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99 Research products, page 1 of 10

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bevilacqua, Michele; Rexhina Blloshmi; Navigli, Roberto;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ELEXIS (731015), EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    In Text-to-AMR parsing, current state-of-the-art semantic parsers use cumbersome pipelines integrating several different modules or components, and exploit graph recategorization, i.e., a set of content-specific heuristics that are developed on the basis of the training set. However, the generalizability of graph recategorization in an out-of-distribution setting is unclear. In contrast, state-of-the-art AMR-to-Text generation, which can be seen as the inverse to parsing, is based on simpler seq2seq. In this paper, we cast Text-to-AMR and AMR-to-Text as a symmetric transduction task and show that by devising a careful graph linearization and extending a pretrained encoder-decoder model, it is possible to obtain state-of-the-art performances in both tasks using the very same seq2seq approach, i.e., SPRING (Symmetric PaRsIng aNd Generation). Our model does not require complex pipelines, nor heuristics built on heavy assumptions. In fact, we drop the need for graph recategorization, showing that this technique is actually harmful outside of the standard benchmark. Finally, we outperform the previous state of the art on the English AMR 2.0 dataset by a large margin: on Text-to-AMR we obtain an improvement of 3.6 Smatch points, while on AMR-to-Text we outperform the state of the art by 11.2 BLEU points. We release the software at github.com/SapienzaNLP/spring.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ambrosetti, Elena; Miccoli, Sara; Strangio, Donatella;
    Publisher: Bancaria editrice
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | PERCEPTIONS (833870)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luigi Procopio; Rocco Tripodi; Roberto Navigli;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    Graph-based semantic parsing aims to represent textual meaning through directed graphs. As one of the most promising general-purpose meaning representations, these structures and their parsing have gained a significant interest momentum during recent years, with several diverse formalisms being proposed. Yet, owing to this very heterogeneity, most of the research effort has focused mainly on solutions specific to a given formalism. In this work, instead, we reframe semantic parsing towards multiple formalisms as Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (MNMT), and propose SGL, a many-to-many seq2seq architecture trained with an MNMT objective. Backed by several experiments, we show that this framework is indeed effective once the learning procedure is enhanced with large parallel corpora coming from Machine Translation: we report competitive performances on AMR and UCCA parsing, especially once paired with pre-trained architectures. Furthermore, we find that models trained under this configuration scale remarkably well to tasks such as cross-lingual AMR parsing: SGL outperforms all its competitors by a large margin without even explicitly seeing non-English to AMR examples at training time and, once these examples are included as well, sets an unprecedented state of the art in this task. We release our code and our models for research purposes at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/sgl.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Edoardo Barba; Luigi Procopio; Niccolò Campolungo; Tommaso Pasini; Roberto Navigli;
    Publisher: International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    The knowledge acquisition bottleneck strongly affects the creation of multilingual sense-annotated data, hence limiting the power of supervised systems when applied to multilingual Word Sense Disambiguation. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised approach based upon a novel label propagation scheme, which, by jointly leveraging contextualized word embeddings and the multilingual information enclosed in a knowledge base, projects sense labels from a high-resource language, i.e., English, to lower-resourced ones. Backed by several experiments, we provide empirical evidence that our automatically created datasets are of a higher quality than those generated by other competitors and lead a supervised model to achieve state-of-the-art performances in all multilingual Word Sense Disambiguation tasks. We make our datasets available for research purposes at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/mulan.

  • Publication . Conference object . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matteo Serpetti; Renzo Carlucci; Alessio Di Iorio; Francesca Bozzano; Benedetta Antonielli; Salvatore Martino; Betty Charalampopoulou; Christos Kontopoulos; Paris A. Fokaides; Petros Christou; +3 more
    Publisher: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ISTOS (952300), EC | STABLE (823966)

