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9 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 2013-2022
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frank Vriesekoop; Jing Chen; Jenna Oldaker; Flavien Besnard; Reece Smith; William Leversha; Cheralee Smith-Arnold; Julie Worrall; Emily Rufray; Qipeng Yuan; +3 more
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.

  • Authors: 
    Kevin Costello;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Orders issued by justices operating the poor law in seventeenth and eighteenth century England – orders for removing paupers, orders for the maintenance of bastard children, orders adjudicating poor rate appeals – generated vast quantities of litigation. Most of that litigation was by way of appeal to Quarter Sessions; but a small number of cases went further, to the King's Bench, by way of certiorari. This account examines this litigation phenomenon from several vantage points: from the perspective of the King's Bench (which innovated procedures to regulate certiorari, and which expanded its means of reviewing legal error through the development of the special case); from the perspective of Parliament (which was required to respond to demands by justices that the process be abolished); and from the perspective of contemporary commentators (who were critical of the money wasted by parishes litigating in the King's Bench).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Theo D'haen;
    Publisher: Project Muse
    Country: Belgium

    "I will focus on Edward Said’s handling of the work of the British geographer Halford Mackinder...in Culture and Imperialism.... In 1904, Mackinder published an influential paper in The Geographical Journal...in which he labelled all of European and Asian Russia and much of Central Asia, then also under Russian rule, as 'The Geographical Pivot of History.' Mackinder’s views represented what we would now, following Heidegger’s coining of the term, and especially the use Said himself and Gayatri Spivak have made of it, call a 'worlding' of the world according to the dictates of colonialism and imperialism prevalent at the time. My argument will be that Said’s reading of Mackinder likewise amounts to a specific worlding for a specific moment in time, and that perhaps now we should move on from there."

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Phil Ramsey;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    The ongoing development of Titanic Quarter in Belfast, Northern Ireland, has already made significant changes to the area. The site on which the Titanic was built has been redeveloped as an area for tourism, business, education and the creative industries. The site has been developed following a significant inflow of private capital, and with the additional support of local government and public finance. This article outlines how economic and political forces have coalesced in Belfast to the point that the violent period of the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland can be said to have created a ‘pleasingly blank canvas for regeneration’.

  • Authors: 
    Iati Iati;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    ABSTRACTSamoa has a distinctive reputation in the Pacific for political stability. Over the last quarter of a century, Samoa has enjoyed the rule of law, consistency in policy-making, and law and order while simultaneously undertaking critical social, political and economic reform. By way of contrast, other countries in the region have notably suffered coups, violent conflict, economic decline, and breakdowns in law and order. This article analyses the factors contributing to Samoa's stability, in particular the political dominance of the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), which has ruled continuously since 1988. The HRPP has been successful in maintaining the loyalty of members; keeping the opposition weak; managing, and arguably turning to its advantage, the government's balance of power with traditional institutions; and effectively limiting the ability of the media to inform the public. While the rule of the HRPP has contributed significantly to Samoa's political stability, this has, however, come ...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Shuji Cao; Bin Yang;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    AbstractMao's Great Famine in Wuwei County, Anhui Province, between the years of 1958 and 1960, resulted in the deaths of about 245,000 people, a quarter of the local population. By focusing on grain production and consumption, this article adopts a local perspective to examine the county's official archives and analyse the background, rationale, and processes of local authorities that led to one of the highest death rates in the country. A local perspective provides an empirical microanalysis of the Great Famine; illustrates the complexity of this catastrophe; argues for local factors such as factional struggles, central-local interactions, and the political atmosphere created by the series of pre-1958 campaigns as key to local variations of the disaster; and delivers national implications for viewing Mao's China. Official archives explored in this article reveal that an over-reporting of grain output might have resulted in the Great Famine, but did not necessarily lead to the massive death toll, and that local politics, particularly intra-party factional struggles, intertwined with central-local political interactions, were crucial for the terrible tragedy that ensued in Wuwei, and that the end of this famine resulted not from peasants’ resistance, nor the change of radical polices to moderate ones, but from the decreased demand for grain caused by the massive number of deaths.

