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  • 15. Life on land

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Quaternaryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Quaternary
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Quaternary
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UPF Digital Repository
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Quaternaryarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Quaternary
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Quaternary
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UPF Digital Repository
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Zhang, Enlou; Wang, Yongbo; Sun, Weiwei; Shen, Ji;

    Abstract. We present the results of pollen analyses from a 1105-cm-long sediment core from Wuxu Lake in southwestern China, which depict the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the last 12.3 ka. During the period of 12.3 to 11.3 cal ka BP, the dominance of Betula forest and open alpine shrub and meadow around Wuxu Lake indicates a climate with relatively cold winters and dry summers, corresponding to the Younger Dryas event. Between 11.3 and 10.4 cal ka BP, further expansion of Betula forest and the retreat of alpine shrubs and meadows reflect a greater seasonality with cold winters and gradually increasing summer precipitation. From 10.4 to 4.9 cal ka BP, the dense forest understory, together with the gradual decrease in Betula forest and increase in Tsuga forest, suggest that the winters became warmer and summer precipitation was at a maximum, corresponding to the Holocene climatic optimum. Between 4.9 and 2.6 cal ka BP, Tsuga forest and alpine shrubs and meadows expanded significantly, reflecting relatively warm winters and decreased summer precipitation. Since 2.6 cal ka BP, reforestation around Wuxu Lake indicates a renewed strengthening of the ISM in the late Holocene; however, the vegetation in the catchment may also have been affected by grazing activity during this period. The results of our study are generally consistent with previous findings; however, the timing and duration of the Holocene climatic optimum from different records are inconsistent, reflecting real contrast in local rainfall response to the ISM. Overall, the EAWM is broadly in-phase with the ISM on the orbital timescale, and both monsoons exhibit a trend of decreasing strength from the early to late Holocene, reflecting the interplay of solar insolation receipt between the winter and summer seasons and El Niño Southern Oscillation strength in the tropical Pacific.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-11...
    Preprint . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-11...
      Preprint . 2015
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Matthews, Roger; Matthews, Wendy; Rasheed Raheem, Kamal; Richardson, Amy;

    ­The Eastern Fertile Crescent region of western Iran and eastern Iraq hosted major developments in the transition from hunting and gathering to more sedentary agricultural lifestyles through the Early Neolithic period, 10,000-7000 BC. Within the scope of the Central Zagros Archaeological Project, excavations have been conducted at two Early Neolithic sites in the Kurdistan region of Iraq: Bestansur and Shimshara, as well as survey in the region of the Epipalaeolithic site of Zarzi since 2012. Bestansur represents an early stage in the transition to sedentary, agricultural life, where the inhabitants pursued a biodiverse strategy of hunting, gathering, herding and cultivating, maximising the new opportunities afforded by the warmer climate of the Early Holocene. They also constructed a substantial settlement of mudbrick, including a major building with a minimum of 78 human individuals buried under its floor in association with hundreds of beads. ­ These buildings and human remains provide new insights into social relations, mortuary practices, demography, diet, health and disease during the early stages of sedentarisation. ­ The material culture of Bestansur and Shimshara is rich in imported items such as obsidian, carnelian and sea-shells, indicating the extent to which Early Neolithic communities were networked across the Eastern Fertile Crescent and beyond along routes that later became the Silk Roads. This volume includes final reports by a large-scale interdisciplinary team on a wealth of new data from excavations at Bestansur and Shimshara, through application of state-of-the-art scientific techniques, integrated ecological and social approaches and sustainability studies. ­ The net result is to re-emphasise the enormous significance of the Eastern Fertile Crescent in one of the most important episodes in human history: the Neolithic transition.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Book . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Book . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO; Sygma
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    OpenAIRE
    Book . 2020
    Data sources: OpenAIRE
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      ZENODO
      Book . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      ZENODO
      Book . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO; Sygma
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      OpenAIRE
      Book . 2020
      Data sources: OpenAIRE
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    Authors: Bettencourt, Ana M. S.; Sampaio, Hugo Aluai;