    European cultural heritage (CH) is at risk, threatened by environmental processes strengthened by climate change and anthropogenic pressure. In particular, the slow (landslides, subsidence) and seismic (earthquakes) movements of the soil have a strong impact on the structural stability of our cultural heritage (CH). The actions to be carried out to protect and safeguard CH are in continuous development and this is where the STABLE (STructural stABiLity risk assEssment) project fits. STABLE concerns the design and development of a thematic platform, which combines structural stability models, simulation and damage assessment tools, advanced remote sensing, in situ monitoring technologies, geotechnical and cadastral data sets with the WebGIS application for mapping and long-term monitoring of the CH. The thematic platform, which is the final objective of the project, will therefore support the authorities responsible for the conservation of cultural heritage in the design and implementation of policies for monitoring, preserving and safeguarding our heritage. This will allow effective monitoring and management of CH to prevent or at least reduce the possible irreparable damages. STABLE will coordinate existing skills and research in a synergistic plan of collaborations and staff exchanges to offer a complete transfer of knowledge and training to researchers in the specific area under study. The development of the platform will be the strategy that scientists will have to follow to share and improve CH safeguard methods. It will serve professionals to apply the most advanced technologies in their fields.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bianca Scarlini; Tommaso Pasini; Roberto Navigli;
    Publisher: The Association for Computational Linguistics
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    Contextualized word embeddings have been employed effectively across several tasks in Natural Language Processing, as they have proved to carry useful semantic information. However, it is still hard to link them to structured sources of knowledge. In this paper we present ARES (context-AwaRe Embeddings of Senses), a semi-supervised approach to producing sense embeddings for the lexical meanings within a lexical knowledge base that lie in a space that is comparable to that of contextualized word vectors. ARES representations enable a simple 1 Nearest-Neighbour algorithm to outperform state-of-the-art models, not only in the English Word Sense Disambiguation task, but also in the multilingual one, whilst training on sense-annotated data in English only. We further assess the quality of our embeddings in the Word-in-Context task, where, when used as an external source of knowledge, they consistently improve the performance of a neural model, leading it to compete with other more complex architectures. ARES embeddings for all WordNet concepts and the automatically-extracted contexts used for creating the sense representations are freely available at http://sensembert.org/ares.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alessia Nava; Elena Fiorin; Andrea Zupancich; Marialetizia Carra; Claudio Ottoni; Gabriele Di Carlo; Iole Vozza; Orlando Brugnoletti; Francesca Alhaique; Renata Grifoni Cremonesi; +4 more
    Publisher: figshare
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | HIDDEN FOODS (639286)

    AbstractThis paper provides results from a suite of analyses made on human dental material from the Late Palaeolithic to Neolithic strata of the cave site of Grotta Continenza situated in the Fucino Basin of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. The available human remains from this site provide a unique possibility to study ways in which forager versus farmer lifeways affected human odonto-skeletal remains. The main aim of our study is to understand palaeodietary patterns and their changes over time as reflected in teeth. These analyses involve a review of metrics and oral pathologies, micro-fossils preserved in the mineralized dental plaque, macrowear, and buccal microwear. Our results suggest that these complementary approaches support the assumption about a critical change in dental conditions and status with the introduction of Neolithic foodstuff and habits. However, we warn that different methodologies applied here provide data at different scales of resolution for detecting such changes and a multipronged approach to the study of dental collections is needed for a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of diachronic changes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mary Anne Tafuri; Atilio Francisco Javier Zangrando; Augusto Tessone; Sayuri Kochi; Jacopo Moggi Cecchi; Fabio Di Vincenzo; Antonio Profico; Giorgio Manzi;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Countries: Argentina, Italy
    Project: EC | FOOD (235966)

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- A nd post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations. Fil: Tafuri, Mary Anne. Universita Di Roma; Italia Fil: Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas; Argentina Fil: Tessone, Augusto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotopica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotópica; Argentina Fil: Kochi, Sayuri. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotopica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotópica; Argentina Fil: Moggi, Augusto. Università degli Studi di Firenze; Italia Fil: Di Vincezo, Fabio. Università di Roma; Italia Fil: Profico, Antonio. Università di Roma; Italia Fil: Manzi, Giorgio. Università di Roma; Italia

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rita Sorrentino; Eugenio Bortolini; Federico Lugli; Giuseppe Mancuso; Laura Buti; Gregorio Oxilia; Antonino Vazzana; Carla Figus; Maria Cristina Serrangeli; Cristiana Margherita; +8 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Countries: Italy, Ireland, Italy, Italy
    Project: EC | SUCCESS (724046)

    The 4th century BC marks the main entrance of Celtic populations in northern Italy. Their arrival has been suggested based on the presence of Celtic customs in Etruscan mortuary contexts, yet up to now few bioarchaeological data have been examined to support or reject the arrival of these newcomers. Here we use strontium isotopes, non-metric dental traits and funerary patterns to unravel the biocultural structure of the necropolis of Monterenzio Vecchio (Bologna, Italy). Subsamples of our total sample of 38 individuals were analyzed based on different criteria characterizing the following analyses: 1) strontium isotope analysis to investigate migratory patterns and provenance; 2) non-metric dental traits to establish biological relationships between Monterenzio Vecchio, 13 Italian Iron age necropolises and three continental and non-continental Celtic necropolises; 3) grave goods which were statistically explored to detect possible patterns of cultural variability. The strontium isotopes results indicate the presence of local and non-local individuals, with some revealing patterns of mobility. The dental morphology reveals an affinity between Monterenzio Vecchio and Iron Age Italian samples. However, when the Monterenzio Vecchio sample is separated by isotopic results into locals and non-locals, the latter share affinity with the sample of non- continental Celts from Yorkshire (UK). Moreover, systematic analyses demonstrate that ethnic background does not retain measurable impact on the distribution of funerary elements. Our results confirm the migration of Celtic populations in Monterenzio as archaeologically hypothesized on the basis of the grave goods, followed by a high degree of cultural admixture between exogenous and endogenous traits. This contribution shows that combining different methods offers a more comprehensive perspective for the exploration of biocultural processes in past and present populations. European Commission Horizon 2020

