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  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dascalu, Mihai; Westera, W.; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Kurvers, H.J.; André, Elisabeth; Baker, Ryan; Hu, Xiangen; T. Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes; du Boulay, Benedict;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | RAGE (644187)

    Automated Essay Scoring has gained a wider applicability and usage with the integration of advanced Natural Language Processing techniques which enabled in-depth analyses of discourse in order capture the specificities of written texts. In this paper, we introduce a novel Automatic Essay Scoring method for Dutch language, built within the Readerbench framework, which encompasses a wide range of textual complexity indices, as well as an automated segmentation approach. Our method was evaluated on a corpus of 173 technical reports automatically split into sections and subsections, thus forming a hierarchical structure on which textual complexity indices were subsequently applied. The stepwise regression model explained 30.5% of the variance in students’ scores, while a Discriminant Function Analysis predicted with substantial accuracy (75.1%) whether they are high or low performance students.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Henry Conklin; Bailin Wang; Kenny Smith; Ivan Titov;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: NWO | Scaling Semantic Parsing ... (13221), EC | BroadSem (678254)

    Natural language is compositional; the meaning of a sentence is a function of the meaning of its parts. This property allows humans to create and interpret novel sentences, generalizing robustly outside their prior experience. Neural networks have been shown to struggle with this kind of generalization, in particular performing poorly on tasks designed to assess compositional generalization (i.e. where training and testing distributions differ in ways that would be trivial for a compositional strategy to resolve). Their poor performance on these tasks may in part be due to the nature of supervised learning which assumes training and testing data to be drawn from the same distribution. We implement a meta-learning augmented version of supervised learning whose objective directly optimizes for out-of-distribution generalization. We construct pairs of tasks for meta-learning by sub-sampling existing training data. Each pair of tasks is constructed to contain relevant examples, as determined by a similarity metric, in an effort to inhibit models from memorizing their input. Experimental results on the COGS and SCAN datasets show that our similarity-driven meta-learning can improve generalization performance. Comment: ACL2021 Camera Ready; fix a small typo

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michelangelo Naim; Mikhail Katkov; Stefano Recanatesi; Misha Tsodyks;
    Project: EC | M-GATE (765549), EC | HBP SGA1 (720270), NIH | Associative Processes in ... (2R01MH055687-21), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907)

    Structured information is easier to remember and recall than random one. In real life, information exhibits multi-level hierarchical organization, such as clauses, sentences, episodes and narratives in language. Here we show that multi-level grouping emerges even when participants perform memory recall experiments with random sets of words. To quantitatively probe brain mechanisms involved in memory structuring, we consider an experimental protocol where participants perform ‘final free recall’ (FFR) of several random lists of words each of which was first presented and recalled individually. We observe a hierarchy of grouping organizations of FFR, most notably many participants sequentially recalled relatively long chunks of words from each list before recalling words from another list. More-over, participants who exhibited strongest organization during FFR achieved highest levels of performance. Based on these results, we develop a hierarchical model of memory recall that is broadly compatible with our findings. Our study shows how highly controlled memory experiments with random and meaningless material, when combined with simple models, can be used to quantitatively probe the way meaningful information can efficiently be organized and processed in the brain, so to be easily retrieved.Significance StatementInformation that people communicate to each other is highly structured. For example, a story contains meaningful elements of various degrees of complexity (clauses, sentences, episodes etc). Recalling a story, we are chiefly concerned with these meaningful elements and not its exact wording. Here we show that people introduce structure even when recalling random lists of words, by grouping the words into ‘chunks’ of various sizes. Doing so improves their performance. The so formed chunks closely correspond in size to story elements described above. This suggests that our memory is trained to create a structure that resembles the one it typically deals with in real life, and that using random material like word lists can be used to quantitatively probe these memory mechanisms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arthur Paté; Lapo Boschi; Danièle Dubois; Jean-Loïc Le Carrou; Benjamin K. Holtzman;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | WAVES (641943)