  • Authors: 
    Douglas Booth;

    The search for origins is a hallmark of historical practice; origins are also fundamental to historical narratives, the predominant form by which historians present their interpretations of the past. Yet, paradoxically, history is ill-suited to studying firsts or origins. As the historian of culture and influential figure in historiography Jacob Burckhardt reminds us, single beginnings are rare phenomena. In this article, I investigate this paradox using swimming in the surf at the renowned Australian beach of Bondi as a case study. At one level, the history of swimming at Bondi is well known. Waverley Council built the Bondi Baths in the last quarter of the nineteenth century to protect bathers from dangerous surf and currents and to control how bathers revealed themselves in public. Over time, bathers became more proficient swimmers, and competitive individuals practiced the activity as a codified sport. Adventurous souls braved the surf and became surf swimmers and bodysurfers, and local authorities progressively relaxed the rules that defined how, and when, bathers presented their bodies in public. By the 1920s, Bondi was a bathing and swimming Mecca among Sydneysiders and other Australians. However, this history is strangely silent about the origins (and nature) of early swimming at Bondi. While scant primary sources partly explain the silence, it is also a function of the fact that history does not contain fully defined or fully formed subjects ready for analysis. Historians demarcate and position their subjects that they then configure into narratives. Each of these historiographical processes involves choices on the part of the historian that leaves inordinate space for alternative histories. In the search for Bondi’s first swimmer, I highlight these choices that, I argue, simultaneously direct attention to the speculative nature of origins and reaffirm them as an inescapable dimension of narrative form. In concluding this article, I identify the conditions under which historical narratives gain social acceptance and the philosophical value of analyzing origins.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Isaac H. McIvor; Thegn N. Ladefoged;
    Publisher: Wiley

    The duration and mode of occupation of pre-European Māori living in northern New Zealand was influenced by their subsistence strategies. Our analysis of the surface archaeological remains on Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island, Coromandel) examines how communities practiced horticulture and interacted with their local ecological and social environments through mobility, storage and competition. Focusing on a 300 ha study area in the northern quarter of the island, we use a multi-scalar land-unit (LU) approach to categorize the landscape as a continuously varying phenomenon with multiple characteristics. Our results suggest that the largest concentrations of horticultural features were located in areas with high sunlight exposure (insolation), good soils, low slopes and stream access. This patterning indicates that specific areas were probably being targeted for horticultural production, although differential feature preservation and visibility must also be considered. The spatial organisation of storage pits, residential features and fortified locations suggests year-round occupation of the island, not just summer planting. The heterogeneous characteristics of the landscape influenced the settlement of three particular zones on the island. We suggest that the economic defensibility of these areas would have facilitated territoriality within a socio-historical context of population fluidity and mobility.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nick Wilson; Amanda C. Jones; Andrea Teng; George Thomson;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

    Objectives We aimed to describe the epidemiology of statue attacks along with statue representativeness relative to modern day demographics in one case study country: New Zealand. Methods We performed Internet searches for the existence of outdoor statues of named individuals and historical attacks in New Zealand (NZ), combined a national survey with field visits to all identified statues to examine for injuries and repairs. Results Of the 123 statues identified, nearly a quarter (n = 28, 23%) had been attacked at least once (total of 45 separate attack events), with the number of attacks increasing from the 1990s. Attacks involved paint/graffiti (14% of all statues at least once), nose removal/damage (7%), decapitation (5%), and total destruction (2%). The risk of attack was relatively higher for statues of royalty (50%), military personnel (33%), explorers (29%), and politicians (25%), compared to other reasons for fame (eg, 0% for sports players). Statue subjects involved in colonialism or direct harm to Māori (Indigenous population), had 6.61 (95%CI: 2.30 to 19.9) greater odds (adjusted odds ratio) of being attacked than other subjects. Most of the statue subjects were of men (87%) and Europeans (93%). Other ethnicities were 6% Māori (comprising 15% of the population) and 1% each for Asian and Pacific peoples, who comprise 12% and 7% of the population respectively. Conclusions This national survey found an association between statue attacks and the role of statue subjects in colonialism or direct harm to the Indigenous population. Furthermore, the demography of the statue subjects may represent historical and current social power relationships—with under-representation of women and non-European ethnic groups.