    This work reports the data which has been recovered from the excavation of Sector II of Pego. Among other kinds of evidence, that area encompasses traces of funerary practices dating back to the Bronze Age. Based upon the local’s choice, the structures’ architectonic features, their interrelations, materials associated and strati-graphy and in the carbon dating results available we have proposed different uses and occupation phases. Although certain materials reflect human presence during later periods, the frequency of that area denounce three occu-pation moments datable from between the Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age. These moments are consistent with the construction of a plain grave’s necropolis, probably forming familiar clusters, a hypothetic pits’ necropolis and, prior to the abandonment of the area, an “enclosure”. Given the interpretations presented we have discussed the possible relation between the local, certain physical charac-teristics and the presence of funerary practices. As a work hypothesis we consider those relations as fundamental for the places’ choice. Alongside with other evidence of difficult interpretation and, perhaps, in the context of new senses meanwhile acquired by this place, these data form part of this place’s biography. O presente trabalho apresenta os dados de escavação relativos ao Sector II do Pego, área onde foram identificadas, entre outras, evidências de práticas funerárias da Idade do Bronze. Com base na escolha do local, nas caraterísticas arquitetónicas das estruturas, nas suas inter-relações, nos materiais a elas associados, na sua estratigrafia e nas datas de radiocarbono disponíveis são propostos diferentes usos e fases de ocupação. Embora certas materialidades denunciem presença humana posterior, a frequência da área denuncia quatro momentos de ocupação datáveis entre o Bronze Médio e o Bronze Final. Esses momentos são compatíveis com a construção de uma necrópole de sepulturas planas, quiçá formando núcleos familiares, com uma hipotética necrópole de fossas e, antes do abandono do local, com um “recinto”. Atendendo ao quadro interpretativo apresentado, discute-se a possível relação entre o local, certas caraterísticas do meio e os vestígios das ações funerárias. Como hipótese de trabalho consideram-se tais relações como fundamentais para a escolha deste lugar. A par de outros vestígios de interpretação mais difícil e, talvez, no quadro de novos sentidos entrentanto adquiridas por este lugar, estes dados fazem parte da biografia deste lugar. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LAReferencia - Red F...arrow_drop_down
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    Estudos do Quaternário / Quaternary Studies
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Access Routes
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      Estudos do Quaternário / Quaternary Studies
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Mickael Barbier; Marc Floquet; Youri Hamon; Jean-Paul Callot;

    International audience; The purpose of this study is to characterize factors controlling the nature and distribution of the diagenetic phases that gave rise to carbonate reservoirs. To do so, a pluridisciplinary approach was carried out, integrating sedimentologic and diagenetic studies on the Madison Formation (Lower Carboniferous, 357-340 My) which is a carbonate reservoir in subsurface.The Madison Formation, outcropping in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA), is a 340 m thick carbonate series composed of four to seven 3rd-order depositional sequences (S1 to S7) depending of the palaeogeographic location. The first three sequences (S1 to S3) were deposited under arid and warm conditions during Tournaisian times which favoured high accumulation of carbonates leading to a morphological change from a quite flat ramp (S1 to S2) to a wide platform (S3). It also probably favoured the early calcite cementation (isopachous and syntaxial calcite cements) of the subtidal deposits and the early dolomitization (D1) of the supratidal to intertidal sabkha ones. In addition, the very flat profile occurring during S3 was also responsible for the postponed dolomitization (D2) of S1-S2 due to reflux of brines, at various degrees depending on the palaeogeographic location. The deposition of S4 to S7 under humid conditions during Visean times were associated with 1) a decrease of the carbonate accumulation and of the dolomitization; 2) dissolution processes at micro- (pores network) and macro-scales (karst, collapse breccia...) and calcite cementation (C1). The spatial distribution of all these first diagenetic phases acts as a controlling factor on the distribution of the later burial diagenetic phases. Thus, the mesogenetic calcite cements are mostly observed in the secondary porosity created by dissolution (karsts, collapse breccias) or dolomitization. The burial diagenesis of the Madison Formation were characterized by 1) a dolomitization phase (D3) in proximal parts of the platform leading to an increase of porosity and permeability and 2) calcite cementations (C2-C3) in the distal parts of the platform leading to a decrease of these properties.The Madison Formation provides a good spatial representation of sedimentary and diagenetic heterogeneities that may occur in the carbonate reservoirs due to various palaeogeographic locations, climates, burial history and structures.