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudio, CavazzutiI; Robin, Skeates; Millard, Andrew R.; Geoffrey, Nowell; Joanne, Peterkin; Marie Bernabò Brea,; Cardarelli, Andrea; Luciano, Salzani;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | Ex-SPACE (702930)

    This study investigates to what extent Bronze Age societies in Northern Italy were permeable accepting and integrating non-local individuals, as well as importing a wide range of raw materials, commodities, and ideas from networks spanning continental Europe and the Mediterranean. During the second millennium BC, the communities of Northern Italy engaged in a progressive stabilization of settlements, culminating in the large polities of the end of the Middle/beginning of the Late Bronze Age pivoted around large defended centres (the Terramare). Although a wide range of exotic archaeological materials indicates that the inhabitants of the Po plain increasingly took part in the networks of Continental European and the Eastern Mediterranean, we should not overlook the fact that the dynamics of interaction were also extremely active on local and regional levels. Mobility patterns have been explored for three key-sites, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (1900–1100 BC), namely Sant’Eurosia, Casinalbo and Fondo Paviani, through strontium and oxygen isotope analysis on a large sample size (more than 100 individuals). The results, integrated with osteological and archaeological data, document for the first time in this area that movements of people occurred mostly within a territorial radius of 50 km, but also that larger nodes in the settlement system (such as Fondo Paviani) included individuals from more distant areas. This suggests that, from a demographic perspective, the process towards a more complex socio-political system in Bronze Age Northern Italy was triggered by a largely, but not completely, internal process, stemming from the dynamics of intra-polity networks and local/regional power relationships.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
99 Research products, page 1 of 10
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bevilacqua, Michele; Rexhina Blloshmi; Navigli, Roberto;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ELEXIS (731015), EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    In Text-to-AMR parsing, current state-of-the-art semantic parsers use cumbersome pipelines integrating several different modules or components, and exploit graph recategorization, i.e., a set of content-specific heuristics that are developed on the basis of the training set. However, the generalizability of graph recategorization in an out-of-distribution setting is unclear. In contrast, state-of-the-art AMR-to-Text generation, which can be seen as the inverse to parsing, is based on simpler seq2seq. In this paper, we cast Text-to-AMR and AMR-to-Text as a symmetric transduction task and show that by devising a careful graph linearization and extending a pretrained encoder-decoder model, it is possible to obtain state-of-the-art performances in both tasks using the very same seq2seq approach, i.e., SPRING (Symmetric PaRsIng aNd Generation). Our model does not require complex pipelines, nor heuristics built on heavy assumptions. In fact, we drop the need for graph recategorization, showing that this technique is actually harmful outside of the standard benchmark. Finally, we outperform the previous state of the art on the English AMR 2.0 dataset by a large margin: on Text-to-AMR we obtain an improvement of 3.6 Smatch points, while on AMR-to-Text we outperform the state of the art by 11.2 BLEU points. We release the software at github.com/SapienzaNLP/spring.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ambrosetti, Elena; Miccoli, Sara; Strangio, Donatella;
    Publisher: Bancaria editrice
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | PERCEPTIONS (833870)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luigi Procopio; Rocco Tripodi; Roberto Navigli;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    Graph-based semantic parsing aims to represent textual meaning through directed graphs. As one of the most promising general-purpose meaning representations, these structures and their parsing have gained a significant interest momentum during recent years, with several diverse formalisms being proposed. Yet, owing to this very heterogeneity, most of the research effort has focused mainly on solutions specific to a given formalism. In this work, instead, we reframe semantic parsing towards multiple formalisms as Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (MNMT), and propose SGL, a many-to-many seq2seq architecture trained with an MNMT objective. Backed by several experiments, we show that this framework is indeed effective once the learning procedure is enhanced with large parallel corpora coming from Machine Translation: we report competitive performances on AMR and UCCA parsing, especially once paired with pre-trained architectures. Furthermore, we find that models trained under this configuration scale remarkably well to tasks such as cross-lingual AMR parsing: SGL outperforms all its competitors by a large margin without even explicitly seeing non-English to AMR examples at training time and, once these examples are included as well, sets an unprecedented state of the art in this task. We release our code and our models for research purposes at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/sgl.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Edoardo Barba; Luigi Procopio; Niccolò Campolungo; Tommaso Pasini; Roberto Navigli;
    Publisher: International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    The knowledge acquisition bottleneck strongly affects the creation of multilingual sense-annotated data, hence limiting the power of supervised systems when applied to multilingual Word Sense Disambiguation. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised approach based upon a novel label propagation scheme, which, by jointly leveraging contextualized word embeddings and the multilingual information enclosed in a knowledge base, projects sense labels from a high-resource language, i.e., English, to lower-resourced ones. Backed by several experiments, we provide empirical evidence that our automatically created datasets are of a higher quality than those generated by other competitors and lead a supervised model to achieve state-of-the-art performances in all multilingual Word Sense Disambiguation tasks. We make our datasets available for research purposes at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/mulan.

