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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudia Felser; Anna Jessen;
    Country: Germany

    Coordinated subjects often show variable number agreement with the finite verb, but linguistic approaches to this phenomenon have rarely been informed by systematically collected data. We report the results from three experiments investigating German speakers' agreement preferences with complex subjects joined by the correlative conjunctions sowohl horizontal ellipsis als auch ('both horizontal ellipsis and'), weder horizontal ellipsis noch ('neither horizontal ellipsis nor') or entweder horizontal ellipsis oder ('either horizontal ellipsis or'). We examine to what extent conjunction type and a conjunct's relative proximity to the verb affect the acceptability and processibility of singular vs. plural agreement. Experiment 1 was an untimed acceptability rating task, Experiment 2 a timed sentence completion task, and Experiment 3 was a self-paced reading task. Taken together, our results show that number agreement with correlative coordination in German is primarily determined by a default constraint triggering plural agreement, which interacts with linear order and semantic factors. Semantic differences between conjunctions only affected speakers' agreement preferences in the absence of processing pressure but not their initial agreement computation. The combined results from our offline and online experimental measures of German speakers' agreement preferences suggest that the constraints under investigation do not only differ in their relative weighting but also in their relative timing during agreement computation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marion Weller-Di Marco; Alexander Fraser;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics

    This paper studies strategies to model word formation in NMT using rich linguistic information, namely a word segmentation approach that goes beyond splitting into substrings by considering fusional morphology. Our linguistically sound segmentation is combined with a method for target-side inflection to accommodate modeling word formation. The best system variants employ source-side morphological analysis and model complex target-side words, improving over a standard system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luyao Chen; Junjie Wu; Yongben Fu; Huntae Kang; Liping Feng;
    Publisher: Wiley

    The ability to use word category information (WCI) for syntactic structure building has been hypothesized to be the essence of human language faculty. The neural substrate of the ability of using the WCI for the complex syntactic hierarchical structure processing, however, is yet unknown. Therefore, we directly conducted an fMRI experiment by using a pseudo‐Chinese artificial language with syntactic structures containing a center‐embedded relative clause. Thirty non‐Chinese native (Korean) speakers were randomly divided into two groups: one acquired WCI and WCI‐based syntactic rules (the WCI group) before the scanning session, and the other did not (the non‐WCI group). Both groups were required to judge the grammaticality of the testing sentences, with critical long‐distance dependencies between two elements (the main verb and the relativizer). Behaviorally, the WCI group's accuracy was significantly higher and its reaction time was shorter. The scanning results showed that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and Broca's area were more strongly activated for the WCI group, and the dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed a distinct effective connectivity pattern for this group. Therefore, the present research, for the first time, reveals that the activation of and the functional connectivity between Broca's area and the left STG play a critical role in the ability of the rule‐based use of the WCI which is crucial for complex hierarchical structure building, and might be substantially corresponding to the “labeling competence” within the linguistic framework.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jose Manuel Gomez-Perez; Raul Ortega;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: EC | ELG (825627)

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Comment: Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrew J. Martin; Sharon Peperkamp; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Project: EC | BOOTPHON (295810)

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery. Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, and Dupoux (2006) present an algorithm that can discover phonemes using the distributions of allophones as well as the phonetic properties of the allophones and their contexts. We show that a third type of information source, the occurrence of pairs of minimally differing word forms in speech heard by the infant, is also useful for learning phonemic categories and is in fact more reliable than purely distributional information in data containing a large number of allophones. In our model, learners build an approximation of the lexicon consisting of the high-frequency n-grams present in their speech input, allowing them to take advantage of top-down lexical information without needing to learn words. This may explain how infants have already begun to exhibit sensitivity to phonemic categories before they have a large receptive lexicon.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature, London, Regno Unito
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology's anthropocentric era.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olav Mueller-Reichau;
    Publisher: Moscow Pedagogical State University, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education

    The paper shows that a single aspect operator successfully generates the interpretations of Russian perfective and imperfective forms, if the following requirements are met. First, the default aspect operator has to be based on the notion of state change. Secondly, the output of the operator is filtered by semantic and morphological blocking constraints.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar; Christoph Schwarze;
    Publisher: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo