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    Marine and Petroleum Geology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Marine and Petroleum Geology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Charles S. Cockell; Jesse P. Harrison; Adam R. H. Stevens; Samuel J. Payler; +16 Authors

    A major objective in the exploration of Mars is to test the hypothesis that the planet hosted life. Even in the absence of life, the mapping of habitable and uninhabitable environments is an essential task in developing a complete understanding of the geological and aqueous history of Mars and, as a consequence, understanding what factors caused Earth to take a different trajectory of biological potential. We carried out the aseptic collection of samples and comparison of the bacterial and archaeal communities associated with basaltic fumaroles and rocks of varying weathering states in Hawai'i to test four hypotheses concerning the diversity of life in these environments. Using high-throughput sequencing, we found that all these materials are inhabited by a low-diversity biota. Multivariate analyses of bacterial community data showed a clear separation between sites that have active fumaroles and other sites that comprised relict fumaroles, unaltered, and syn-emplacement basalts. Contrary to our hypothesis that high water flow environments, such as fumaroles with active mineral leaching, would be sites of high biological diversity, alpha diversity was lower in active fumaroles compared to relict or nonfumarolic sites, potentially due to high-temperature constraints on microbial diversity in fumarolic sites. A comparison of these data with communities inhabiting unaltered and weathered basaltic rocks in Idaho suggests that bacterial taxon composition of basaltic materials varies between sites, although the archaeal communities were similar in Hawai'i and Idaho. The taxa present in both sites suggest that most of them obtain organic carbon compounds from the atmosphere and from phototrophs and that some of them, including archaeal taxa, cycle fixed nitrogen. The low diversity shows that, on Earth, extreme basaltic terrains are environments on the edge of sustaining life with implications for the biological potential of similar environments on Mars and their exploration by robots and humans. Peer reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Astrobiology
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: VIRTA
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    Astrobiology
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    Astrobiology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Astrobiology
      Article . 2019
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      Astrobiology
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      Astrobiology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Alicia Grealy; Matthew C. McDowell; Clancy Retallick; Michael Bunce; +1 Authors

    Spotted-tailed quolls ( Dasyurus maculatus) – cat-sized, carnivorous marsupials – occupied Kangaroo Island (KI), South Australia, for over 50,000 years but became locally extinct following European settlement of the island in 1836. As the largest mammalian predator on KI when the Europeans colonised it, spotted-tailed quolls would have played a significant role in maintaining healthy ecosystem function. The reintroduction of spotted-tailed quolls to KI could redress some of these ecological benefits and would establish a refuge population of the species, which is considered endangered by the Australian government. However, before a reintroduction could be considered, the genetic relationship between KI’s spotted-tailed quolls and the currently recognised extant subspecies needs to be established. While subspecies are difficult to differentiate by skeletal morphology, they are genetically distinct. Here, we extracted ancient DNA from five left dentaries excavated from Kelly Hill Cave (KI) that were morphologically identified as D. maculatus. Following genetic confirmation of these identifications, we sequenced a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial D-loop to determine the subspecific genetic affiliation(s) of KI’s D. maculatus, and therefore the subspecies that may be the most appropriate candidate for reintroduction. We find that all five specimens are most closely related to the Tasmanian subspecies, but form a distinct monophyletic clade that may represent a new subspecies. Further research (including genotyping spotted-tailed quoll specimens from mainland South Australia and Western Victoria) is required before decisions are made regarding the sourcing of individuals for reintroduction to KI.