    International audience; Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of “audified seismic signals” operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables. The analysis is built on partitions (categories) and verbal comments (categorization criteria). Participants from different backgrounds (acousticians or geoscientists) are contrasted in order to investigate the role of the participants' expertise. Sounds resulting from different earthquake/station distances or azimuths, crustal structure and topography along the path of the seismic wave, earthquake magnitude, are found to (a) be sorted into different categories, (b) elicit different verbal descriptions mainly focused on the perceived number of events, frequency content, and background noise level. Building on these perceptual results, acoustic descriptors are computed and geophysical interpretations are proposed in order to match the verbal descriptions. Another result is the robustness of the categories with respect to the audification speed factor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rui Mendes; Ricardo Gomes; Diederick Christian Niehorster; Efstathia Soroli;
    Publisher: Bern Open Publishing
    Project: EC | POLONEZ (665778)

    This document contains the abstracts for the 2018 Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018) which was held at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, 23 to 24 August, 2018..

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: Norway, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alberto Testolin; Ivilin Stoianov; Marco Zorzi;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | GENMOD (210922), EC | VIFER (622882)

    The use of written symbols is a major achievement of human cultural evolution. However, how abstract letter representations might be learned from vision is still an unsolved problem 1,2 . Here, we present a large-scale computational model of letter recognition based on deep neural networks 3,4 , which develops a hierarchy of increasingly more complex internal representations in a completely unsupervised way by fitting a probabilistic, generative model to the visual input 5,6 . In line with the hypothesis that learning written symbols partially recycles pre-existing neuronal circuits for object recognition 7 , earlier processing levels in the model exploit domain-general visual features learned from natural images, while domain-specific features emerge in upstream neurons following exposure to printed letters. We show that these high-level representations can be easily mapped to letter identities even for noise-degraded images, producing accurate simulations of a broad range of empirical findings on letter perception in human observers. Our model shows that by reusing natural visual primitives, learning written symbols only requires limited, domain-specific tuning, supporting the hypothesis that their shape has been culturally selected to match the statistical structure of natural environments 8 .

Advanced search in Research products
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
333 Research products, page 1 of 34
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dascalu, Mihai; Westera, W.; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Kurvers, H.J.; André, Elisabeth; Baker, Ryan; Hu, Xiangen; T. Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes; du Boulay, Benedict;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | RAGE (644187)

    Automated Essay Scoring has gained a wider applicability and usage with the integration of advanced Natural Language Processing techniques which enabled in-depth analyses of discourse in order capture the specificities of written texts. In this paper, we introduce a novel Automatic Essay Scoring method for Dutch language, built within the Readerbench framework, which encompasses a wide range of textual complexity indices, as well as an automated segmentation approach. Our method was evaluated on a corpus of 173 technical reports automatically split into sections and subsections, thus forming a hierarchical structure on which textual complexity indices were subsequently applied. The stepwise regression model explained 30.5% of the variance in students’ scores, while a Discriminant Function Analysis predicted with substantial accuracy (75.1%) whether they are high or low performance students.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Henry Conklin; Bailin Wang; Kenny Smith; Ivan Titov;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: NWO | Scaling Semantic Parsing ... (13221), EC | BroadSem (678254)

    Natural language is compositional; the meaning of a sentence is a function of the meaning of its parts. This property allows humans to create and interpret novel sentences, generalizing robustly outside their prior experience. Neural networks have been shown to struggle with this kind of generalization, in particular performing poorly on tasks designed to assess compositional generalization (i.e. where training and testing distributions differ in ways that would be trivial for a compositional strategy to resolve). Their poor performance on these tasks may in part be due to the nature of supervised learning which assumes training and testing data to be drawn from the same distribution. We implement a meta-learning augmented version of supervised learning whose objective directly optimizes for out-of-distribution generalization. We construct pairs of tasks for meta-learning by sub-sampling existing training data. Each pair of tasks is constructed to contain relevant examples, as determined by a similarity metric, in an effort to inhibit models from memorizing their input. Experimental results on the COGS and SCAN datasets show that our similarity-driven meta-learning can improve generalization performance. Comment: ACL2021 Camera Ready; fix a small typo