    ABSTRACT The French clitic pro-form en represents a wide range of heterogeneous constituents: de-PP complements and adjuncts, partitive objects, and prepositionless objects of cardinals. The main goal of this paper is to formalize this relationship computationally in terms of genitive case. This is apparently the first non-transformational counterpart to Kayne (1975)’s unified analysis, which derives en from a deep structure with de by means of syntactic transformations. Transformational grammars are problematic from the parsing perspective. In order to test our analysis automatically on a large amount of data, we implemented it in a computational grammar of French in the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism using the XLE system. This non-transformational framework is particularly fit for expressing systematic relationships between heterogeneous structures and has successfully been used for the implementation of natural language grammars since the 1980s. We tested the implementation on 320 grammatical sentences and on an equal number of ungrammatical examples. It analyzed all grammatical examples and blocked almost 95% of the ungrammatical ones, showing a high empirical adequacy of the grammar. RESUMO A pró-forma clítica en do Francês representa ampla variedade de constituintes heterogêneos: PPs complementos e adjuntos introduzidos por de, objetos partitivos e objetos desprovidos de preposição de numerais cardinais. O objetivo principal deste artigo é formalizar essa relação computacionalmente por meio do caso genitivo. Esta é, aparentemente, a primeira contraparte não-transformacional da análise unificada de Kayne (1975), a qual deriva en de uma estrutura profunda com de por meio de transformações sintáticas. Gramáticas transformacionais são problemáticas sob a perspectiva da análise sintática automática. A fim de testar nossa análise automaticamente em um grande volume de dados, implementamo-la em uma gramática computacional do francês no formalismo da Gramática Léxico-Funcional (LFG) usando o sistema XLE. Esse modelo não-transformacional é especialmente adequado para expressar relações sistemáticas entre estruturas heterogêneas e tem sido usado com sucesso na implementação de gramáticas de línguas naturais desde os anos de 1980. Testamos a implementação em 320 sentenças gramaticais e em igual número de exemplos agramaticais. Foram analisados todos os exemplos gramaticais e bloqueados quase 95% dos agramaticais, mostrando que a gramática possui uma alta adequação empírica.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
911 Research products, page 1 of 92
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudia Felser; Anna Jessen;
    Country: Germany

    Coordinated subjects often show variable number agreement with the finite verb, but linguistic approaches to this phenomenon have rarely been informed by systematically collected data. We report the results from three experiments investigating German speakers' agreement preferences with complex subjects joined by the correlative conjunctions sowohl horizontal ellipsis als auch ('both horizontal ellipsis and'), weder horizontal ellipsis noch ('neither horizontal ellipsis nor') or entweder horizontal ellipsis oder ('either horizontal ellipsis or'). We examine to what extent conjunction type and a conjunct's relative proximity to the verb affect the acceptability and processibility of singular vs. plural agreement. Experiment 1 was an untimed acceptability rating task, Experiment 2 a timed sentence completion task, and Experiment 3 was a self-paced reading task. Taken together, our results show that number agreement with correlative coordination in German is primarily determined by a default constraint triggering plural agreement, which interacts with linear order and semantic factors. Semantic differences between conjunctions only affected speakers' agreement preferences in the absence of processing pressure but not their initial agreement computation. The combined results from our offline and online experimental measures of German speakers' agreement preferences suggest that the constraints under investigation do not only differ in their relative weighting but also in their relative timing during agreement computation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marion Weller-Di Marco; Alexander Fraser;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics

    This paper studies strategies to model word formation in NMT using rich linguistic information, namely a word segmentation approach that goes beyond splitting into substrings by considering fusional morphology. Our linguistically sound segmentation is combined with a method for target-side inflection to accommodate modeling word formation. The best system variants employ source-side morphological analysis and model complex target-side words, improving over a standard system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luyao Chen; Junjie Wu; Yongben Fu; Huntae Kang; Liping Feng;
    Publisher: Wiley

