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    OpenEdition
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: OpenEdition
    HispanismeS
    Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenEditionarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Sancho i Planas, Marta;

    [ES] La tradición de la construcción en piedra en Catalunya se remonta a tiempos protohistóricos y presenta una continuidad ininterrumpida hasta nuestros días. En este estudio nos proponemos mostrar las formas como fueron utilizados los recursos pétreos en la construcción de edificaciones diversas desde el siglo VI hasta el siglo XI. Analizaremos estructuras de adecuación del territorio, las construcciones vinculadas al hábitat, las fortificaciones y edificaciones de carácter cultual. Nos interesa especialmente mostrar los tipos de piedra que fueron utilizados en las construcciones, las zonas de extracción, el labrado y las distintas técnicas de colocación de los sillares, los materiales de unión, así como los recubrimientos. Este análisis nos deberá permitir establecer las características diferenciadoras de las edificaciones vinculadas a las construcciones populares de aquellas que están relacionadas con las élites. Las evidencias arqueológicas nos aportaran los datos necesarios para abordar estos objetivos por lo que consultaremos bibliografía específica de distintos yacimientos seleccionados para tal fin. Los criterios de selección se fundamentan en dos principios básicos: los restos conservados y la calidad y detalle de la información que los investigadores correspondientes nos ofrecen en sus publicaciones. [EN] The tradition of stone construction in Catalonia dates back to protohistoric times, and displays an uninterrupted continuity right up to the present day. In this study, we set out to show the ways in which stone resources were used in the construction of various different buildings from the 6th century clown to the 11 'h century. We will analyse structures designed to adapt the local territory, constructions linked to the habitar, fortifications, and buildings used as places of worship. We are especially interested in showing the types of stone used in constructions, the areas where they were quarried, the way they were worked, and the various different techniques for laying the stone blocks, the bonding agents and materials, as well as materials used to cover the wall surfaces. This analysis should allow us to establish the distinguishing characteristics of buildings linked to lower-status constructions, as distinct from those connected to élite groups. Archaeological evidence will the 11th century, and in the 12th century too, among the social classes of the local aristocracy. Actas del congreso Il paesaggio pietrificato. La storia sociale dell’Europa tra X e XIII secolo attraverso l’archeologia del costruito (Arezzo, 7-8 febbraio 2020). Este congreso fue celebrado en el ámbito del proyecto ERC: Petrifying Wealth. The Southern European Shift to Masonry as Collective Investment in identity, c.1050-1300. Este artículo está sujeto a una licencia CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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