  • Publication . Conference object . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matteo Serpetti; Renzo Carlucci; Alessio Di Iorio; Francesca Bozzano; Benedetta Antonielli; Salvatore Martino; Betty Charalampopoulou; Christos Kontopoulos; Paris A. Fokaides; Petros Christou; +3 more
    Publisher: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ISTOS (952300), EC | STABLE (823966)

    European cultural heritage (CH) is at risk, threatened by environmental processes strengthened by climate change and anthropogenic pressure. In particular, the slow (landslides, subsidence) and seismic (earthquakes) movements of the soil have a strong impact on the structural stability of our cultural heritage (CH). The actions to be carried out to protect and safeguard CH are in continuous development and this is where the STABLE (STructural stABiLity risk assEssment) project fits. STABLE concerns the design and development of a thematic platform, which combines structural stability models, simulation and damage assessment tools, advanced remote sensing, in situ monitoring technologies, geotechnical and cadastral data sets with the WebGIS application for mapping and long-term monitoring of the CH. The thematic platform, which is the final objective of the project, will therefore support the authorities responsible for the conservation of cultural heritage in the design and implementation of policies for monitoring, preserving and safeguarding our heritage. This will allow effective monitoring and management of CH to prevent or at least reduce the possible irreparable damages. STABLE will coordinate existing skills and research in a synergistic plan of collaborations and staff exchanges to offer a complete transfer of knowledge and training to researchers in the specific area under study. The development of the platform will be the strategy that scientists will have to follow to share and improve CH safeguard methods. It will serve professionals to apply the most advanced technologies in their fields.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bianca Scarlini; Tommaso Pasini; Roberto Navigli;
    Publisher: The Association for Computational Linguistics
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MOUSSE (726487)

    Contextualized word embeddings have been employed effectively across several tasks in Natural Language Processing, as they have proved to carry useful semantic information. However, it is still hard to link them to structured sources of knowledge. In this paper we present ARES (context-AwaRe Embeddings of Senses), a semi-supervised approach to producing sense embeddings for the lexical meanings within a lexical knowledge base that lie in a space that is comparable to that of contextualized word vectors. ARES representations enable a simple 1 Nearest-Neighbour algorithm to outperform state-of-the-art models, not only in the English Word Sense Disambiguation task, but also in the multilingual one, whilst training on sense-annotated data in English only. We further assess the quality of our embeddings in the Word-in-Context task, where, when used as an external source of knowledge, they consistently improve the performance of a neural model, leading it to compete with other more complex architectures. ARES embeddings for all WordNet concepts and the automatically-extracted contexts used for creating the sense representations are freely available at http://sensembert.org/ares.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alessia Nava; Elena Fiorin; Andrea Zupancich; Marialetizia Carra; Claudio Ottoni; Gabriele Di Carlo; Iole Vozza; Orlando Brugnoletti; Francesca Alhaique; Renata Grifoni Cremonesi; +4 more
    Publisher: figshare
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | HIDDEN FOODS (639286)

    AbstractThis paper provides results from a suite of analyses made on human dental material from the Late Palaeolithic to Neolithic strata of the cave site of Grotta Continenza situated in the Fucino Basin of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. The available human remains from this site provide a unique possibility to study ways in which forager versus farmer lifeways affected human odonto-skeletal remains. The main aim of our study is to understand palaeodietary patterns and their changes over time as reflected in teeth. These analyses involve a review of metrics and oral pathologies, micro-fossils preserved in the mineralized dental plaque, macrowear, and buccal microwear. Our results suggest that these complementary approaches support the assumption about a critical change in dental conditions and status with the introduction of Neolithic foodstuff and habits. However, we warn that different methodologies applied here provide data at different scales of resolution for detecting such changes and a multipronged approach to the study of dental collections is needed for a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of diachronic changes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mary Anne Tafuri; Atilio Francisco Javier Zangrando; Augusto Tessone; Sayuri Kochi; Jacopo Moggi Cecchi; Fabio Di Vincenzo; Antonio Profico; Giorgio Manzi;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Countries: Argentina, Italy
    Project: EC | FOOD (235966)