    The ability to use word category information (WCI) for syntactic structure building has been hypothesized to be the essence of human language faculty. The neural substrate of the ability of using the WCI for the complex syntactic hierarchical structure processing, however, is yet unknown. Therefore, we directly conducted an fMRI experiment by using a pseudo‐Chinese artificial language with syntactic structures containing a center‐embedded relative clause. Thirty non‐Chinese native (Korean) speakers were randomly divided into two groups: one acquired WCI and WCI‐based syntactic rules (the WCI group) before the scanning session, and the other did not (the non‐WCI group). Both groups were required to judge the grammaticality of the testing sentences, with critical long‐distance dependencies between two elements (the main verb and the relativizer). Behaviorally, the WCI group's accuracy was significantly higher and its reaction time was shorter. The scanning results showed that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and Broca's area were more strongly activated for the WCI group, and the dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed a distinct effective connectivity pattern for this group. Therefore, the present research, for the first time, reveals that the activation of and the functional connectivity between Broca's area and the left STG play a critical role in the ability of the rule‐based use of the WCI which is crucial for complex hierarchical structure building, and might be substantially corresponding to the “labeling competence” within the linguistic framework.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jose Manuel Gomez-Perez; Raul Ortega;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: EC | ELG (825627)

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Comment: Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrew J. Martin; Sharon Peperkamp; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Project: EC | BOOTPHON (295810)

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery. Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, and Dupoux (2006) present an algorithm that can discover phonemes using the distributions of allophones as well as the phonetic properties of the allophones and their contexts. We show that a third type of information source, the occurrence of pairs of minimally differing word forms in speech heard by the infant, is also useful for learning phonemic categories and is in fact more reliable than purely distributional information in data containing a large number of allophones. In our model, learners build an approximation of the lexicon consisting of the high-frequency n-grams present in their speech input, allowing them to take advantage of top-down lexical information without needing to learn words. This may explain how infants have already begun to exhibit sensitivity to phonemic categories before they have a large receptive lexicon.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature, London, Regno Unito
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology's anthropocentric era.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olav Mueller-Reichau;
    Publisher: Moscow Pedagogical State University, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education

    The paper shows that a single aspect operator successfully generates the interpretations of Russian perfective and imperfective forms, if the following requirements are met. First, the default aspect operator has to be based on the notion of state change. Secondly, the output of the operator is filtered by semantic and morphological blocking constraints.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar; Christoph Schwarze;
    Publisher: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo

    ABSTRACT The French clitic pro-form en represents a wide range of heterogeneous constituents: de-PP complements and adjuncts, partitive objects, and prepositionless objects of cardinals. The main goal of this paper is to formalize this relationship computationally in terms of genitive case. This is apparently the first non-transformational counterpart to Kayne (1975)’s unified analysis, which derives en from a deep structure with de by means of syntactic transformations. Transformational grammars are problematic from the parsing perspective. In order to test our analysis automatically on a large amount of data, we implemented it in a computational grammar of French in the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism using the XLE system. This non-transformational framework is particularly fit for expressing systematic relationships between heterogeneous structures and has successfully been used for the implementation of natural language grammars since the 1980s. We tested the implementation on 320 grammatical sentences and on an equal number of ungrammatical examples. It analyzed all grammatical examples and blocked almost 95% of the ungrammatical ones, showing a high empirical adequacy of the grammar. RESUMO A pró-forma clítica en do Francês representa ampla variedade de constituintes heterogêneos: PPs complementos e adjuntos introduzidos por de, objetos partitivos e objetos desprovidos de preposição de numerais cardinais. O objetivo principal deste artigo é formalizar essa relação computacionalmente por meio do caso genitivo. Esta é, aparentemente, a primeira contraparte não-transformacional da análise unificada de Kayne (1975), a qual deriva en de uma estrutura profunda com de por meio de transformações sintáticas. Gramáticas transformacionais são problemáticas sob a perspectiva da análise sintática automática. A fim de testar nossa análise automaticamente em um grande volume de dados, implementamo-la em uma gramática computacional do francês no formalismo da Gramática Léxico-Funcional (LFG) usando o sistema XLE. Esse modelo não-transformacional é especialmente adequado para expressar relações sistemáticas entre estruturas heterogêneas e tem sido usado com sucesso na implementação de gramáticas de línguas naturais desde os anos de 1980. Testamos a implementação em 320 sentenças gramaticais e em igual número de exemplos agramaticais. Foram analisados todos os exemplos gramaticais e bloqueados quase 95% dos agramaticais, mostrando que a gramática possui uma alta adequação empírica.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.