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michelangelo Naim; Mikhail Katkov; Stefano Recanatesi; Misha Tsodyks;
    Project: EC | M-GATE (765549), EC | HBP SGA1 (720270), NIH | Associative Processes in ... (2R01MH055687-21), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907)

    Structured information is easier to remember and recall than random one. In real life, information exhibits multi-level hierarchical organization, such as clauses, sentences, episodes and narratives in language. Here we show that multi-level grouping emerges even when participants perform memory recall experiments with random sets of words. To quantitatively probe brain mechanisms involved in memory structuring, we consider an experimental protocol where participants perform ‘final free recall’ (FFR) of several random lists of words each of which was first presented and recalled individually. We observe a hierarchy of grouping organizations of FFR, most notably many participants sequentially recalled relatively long chunks of words from each list before recalling words from another list. More-over, participants who exhibited strongest organization during FFR achieved highest levels of performance. Based on these results, we develop a hierarchical model of memory recall that is broadly compatible with our findings. Our study shows how highly controlled memory experiments with random and meaningless material, when combined with simple models, can be used to quantitatively probe the way meaningful information can efficiently be organized and processed in the brain, so to be easily retrieved.Significance StatementInformation that people communicate to each other is highly structured. For example, a story contains meaningful elements of various degrees of complexity (clauses, sentences, episodes etc). Recalling a story, we are chiefly concerned with these meaningful elements and not its exact wording. Here we show that people introduce structure even when recalling random lists of words, by grouping the words into ‘chunks’ of various sizes. Doing so improves their performance. The so formed chunks closely correspond in size to story elements described above. This suggests that our memory is trained to create a structure that resembles the one it typically deals with in real life, and that using random material like word lists can be used to quantitatively probe these memory mechanisms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arthur Paté; Lapo Boschi; Danièle Dubois; Jean-Loïc Le Carrou; Benjamin K. Holtzman;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | WAVES (641943)

    International audience; Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of “audified seismic signals” operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables. The analysis is built on partitions (categories) and verbal comments (categorization criteria). Participants from different backgrounds (acousticians or geoscientists) are contrasted in order to investigate the role of the participants' expertise. Sounds resulting from different earthquake/station distances or azimuths, crustal structure and topography along the path of the seismic wave, earthquake magnitude, are found to (a) be sorted into different categories, (b) elicit different verbal descriptions mainly focused on the perceived number of events, frequency content, and background noise level. Building on these perceptual results, acoustic descriptors are computed and geophysical interpretations are proposed in order to match the verbal descriptions. Another result is the robustness of the categories with respect to the audification speed factor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rui Mendes; Ricardo Gomes; Diederick Christian Niehorster; Efstathia Soroli;
    Publisher: Bern Open Publishing
    Project: EC | POLONEZ (665778)

    This document contains the abstracts for the 2018 Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018) which was held at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, 23 to 24 August, 2018..

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: Norway, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alberto Testolin; Ivilin Stoianov; Marco Zorzi;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | GENMOD (210922), EC | VIFER (622882)

    The use of written symbols is a major achievement of human cultural evolution. However, how abstract letter representations might be learned from vision is still an unsolved problem 1,2 . Here, we present a large-scale computational model of letter recognition based on deep neural networks 3,4 , which develops a hierarchy of increasingly more complex internal representations in a completely unsupervised way by fitting a probabilistic, generative model to the visual input 5,6 . In line with the hypothesis that learning written symbols partially recycles pre-existing neuronal circuits for object recognition 7 , earlier processing levels in the model exploit domain-general visual features learned from natural images, while domain-specific features emerge in upstream neurons following exposure to printed letters. We show that these high-level representations can be easily mapped to letter identities even for noise-degraded images, producing accurate simulations of a broad range of empirical findings on letter perception in human observers. Our model shows that by reusing natural visual primitives, learning written symbols only requires limited, domain-specific tuning, supporting the hypothesis that their shape has been culturally selected to match the statistical structure of natural environments 8 .