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- A nd post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations. Fil: Tafuri, Mary Anne. Universita Di Roma; Italia Fil: Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas; Argentina Fil: Tessone, Augusto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotopica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotópica; Argentina Fil: Kochi, Sayuri. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotopica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Geocronología y Geología Isotópica; Argentina Fil: Moggi, Augusto. Università degli Studi di Firenze; Italia Fil: Di Vincezo, Fabio. Università di Roma; Italia Fil: Profico, Antonio. Università di Roma; Italia Fil: Manzi, Giorgio. Università di Roma; Italia

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rita Sorrentino; Eugenio Bortolini; Federico Lugli; Giuseppe Mancuso; Laura Buti; Gregorio Oxilia; Antonino Vazzana; Carla Figus; Maria Cristina Serrangeli; Cristiana Margherita; +8 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Countries: Italy, Ireland, Italy, Italy
    Project: EC | SUCCESS (724046)

    The 4th century BC marks the main entrance of Celtic populations in northern Italy. Their arrival has been suggested based on the presence of Celtic customs in Etruscan mortuary contexts, yet up to now few bioarchaeological data have been examined to support or reject the arrival of these newcomers. Here we use strontium isotopes, non-metric dental traits and funerary patterns to unravel the biocultural structure of the necropolis of Monterenzio Vecchio (Bologna, Italy). Subsamples of our total sample of 38 individuals were analyzed based on different criteria characterizing the following analyses: 1) strontium isotope analysis to investigate migratory patterns and provenance; 2) non-metric dental traits to establish biological relationships between Monterenzio Vecchio, 13 Italian Iron age necropolises and three continental and non-continental Celtic necropolises; 3) grave goods which were statistically explored to detect possible patterns of cultural variability. The strontium isotopes results indicate the presence of local and non-local individuals, with some revealing patterns of mobility. The dental morphology reveals an affinity between Monterenzio Vecchio and Iron Age Italian samples. However, when the Monterenzio Vecchio sample is separated by isotopic results into locals and non-locals, the latter share affinity with the sample of non- continental Celts from Yorkshire (UK). Moreover, systematic analyses demonstrate that ethnic background does not retain measurable impact on the distribution of funerary elements. Our results confirm the migration of Celtic populations in Monterenzio as archaeologically hypothesized on the basis of the grave goods, followed by a high degree of cultural admixture between exogenous and endogenous traits. This contribution shows that combining different methods offers a more comprehensive perspective for the exploration of biocultural processes in past and present populations. European Commission Horizon 2020

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudio, CavazzutiI; Robin, Skeates; Millard, Andrew R.; Geoffrey, Nowell; Joanne, Peterkin; Marie Bernabò Brea,; Cardarelli, Andrea; Luciano, Salzani;
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | Ex-SPACE (702930)

    This study investigates to what extent Bronze Age societies in Northern Italy were permeable accepting and integrating non-local individuals, as well as importing a wide range of raw materials, commodities, and ideas from networks spanning continental Europe and the Mediterranean. During the second millennium BC, the communities of Northern Italy engaged in a progressive stabilization of settlements, culminating in the large polities of the end of the Middle/beginning of the Late Bronze Age pivoted around large defended centres (the Terramare). Although a wide range of exotic archaeological materials indicates that the inhabitants of the Po plain increasingly took part in the networks of Continental European and the Eastern Mediterranean, we should not overlook the fact that the dynamics of interaction were also extremely active on local and regional levels. Mobility patterns have been explored for three key-sites, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (1900–1100 BC), namely Sant’Eurosia, Casinalbo and Fondo Paviani, through strontium and oxygen isotope analysis on a large sample size (more than 100 individuals). The results, integrated with osteological and archaeological data, document for the first time in this area that movements of people occurred mostly within a territorial radius of 50 km, but also that larger nodes in the settlement system (such as Fondo Paviani) included individuals from more distant areas. This suggests that, from a demographic perspective, the process towards a more complex socio-political system in Bronze Age Northern Italy was triggered by a largely, but not completely, internal process, stemming from the dynamics of intra-polity networks and local/regional power relationships.