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    The Holocene
    Article
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    The Holocene
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Holocene
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      The Holocene
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Athos Agapiou; Vasiliki Lysandrou; Apostolos Sarris; Nikos Papadopoulos; +1 Authors

    The paper investigates the superficial layers of an archaeological landscape based on the integration of various remote sensing techniques. It is well known in the literature that shallow depths may be rich in archeological remains, which generate different signal responses depending on the applied technique. In this study three main technologies are examined, namely ground-penetrating radar (GPR), ground spectroscopy, and multispectral satellite imagery. The study aims to propose a methodology to enhance optical remote sensing satellite images, intended for archaeological research, based on the integration of ground based and satellite datasets. For this task, a regression model between the ground spectroradiometer and GPR is established which is then projected to a high resolution sub-meter optical image. The overall methodology consists of nine steps. Beyond the acquirement of the in-situ measurements and their calibration (Steps 1–3), various regression models are examined for more than 70 different vegetation indices (Steps 4–5). The specific data analysis indicated that the red-edge position (REP) hyperspectral index was the most appropriate for developing a local fusion model between ground spectroscopy data and GPR datasets (Step 6), providing comparable results with the in situ GPR measurements (Step 7). Other vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), have also been examined, providing significant correlation between the two datasets (R = 0.50). The model is then projected to a high-resolution image over the area of interest (Step 8). The proposed methodology was evaluated with a series of field data collected from the Vésztő-Mágor Tell in the eastern part of Hungary. The results were compared with in situ magnetic gradiometry measurements, indicating common interpretation results. The results were also compatible with the preliminary archaeological investigations of the area (Step 9). The overall outcomes document that fusion models between various types of remote sensing datasets frequently used to support archaeological research can further expand the current capabilities and applications for the detection of buried archaeological remains.

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    Geosciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Ktisis
    Article . 2017
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    Geosciences
    Article . 2017
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      Geosciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Ktisis
      Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Janet Franklin; Alastair J. Potts; Erich C. Fisher; Richard M. Cowling; +1 Authors

    Abstract Species distribution modeling (SDM) is a methodology that has been widely used in the past two decades for developing quantitative, empirical, predictive models of species–environment relationships. SDM methods could be more broadly applied than they currently are to address research questions in archaeology and paleoanthropology. Specifically, SDM can be used to hindcast paleodistributions of species and ecological communities (paleo-SDM) for time periods and locations of prehistoric human occupation. Paleo-SDM may be a powerful tool for understanding human prehistory if used to hindcast the distributions of plants, animals and ecological communities that were key resources for prehistoric humans and to use this information to reconstruct the resource landscapes (paleoscapes) of prehistoric people. Components of the resource paleoscape include species (game animals, food plants), habitats, and geologic features and landforms associated with stone materials for tools, pigments, and so forth. We first review recent advances in SDM as it has been used to hindcast paleodistributions of plants and animals in the field of paleobiology. We then compare the paleo-SDM approach to paleoenvironmental reconstructions modeled from zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical records, widely used in archaeology and paleoanthropology. Next, we describe the less well developed but promising approach of using paleo-SDM methods to reconstruct resource paleoscapes. We argue that paleo-SDM offers an explicitly deductive strategy that generates spatial predictions grounded in strong theoretical understandings of the relation between species, habitat distributions and environment. Because of their limited sampling of space and time, archaeobiological records may be better suited for paleo-SDM validation than directly for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. We conclude by discussing the data requirements, limitations and potential for using predictive modeling to reconstruct resource paleoscapes. There is a need for improved paleoclimate models, improved paleoclimate proxy and species paleodistribution data for model validation, attention to scale issues, and rigorous modeling methods including mechanistic models.

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    Quaternary Science Reviews
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Quaternary Science R...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Quaternary Science Reviews
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mitchell W Lyle; Anna Joy Drury; Jun Tian; Roy H Wilkens; +1 Authors

    Coherent variation in CaCO3 burial is a feature of the Cenozoic eastern equatorial Pacific. Nevertheless, there has been a long-standing ambiguity in whether changes in CaCO3 dissolution or changes in equatorial primary production might cause the variability. Since productivity and dissolution leave distinctive regional signals, a regional synthesis of data using updated age models and high-resolution stratigraphic correlation is an important constraint to distinguish between dissolution and production as factors that cause low CaCO3. Furthermore, the new chronostratigraphy is an important foundation for future paleoceanographic studies. The ability to distinguish between primary production and dissolution is also important to establish a regional carbonate compensation depth (CCD). We report late Miocene to Holocene time series of XRF-derived (X-ray fluorescence) bulk sediment composition and mass accumulation rates (MARs) from eastern equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites U1335, U1337, and U1338 and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 849, and we also report bulk-density-derived CaCO3 MARs at ODP sites 848, 850, and 851. We use physical properties, XRF bulk chemical scans, and images along with available chronostratigraphy to intercorrelate records in depth space. We then apply a new equatorial Pacific age model to create correlated age records for the last 8 Myr with resolutions of 1–2 kyr. Large magnitude changes in CaCO3 and bio-SiO2 (biogenic opal) MARs occurred within that time period but clay deposition has remained relatively constant, indicating that changes in Fe deposition from dust is only a secondary feedback to equatorial productivity. Because clay deposition is relatively constant, ratios of CaCO3 % or biogenic SiO2 % to clay emulate changes in biogenic MAR. We define five major Pliocene–Pleistocene low CaCO3 % (PPLC) intervals since 5.3 Ma. Two were caused primarily by high bio-SiO2 burial that diluted CaCO3 (PPLC-2, 1685–2135 ka, and PPLC-5, 4465–4737 ka), while three were caused by enhanced dissolution of CaCO3 (PPLC-1, 51–402 ka, PPLC-3, 2248–2684 ka, and PPLC-4, 2915–4093 ka). Regional patterns of CaCO3 % minima can distinguish between low CaCO3 caused by high diatom bio-SiO2 dilution versus lows caused by high CaCO3 dissolution. CaCO3 dissolution can be confirmed through scanning XRF measurements of Ba. High diatom production causes lowest CaCO3 % within the equatorial high productivity zone, while higher dissolution causes lowest CaCO3 percent at higher latitudes where CaCO3 production is lower. The two diatom production intervals, PPLC-2 and PPLC-5, have different geographic footprints from each other because of regional changes in eastern Pacific nutrient storage after the closure of the Central American Seaway. Because of the regional variability in carbonate production and sedimentation, the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) approach is only useful to examine large changes in CaCO3 dissolution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2019
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2019
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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2,224 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Quaternaryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Quaternary
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Quaternary
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UPF Digital Repository
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Quaternary
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Quaternary
      Article . Preprint
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2021
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UPF Digital Repository
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zhang, Enlou; Wang, Yongbo; Sun, Weiwei; Shen, Ji;

    Abstract. We present the results of pollen analyses from a 1105-cm-long sediment core from Wuxu Lake in southwestern China, which depict the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the last 12.3 ka. During the period of 12.3 to 11.3 cal ka BP, the dominance of Betula forest and open alpine shrub and meadow around Wuxu Lake indicates a climate with relatively cold winters and dry summers, corresponding to the Younger Dryas event. Between 11.3 and 10.4 cal ka BP, further expansion of Betula forest and the retreat of alpine shrubs and meadows reflect a greater seasonality with cold winters and gradually increasing summer precipitation. From 10.4 to 4.9 cal ka BP, the dense forest understory, together with the gradual decrease in Betula forest and increase in Tsuga forest, suggest that the winters became warmer and summer precipitation was at a maximum, corresponding to the Holocene climatic optimum. Between 4.9 and 2.6 cal ka BP, Tsuga forest and alpine shrubs and meadows expanded significantly, reflecting relatively warm winters and decreased summer precipitation. Since 2.6 cal ka BP, reforestation around Wuxu Lake indicates a renewed strengthening of the ISM in the late Holocene; however, the vegetation in the catchment may also have been affected by grazing activity during this period. The results of our study are generally consistent with previous findings; however, the timing and duration of the Holocene climatic optimum from different records are inconsistent, reflecting real contrast in local rainfall response to the ISM. Overall, the EAWM is broadly in-phase with the ISM on the orbital timescale, and both monsoons exhibit a trend of decreasing strength from the early to late Holocene, reflecting the interplay of solar insolation receipt between the winter and summer seasons and El Niño Southern Oscillation strength in the tropical Pacific.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-11...
    Preprint . 2015
    License: CC BY
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . Preprint
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